8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness.

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1 6.E.1 Unit Test DO NOT WRITE ON THIS QUIZ!!! 1. The largest body in our solar system is Earth. the Sun. Jupiter. the Moon. 4. What do the four planets closest to the Sun have in common? Their solid, rocky surface Composition of their atmosphere Length of their day Their surface temperature 2. A day on Saturn takes about 10 Earth hours. Which fact would best explain this short day? Saturn is less dense than Earth. Saturn is much farther from the Sun than Earth. Saturn rotates more rapidly than Earth. Saturn s orbit has greater eccentricity than Earth s. 5. Which of the following best describes the inner planets of the solar system? Large gas planets with thick atmospheres Small planets of ice with elliptical orbits Dense, rocky planets with few moons 3. A major feature of the solar system is that as planets get farther away from the sun, they. Barren planets with rings of gas and dust are warmer have fewer moons are smaller in diameter have a longer revolution time page 1

2 6. Use the picture of Saturn shown below to answer the question. Saturn 8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness. Why is there such a large range of temperatures on Mercury? The planet is too small to hold heat. The planet is heated on only one side. The planet reflects heat from its dark side. The planet lacks an atmosphere to hold heat. Which statement is true about the planet Saturn? It is bigger than Earth and farther from the Sun. It is bigger than Earth and closer to the Sun. It is smaller than Earth and farther from the Sun. It is smaller than Earth and closer to the Sun. 9. Use the information below to answer the following question(s). The sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west each day. During the day, the sun is so bright that other objects in space are rarely visible. At night, other objects in space, such as planets and stars, are often visible. The data table below contains information about the planets in our solar system. 7. Which of the following lists Earth, Jupiter, the Moon, and the Sun in order from largest to smallest? Jupiter, Earth, Sun, Moon Sun, Jupiter, Earth, Moon Sun, Jupiter, Moon, Earth Jupiter, Sun, Earth, Moon Planet PLANETS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM Distance from the Sun (millions of kilometers) Time for Revolution (Earth units) Diameter at Equator (kilometers) Time for Rotation (Earth units) Mercury days 4, days Venus days 12, days Earth days 12, hours Mars days 6, hours Jupiter years 142, hours Saturn 1, years 120, hours Uranus 2, years 51, hours Neptune 4, years 49, hours Why is one year on Earth 365 days and one year on Mercury 88 days? Earth is larger than Mercury. Earth is smaller than Mercury. Earth is closer than Mercury to the sun. Earth is farther than Mercury from the sun. page 2 6.E.1 Unit Test

3 10. The solar system containing Earth consists of a sun and planets. Which statement best describes the motion of the planets in our solar system? The planets rotate around the sun. 13. What planet is known as the red planet because of its soil color? Mars Venus Jupiter Mercury The sun rotates around the planets. The planets revolve around the sun. The sun revolves around the planets. 11. The diagram below shows some of the planets in our solar system. 14. In many ways, Earth is like other planets in the solar system. In which way is Earth different? Which statement best describes these planets? They are made of gases. They are made of rock. They move at the same speed around the Sun. Earth has a moon. Earth orbits the sun. Earth has mountains. Earth has lots of water. They travel the same distance around the Sun. 12. Which planet has rings circling it? Mars Venus Saturn Mercury page 3 6.E.1 Unit Test

4 15. Which diagram best represents the relationships of motion among the sun, Earth, and the moon? 16. Use this diagram to answer the question. Which statement best describes the diagram? Earth is rotating around the Sun. The Sun is rotating around Earth. Earth is revolving around the Sun. The Sun is revolving around Earth. 17. About how many Earth days does it take the Moon to travel around Earth? The length of daylight changes as the seasons change during the year. What causes these changes in daylight? Earth s tilt on its axis the Sun s tilt on its axis Earth spinning on its axis the Sun spinning on its axis page 4 6.E.1 Unit Test

5 19. Which location on Earth receives the most direct sunlight? 21. the deserts the South Pole the equator the Western Hemisphere What positions of the moon (M) will create the greater tidal range? A or B A or C B or D B or C 20. Study the diagram below. 22. Which of these identifies what someone on Earth could see when the Earth and Moon are in the positions shown in the drawing? a solar eclipse a lunar eclipse a quarter moon a full moon The Earth is tilted 23 1 degrees on its axis. The 2 direction of the Earth s tilt does not change throughout its orbit. At which position of Earth is it summer in the northern hemisphere? W X Y Z page 5 6.E.1 Unit Test

6 Which diagram most accurately represents the effect of the gravitational pull of the Moon on Earth s ocean tides? Why does the moon have a greater effect on the tides than the sun? The moon is larger than the sun. The moon is solid while the sun is gaseous. The moon rotates more quickly than the sun. The moon is closer than the sun to the Earth. 24. The seasons of the year on Earth are determined by the. speed of the Earth s revolution speed of the Earth s rotation shape of the Earth s orbit relative to the sun tilt of the Earth s axis relative to the sun 26. Why is there a full Moon approximately once a month? The Moon revolves around the Earth once a month. The Moon rotates on its axis once a month. The Moon revolves around the Sun once a month. The Moon does not rotate on its axis. page 6 6.E.1 Unit Test

7 27. Which of these is caused by the rotation of Earth? Tides Days and nights Spring and fall Rainfall 30. Which diagram below shows the relationship between the sun, the moon, and Earth when the moon is full (seen as a completely lighted circle)? 28. What causes day and night? The tilt of Earth s axis The rotation of Earth on its axis Earth going around the sun Earth going around the moon 29. Which of these causes summer in the northern hemisphere? The Sun is closer to Earth during the summer. The North Pole is tilted away from the Sun during the summer. The northern hemisphere receives more direct sunlight during the summer Earth s northern axis is tilted away from the Sun during the summer. page 7 6.E.1 Unit Test

