Depressants. Barbiturates. CNS Depressants. Opiates

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1 Health Stats The graph shows the number of new abusers of prescription pain relievers in each year since Depressants A psychoactive drug that slows brain and body reactions is called a depressant. Depressants slow body functions by decreasing heart and breathing rates and lowering blood pressure. What factors do you think are responsible for the increase in prescription drug abuse? Slide 1 of 31 Slide 2 of 31 Barbiturates One class of depressants is the barbiturates (bahr BICH ur its) also called sedative-hypnotics. In small doses, barbiturates are sedatives they relax a person. In high doses, barbiturates are hypnotics they induce sleep. CNS Depressants A CNS depressant is a sedative that slows the activity of the central nervous system (CNS). CNS depressants slow nerve activity relax muscle tension lower alertness cause drowsiness Slide 3 of 31 Slide 4 of 31 Opiates An opiate (OH pee it) is any drug made from psychoactive compounds contained in the seed pods of poppy plants. In small doses, opiates act to dull the senses, relieve pain, and induce sleep. Heroin is an illegal opiate made from morphine in a laboratory. Heroin is highly addictive. Slide 5 of 31 Slide 6 of 31 1

2 Stimulants A stimulant is a drug that speeds up activities of the central nervous system. Stimulants increase heart rate blood pressure breathing rate alertness Physicians sometimes prescribe certain stimulants to treat sleep disorders and behavioral disorders. Amphetamines Amphetamines (am FET uh meenz) are prescription drugs that are sometimes sold illegally as speed or uppers. Amphetamine abuse produces feelings of well-being and high energy. The effects wear off quickly and the abuser is often left feeling depressed. Slide 7 of 31 Slide 8 of 31 Methamphetamine A stimulant that is related to amphetamines, but is even more powerful, is methamphetamine. Methamphetamine initially produces a rush, or high. But, after the rush wears off, the user may become confused shaky anxious irritable violent Slide 9 of 31 Slide 10 of 31 Cocaine Cocaine is a powerful but short-acting stimulant. Cocaine is highly addictive. When cocaine s effects wear off, abusers often experience depression, which can be severe. Crack is the strongest form of cocaine. Slide 11 of 31 Slide 12 of 31 2

3 Hallucinogens A hallucinogen (huh LOO sih nuh jun) is a drug that distorts perception, thought, and mood. Hallucinogens overload the brain with sensory information, causing a distorted sense of reality. Abusers cannot tell what is real may experience memory loss and personality changes may be unable to perform normal activities may lose track of time and their surroundings LSD The strongest known hallucinogen is lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD. LSD s effects are unpredictable it can either stimulate or depress the central nervous system. Abusers experience hallucinations in which they may see colorful visions and mistakenly feel they have superhuman powers. Slide 13 of 31 Slide 14 of 31 Psilocybin Another hallucinogen is psilocybin (sil uh sy bin) sometimes called shrooms. Psilocybin is a chemical found in a certain type of mushroom. The effects of psilocybin are much like those of LSD, but not as strong. PCP One of the most dangerous of all drugs is PCP, short for phencyclidine. Because the drug eliminates the sensation of pain, abusers may unintentionally injure or even kill themselves. Some PCP abusers develop signs of schizophrenia. Slide 15 of 31 Slide 16 of 31 Marijuana Marijuana (mar uh WAH nuh) is the leaves, stems, and flowering tops of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Effects of Marijuana Marijuana is one of the most frequently abused psychoactive drugs. Its main ingredient changes the way information reaches and is acted upon by the brain. Side effects of marijuana use include distorted perceptions difficulties with thinking and problem solving loss of motor coordination increased heart rate feelings of anxiety or paranoia Slide 17 of 31 Slide 18 of 31 3

4 Marijuana and Driving Users often feel sleepy or drowsy. Marijuana use can make it difficult to judge distances and react quickly to signals and sounds on the road. A Gateway to Other Drugs Marijuana use is often a gateway to using other harder drugs, such as cocaine. As marijuana users build up tolerance, they may seek out other drugs to experience the high they first got from marijuana. Slide 19 of 31 Slide 20 of 31 Club Drugs, Inhalants, and Steroids Three classes of drugs that are of growing concern in recent years are club drugs, inhalants, and anabolic steroids. The effects of club drugs and inhalants are extremely unpredictable and dangerous. Abuse of steroids causes lifelong damage to the body and brain. Club Drugs Club drugs got their name from the fact that they first gained popularity at dance clubs and raves. Their effects are different from person to person and very dangerous. While under the effects of rohypnol (roh HYP nawl), a person may be hurt or raped and not even be able to recall the event later on. Slide 21 of 31 Slide 22 of 31 Inhalants A breathable chemical vapor that produces mind-altering effects is called an inhalant (in HAYL unt). Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids are synthetic drugs that are similar to the hormone testosterone. Steroids are abused primarily by people who want bigger muscles. Steroids can make a user s personality very aggressive. Some steroid users become severely depressed. Slide 23 of 31 Slide 24 of 31 4

5 Slide 25 of 31 Slide 26 of 31 5

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