Early Statehood, Civil War and Reconstruction Study Guide

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1 Early Statehood, Civil War and Reconstruction Study Guide 1. What was the era from 1845 to 1860 called in Texas History? Early Statehood 2. What were the main causes of the Civil War? Slavery, State s Rights and Tariffs 3. Define State s Rights. The position that the federal government should not interfere with the states exercising their constitutional powers. 4. What effect did the election of Abraham Lincoln have on the Civil War? Southern states were sure that Lincoln s election would end slavery and destroy the Southern way of life. South Carolina and five other states immediately seceded. 5. What types of agricultural products were labor intensive and required a lot of labor to grow? Where did they grow? North or South? Cotton and Sugar; East Texas Coastal Plains and Louisiana; South 6. Who was the Governor of Texas when Texas seceded from the Union? What happened to him when Texas seceded? Sam Houston; was forced out of office for refusing to sign the Oath of Loyalty to the Confederacy. 7. What could be some of the reasons for white families in Texas who DID NOT own slaves to still support the institution of slavery? Some farmers were not rich enough to own slaves but wanted to be rich enough someday. Some farmers were afraid of competing for jobs with ex-slaves. Some were worried that the Southern economy would collapse. 8. Who won the Civil War? Was Texas on the winning side? The North, The Union, The United States; No, Texas lost.

2 9. List the advantages that each side (Union, Confederacy) had in the Civil War. North Factories, Railroads, Population, soldiers, farmland, banking. South Military leaders, defending their homeland and rice farming. 10. List the major legislative laws around the institution of slavery in the United States before and during the Civil War and what effect they had. Missouri Compromise 1850 Territories north of the Missouri line must be Free states; territories south can be slave states. Kansas Nebraska Act Allows all territories to choose whether they wanted slavery or no (Popular Sovereignty) Compromise of 1850 Allowed one free state and one slave state to enter the Union. 11. What three battles were fought in Texas during the Civil War? What were they fought around? Who won? Galveston, Sabine Pass, Palmito Ranch All won by the Confederates; all about fighting the Union Navy blockade of Texas ports. 12. Why would Southerners unhappy about the Missouri Compromise? Much more territory was north of the line and not able to be slave states. 13. Where did most of the immigrants into Texas during the Early Statehood Era come from? How would this have affected thinking in Texas right before the Civil War? From other US Southern states who practiced slavery and believed in state s rights. Allowed for more voters in Texas to be sympathetic to the Secession of the South. 14. What were the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe? Rio Grande Southern border of U.S. $15 million for Mexican Cession 15. What was life like in Texas during Reconstruction after the Civil War? Very emotional battles between former Confederates and Northern reformers. Lots of political and social upheaval. 16. What was the significance of the Battle of Palmito Ranch?

3 Last battle of the Civil War. Fought 6 weeks after Lee s surrender since nobody in Texas was aware the war was over. Won by the Confederacy 17. After the Civil War, what happened to industry and population trends? Agricultural to Industrial; Rural to Urban. 18. Put the following events of Reconstruction in Texas in order: a. Reconstruction ends in Texas and Democrats regain control b. Texas voters elect ex-confederates to office c. Lee surrenders to Grant d. Texas ratifies the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments e. Radical Republicans establish military rule in Texas C, B, E, D, A C 19. "The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States; and shall have the right of transit and sojourn in any State of this Confederacy, with their slaves and other property; and the right of property in said slaves shall not be thereby impaired." - Constitution of the Confederate States of America, Which of the rights guaranteed by the constitution of the Confederate States of America was a key reason Southern states seceded from the Union? a. The right of citizens in each state to be treated equally b. The right of citizens to travel freely c. The right of citizens to own slave d. The right of citizens to own property 20. What happened with Native American populations during and after the Civil War in Texas? Pushed aside by settlement and gradual decline of Indian population and way of life. Movement toward Reservations. 21. What was the era from 1861 to 1874 called in Texas History?

4 Civil War and Reconstruction 22. Who was President of the USA during the Mexican US War and what was his famous statement that led to the Mexican US War? James Polk American blood spilled on American soil 23. Explain the land dispute that led to the US Mexican War? Southern border of U.S. USA claims Rio Grande River; Mexico claims Nueces River. Disputed territory between claimed by both countries. Nueces Strip 24. What were the terms of the Compromise of 1850? Texas gives up all claims to New Mexico Territory Texas is admitted as a Slave state and another state is admitted as a Free State Texas receives $10 million to pay off Revolution debt 25. What is the difference between Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction? Presidential Reconstruction led by Lincoln and Johnson as President of the USA. (Easier re-admittance). Congressional Reconstruction is led by Radical Republicans in Congress and much harder for re-admittance. 26. Was Reconstruction considered a success? Not really. Still a lot of discrimination and racism in the South for another 100 years. Freedman s Bureaus are shut down. Most southern states went back to old leaders and a distrust of the Federal Government. 27. Who were these men and what military organizations did they lead?

5 John Bell Hood Hood s Brigade; Benjamin Terry Terry s Texas Rangers 28. What are the 13 th, 14 th and 15 th amendments and why did Texas have to ratify before re-admittance? 13 th abolish slavery 14 th citizenship 15 th Voting All designed to bring more equal rights to ex-slaves and people of color. 29. What Civil War battle is this image from? And what are the details of the battle? Battle of Galveston. Trying to break a Union Navy blockade. Union Army originally takes over Port of Galveston and is pushed out by the Confederacy. Military technology helps win the battle.

6 30. What era in Texas are the following images from? Reconstruction

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