8 31. Which diagram shows the Earth-moon-sun system arranged to cause a total solar eclipse? 32. The diagram below represents Earth s orbit around the Sun. About how long does it take Earth to make one complete orbit around the Sun? 24 hours 7 days 1 month 1 year 33. A student observed the Moon on a Tuesday. She drew a picture of its shape in her journal, as shown below. Approximately how long will the student have to wait before she can see the Moon with this same shape and position again? 7 days 14 days 28 days 365 days page 8 6.E.1 Unit Test

9 34. A student made the drawing below to show the order of several phases of the Moon. One of the phases is missing. 36. Which of the following diagrams best shows the relative positions of Earth, the Moon, and the Sun during a lunar eclipse? Which of the following pictures shows the phase of the Moon that is missing from the drawing? 35. The illustration below shows Earth and the Sun. What season does the Southern Hemisphere experience when Earth and the Sun are in the positions shown? fall spring summer winter page 9 6.E.1 Unit Test

10 37. The diagram below shows the relative positions of Earth and the Sun at a certain time of year. 40. The Moon causes which of the following on Earth? exploding volcanoes high and low tides changing weather patterns high and low temperatures Based on the diagram, which season is occurring in the Southern Hemisphere of Earth? winter spring summer fall 41. The picture below shows Earth tilted on its axis. 38. Which of the following sets of pictures shows the phases of the Moon in the order they would be observed? The tilt of Earth s axis helps to create which of the following? Day and night The changing seasons The revolution of Earth The phases of the Moon 39. Along the coast of Maine, how often do the tides rise and fall? twice each day twice each week twice each month twice each year 42. How many times does Earth rotate on its axis in one day? once twice 24 times 365 times page 10 6.E.1 Unit Test

11 43. Maps of the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere are shown below. 46. The picture below shows the phases of the Moon. Which two cities have summer at about the same time of year? Sydney and Tokyo Tokyo and Buenos Aires Buenos Aires and Sydney New York and Buenos Aires Which phase of the Moon cannot be seen from Earth? Full Moon 1st Quarter New Moon 3rd Quarter 44. What causes ocean tides? Magnetic field of Earth Friction between ocean currents Gravitational attraction of the Moon Air resistance between wind and water 47. How does the Moon s mass affect the height of the ocean tides on Earth? The mass of the Moon pulls the tides higher because of gravity. The mass of the Moon creates waves that make the tides higher. The mass of the Moon pushes the tides away because of gravity. The mass of the Moon causes the tides to be lower than if there were no Moon. 45. Why is the Northern Hemisphere of Earth warmer in summer than in winter? Less direct sunlight shines on the Northern Hemisphere. Earth is moving more quickly in its orbit around the Sun. More direct sunlight shines on the Northern Hemisphere. The Sun gives off more heat in the summer than in the winter. 48. Which statement explains the position of the side of Earth where it is night? The side of Earth is facing the moon. The side of Earth is facing away from the sun. The side of Earth is being blocked by the moon. The side of Earth is between the sun and the moon. page 11 6.E.1 Unit Test

12 49. Which of the following events on Earth is most affected by the gravitational pull of the Moon? 51. The picture below shows the positions of Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. Tides Wind Earthquakes Precipitation What is the phase of the Moon in this picture? Full New Quarter Crescent 50. Which arrangement below of the Sun, Moon, and Earth could cause a lunar eclipse? 52. Twice a year on Earth, the number of hours of darkness is equal to the number of hours of sunlight. These events, where both day and night are 12 hours, are the spring and autumn equinoxes. Which of these describes the orientation of the sun and Earth on these two days? Earth is located at its most distant point away from the sun. The tilt of Earth s axis is neither toward nor away from the sun. The axes of the sun and Earth are pointed in the same direction. Earth is located at its closest point to the sun, and its axis is pointed away from the sun. page 12 6.E.1 Unit Test

13 53. The following diagrams show the axis of Earth at its present 23 angle and at a perpendicular axis of If it is summer in the northern hemisphere, which statement is true? Earth has changed the tilt of its axis by 20 degrees due to its revolution. It is winter in the southern hemisphere due to the tilt of Earth s axis. Earth with Axis at 23 Angle Earth with Axis at 0 Angle How would seasons be affected if Earth s axis were at a 0 angle? It is summer in the southern hemisphere due to the tilt of Earth s axis. Earth has reached its closest point to the sun due to its revolution. Earth would have no seasons. Seasonal variation would decrease at the poles. Seasonal variation would increase at the equator. Earth would have two seasons instead of four seasons. 57. The diagram below shows the relative positions of Earth, the moon, and the sun. 54. Why does the moon appear to change during the month? because the clouds in the sky hide the moon from Earth because the sun blocks the moon from Earth because the moon moves farther away from Earth because the moon reflects sunlight as it rotates around Earth Which phase of the moon can be observed from Earth when these bodies are positioned in this way? full moon new moon first quarter waxing gibbous 55. Which best explains why the moon has phases? The moon s position changes in relation to the sun and Earth. The sun s position changes in relation to the moon and Earth. The Earth casts a shadow on the moon as it rotates. The moon rotates along its axis. 58. Which motion causes the pattern of day and night on Earth? Earth rotates on its axis Earth orbits around the sun the moon rotates on its axis the moon orbits around Earth page 13 6.E.1 Unit Test

14 59. Which diagram correctly shows the orbits of Earth (E) and the moon (M) around the sun (S)? 60. Which example requires one Earth year to complete? Earth rotating once on its axis Earth revolving once around the Sun the Sun rotating once on its axis the Sun revolving once around Earth page 14 6.E.1 Unit Test

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