Calibration i of ESD Generators According to IEC Edition 2.0:

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1 Calibration i of ESD Generators According to IEC Edition 2.0: Presented by : Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) Innovation and Technology Commission The Government of the HKSAR

2 Objective of IEC : To establish a common and reproducible basis for evaluating the performance of electrical and electronic equipment when subject to electrostatic discharges (ESD)

3 The Standard Defines Typical waveform of the discharge current Range of test levels Test equipment Test setup Test procedure Calibration procedure Measurement uncertainty

4 Test Levels Contact Discharge Air Discharge Level Test Voltage Level Test Voltage 1 2 kv 1 2 kv 2 4 kv 2 4 kv 3 6 kv 3 8 kv 4 8 kv 4 15 kv x Special x Special

5 Test Levels Contact t discharge is the preferred test t method Air discharges is used when contact discharge cannot be used. For air discharge testing, test should be done at all test levels up to and including the specified one. For contact discharge testing, test should be conducted at the specified level only (unless specified by product committees).

6 Simplified circuit diagram of ESD Generator Charge switch R c R d Discharge switch DC HV Supply (330 ohm typical) Discharge tip C s + C d (150 pf typical) Discharge return connection

7 General Specifications of ESD Generator Parameters Contact Discharge Output Voltage Values At least 1kV to 8 kv nominal Air Discharge Output Voltage At least 2kV to 15 kv nominal Tolerance +/ 5 % Polarity + and Holding Time Mode >= 5 s single discharge

8 Waveform of Output Discharge Current I I at 30 ns I at 60 ns ns 60 ns t t r

9 Contact Discharge Current Waveform Parameters (IEC :2001) UUT voltage setting First peak current of discharge Rise time of first peak current of discharge Current at 30 ns Current at 60 ns 2 kv 7.5 A ± 10 % 0.7 to 1 ns 4A ± 30 % 2A ± 30 % 4 kv 15A ± 10 % 0.7 to 1 ns 8A ± 30 % 4A ± 30 % 6kV 22.5A ± 10 % to 1 ns 12A ± 30 % 6A ± 30 % 8kV 30A ± 10 % to 1 ns 16A ± 30 % 8A ± 30 %

10 Contact Discharge Current Waveform Parameters (IEC :2008) UUT voltage setting First peak current of discharge Rise time of first peak current of discharge Current at 30 ns Current at 60 ns 2 kv 7.5 A ± 15 % 0.6 to 1 ns 4A ± 30 % 2A ± 30 % 4 kv 15A ± 15 % 0.6 to 1 ns 8A ± 30 % 4A ± 30 % 6kV 22.5A ± 15 % 06t 0.6 to 1 ns 12A ± 30 % 6A ± 30 % 8kV 30A ± 15 % 06to ns 16A ± 30 % 8A ± 30 %

11 Discharge Return Cable The discharge return cable shall be 2 m +/ m long. The length is measured from ESD generator body to end of connection point. If 2 m is not long enough, 3 m may be used. The waveform specification shall be met.

12 Discharge Return Cable

13 Current Measurement System The ESD generator should be evaluated according to Annex B of IEC : A coaxial current target is described in Annex B for the testing of ESD generator. It consists of : a target an attenuator a cable.

14 Current Measurement System IEC : recommends that t these three parts be considered together as a measurement chain (the ESD target- attenuator-cable chain) to simplify the measurement system characterisation. The ESD target-attenuator-cable chain is a current to voltage transducer. It is normally mounted on the wall of the shielded room.

15 Current Target IEC :

16 Attenuator and Cable IEC :

17 Current Target IEC :2001

18 Key Parameters of the ESD target-attenuator-cable attenuator chain Input impedance (of target t only) Transfer impedance (Z sys ) DC input impedance when the output t is loaded with 50 ohm (R in ) Insertion loss

19 Input Impedance The input impedance of the target t is measured between the inner electrode and ground. The input impedance should be less than 2.1 ohm at DC.

20 Measurement of Input Impedance ESD Target SMA/BNC Banana/BNC DMM in 4- Adapter Adapter wire resistance mode

21 Transfer Impedance The low frequency transfer impedance Z sys of the ESD target-attenuator-cable chain is defined as the ratio between the current injected to the input of the target I sys and the voltage at a 50 ohm resistor at the output of the cable V 50. V I 50 Z sys sys

22 Measurement of Transfer Impedance Z sys of target-attenuator-cable chain I sys Target Adapter Line ESD Target Attenuator Cable DMM 50 multifunction calibrator as current source ohm V 50

23 Insertion Loss The variation of the insertion loss of the ESD target-attenuator-cable chain may not exceed : +/- 0.5 db, up to 1 GHz +/- 1.2 db, 1GHz to 4GHz With respect to nominal S 21 of the insertion loss

24 Insertion Loss The nominal insertion loss S 21 of the ESD targetattenuator-cable chain is given by 2Z sys S log( ) R 50 in where R in is the DC input impedance of the ESD target-attenuator-cable chain when the output is loaded with 50 ohm.

25 Insertion Loss The insertion loss of the ESD target-attenuator-cable chain is measured by a vector network tt t analyzer.

26 Measurement of DC input Impedance of the ESD target-attenuator-cable chain when loaded with 50 ohm (R in ) DMM in 4- Target Adapter ESD Target Attenuator Cable wire Line resistance mode 50 ohm

27 Target Adapter Line The target t adapter line connect a 50 ohm coaxial cable to the input of the ESD current target. Total insertion loss should be small than 0.3 db up to 4 GHz.

28 Target Adapter Line

29 Calibration of ESD Generator

30 Test Equipment Required Oscilloscope with analogue bandwidth >= 2 GHz. Coaxial current target-attenuator-cable attenuator- chain. High voltage measuring instruments (up to at least 15 kv) Vertical Calibration Plane for mounting the current target-attenuator-cable chain. (0.6 m from target to any edge of plane)

31 Equipment Set Up for Calibration of ESD Generator Discharge Gun ESD target-attenuator-cable t tt t chain mounted on the wall of shielded room UUT Electrostatic Discharge Generator Input Digitizing Oscilloscope outside shielded room inside shielded room

32 Align the discharge tip of the ESD generator with the ESD target

33 Typical output waveform (negative polarity) of an ESD generator

34 Calibration of ESD Generator The digital it oscilloscope displays a voltage pulse when a current pulse is injected into the ESD target. To calculate the magnitude of the discharge current, the measured voltage should be divided by the transfer impedance Z sys of the ESD target-attenuator-cable chain. First peak current of discharge = measured peak voltage / transfer impedance Z sys

35 Calibration of ESD Generator The measured rise time t m is inflated slightly due to the system response time, t s of the digital oscilloscope. Therefore, correction is required. The corrected rise time t c is given by the following formula. t c ( t 2 m t 2 s ) The upper 3-dB bandwidth of SCL s digital oscilloscope is 2.5 GHz. The system response time equals to 155 ps.

36 Traceability Chart SCL SCL SCL SCL SCL SCL Frequency RF Power DC Resistance Dimension Standard Standard Standard Standard DC Voltage Standard RF Attenuation Standard Digital i Multimeter Frequency Counter Power Meter with Sensors Digital i Multimeter Reference Standard Airline Laboratory RF Step Attenuator Oscilloscope Calibration System Automatic Network Analyzer Digital Oscilloscope ESD target-attenuator-cable chain Electrostatic Discharge Generator

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