Characteristics of the Phylum. 4 principal types of flatworms divided into 4 taxonomic Classes

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1 Flatworms are one of 14 worm phyla. Worm grouping has no phylogenetic significance (15) (15) (50) (12) (1,050) (20) (50) (6) (9) (7) Peanut worms Horsehair worms Round worms Proboscis worms Spaghetti worms Inn Keeper worms All vermiform, Bilateral symmetry With no legs, No exoskeleton 4 principal types of flatworms divided into 4 taxonomic Classes Class Turbellaria >3,000 free-living spp some commensal a few parasitic forms Aquatic, few on land Body architecture adapted to a free-living lifestyle Class Monogenea flukes ~ 400 spp mostly ectoparasites of fish, amphibians. Feed on blood, mucus.. haptors P > 6000 spp of endoparasites (liver, lungs, blood, muscles) Body and life cycle adapted to parasitic existence. Anterior and posterior ends for clinging,but life cycle remains simple, with a single free living larval stage A Oral sucker Ventral sucker Class Cestoda: tapeworms > 3500 spp of endoparsites, almost all intestinal parasites with highly specialized body and life cycle. Bilateral symmetry scolex 9 ft tapeworm from human host Largest in sperm whale was over 30 meters long 1

2 Bilaterally symmetry Bilaterally symmetrical Unsegmented Organ Systems video Excretory System W/ Ultrafiltration and selective absorption Bilaterally symmetrical Unsegmented Organ Systems Complex reprod. System Regenerative capacities Paratomy Architomy Budding Pluripotent stem cells (neoblasts) capable of producing all cell types account for great ability to heal and regenerate Negligible senescence: no measurable reductions in reproductive or functional capability with age (telomerase?) Flatworms, sturgeon, tortoises Most Widely Accepted Phylogeny of the Major Flatworm Classes Negligible Senescence : telomerase? Rougheye rockfish (Sebastes aleutianus) 205 years [5][6] Aldabra Giant Tortoise 255 years Galapagos tortoisres Lobsters are believed to live 100 or more years. [7] Hydras are observed to be biologically immortal. [8] Sea anemones generally live up to years. [9] Freshwater pearl mussel years [10][11] Ocean Quahog clam 405 years [12] Cestoda (endoparasitic) Monogenea (ectoparasitic) Trematoda (endoparasitic) Turbellaria -- Parasitic groups considered to be monophyletic and constitute a grouping known as the Neodermata Synapomorphies: new skin, obligate parasitism, protonephridia from two cells No synapomorphies for the phylum; thought to be polyphyletic Neodermata 2

3 Problems Posed by Endoparasitic Existence In all Neodermata, epidermis is shed, and replaced by a syncitial tegument. Reproduce and get embryos out of the host Contact new, appropriate host and obtain entrance Locate appropriate environment in the new host Maintain position in the host, withstand often anaerobic conditions and attack by immune system Avoid killing the host, at least until reproduction has been completed The body wall is a tegument with extensive microvillar surface area Advantages to having a tegument? Monogenean tegument Cestode tegument Class Cestoidea Subclass Eucestoda: the tapeworms Intestinal Parasites, commonly on vertebrates hermaphroditic 3

4 Relatively simple Passive dispersal Reproduction is primarily sexual Cystecercoids can accidentally end up in other parts of a body, especially in accidental hosts such as humans when they ingest eggs oncosphere Dead End all endoparasites in blood, liver, gut distinguished by presence of ventral sucker (acetabulum), mouth and highly branched G-V Cavity Usually 2 intermediate hosts, at least one being a mollusc; the final host is a vertebrate Class Trematoda: Common in China, Korea Japan, where practice of eating uncooked fish is common Adults live in the liver and bile passages Ex. Chinese Liver Fluke A snail is usually the intermediate Host Schistosoma mansoni Clonorchis sinensis 4

5 Schistosome life cycles are unusual in several ways -- One intermediate host -- Have Separate Sexes! -- Adults live within blood vessels, feed on blood Eggs pass through blood vessel into gut, and out. Or they lodge in nervous tissue, muscles, other organs, causing excrutiating pain &tissue damage. Schistosome Egg and spine Schistosome life cycles are unusual in several ways Separate sexes: dioecious Picture of the Happy couple Of 200 million infected approximately 120 million show symptoms. The mortality rate is about 2.5% but more frequent in children (5 million deaths, 200K in Sub-Saharan Africa alone) 3 species mainly invade humans General Pathology S. mansoni, S japonicum Acute schistosomiasis: fever, nausea, cough etc., and granuloma formation after female begins to lay eggs S. haematobium S. japonicum S. mansoni Chronic Schistosomiasis: could be years later intestinal schistosomiasis: granulomatous inflamation around eggs; colonic polyps, especially in Egypt. hepatosplenic schistosomiasis: inflammation around eggs trapped in liver, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis S haematobium: parasites in the bladder and ureter, can lead to calcification, cancer. urinary schistosomiasis 5

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