Differences Between the North South West

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1 Unit 4: Civil War and Reconstruction Lecture #1 Differences Between the North South West AZ State Sdn S1C6PO1A-F Created by SMHS Staff

2 Differences Between North/South/West 2

3 Objectives: Explain economic, social and political causes of the Civil War Economic and social differences between North, South, and West AZ State sdn S1C6PO1A-F 3

4 4

5 5

6 What is Sectionalism? Competition among sections or regions of a country. The different regions were the North and South. The West didn t practice it, instead other regions fought to control the destiny of the West. 6

7 What were the differences? South Agricultural Plantations Cheap labor in form of slaves Leisurely lifestyle North Industrial Business and industry Life faster pace Commerce important 7

8 The Industrial North Factories were used for manufacturing goods in the North. Slaves were not needed for work. Machines allowed products to be produced faster. Immigrants did the work. New tools transformed northern farms. Improvements to the plow made farm work easier and faster. 8

9 The Agricultural South The South had long relied on agriculture and slave labor. Industrialization developed more slowly than in the North. Cotton represented half of all U.S. exports. Eli Whitney s cotton gin. 9

10 What were the issues? Created sectional conflict: Slavery Representation Tariffs States Rights 10

11 Slavery Issue Northerners didn t care about it in the beginning but the extension into territories, it became an issue. Southerners needed it for their economy. Just one in four southern white families owned slaves, but this group of slaveholders dominated Southern society and politics. 11

12 Representation Issue Both wanted power to pass laws that would benefit their section. More states that became free or slave meant more votes in Congress. Became an issue as we expanded westward and added states 12

13 Tariffs Issue A tax on imported goods. North supported tariffs Use it to protect their industries 13

14 Question: Why would the South not support high tariffs? 14

15 Tariffs Issue South resented all tariffs They imported everything and needed other nations to purchase their cotton Used right of nullification. (nullification - the power of a state to declare a federal law null and void.) 15

16 Nullification Debate Southerners believed in states rights. (a state s right to be free from unwanted federal control.) Calhoun said people of a state could nullify, or declare illegal any federal law they believed to be unconstitutional. 16

17 Question: Why would the South oppose strong federal laws? 17

18 States Rights Issue South fears the North will pass laws that will hurt their lifestyle. Examples would be tariffs and laws to restrict or abolish slavery. South again claimed they had the right of nullification. 18

19 Reasons for Sectionalism Expansion of slavery. Tariffs. Nullification of federal laws. (Nullification is the refusal or failure of a U.S. state to recognize or enforce Federal laws within its boundaries.) 19

20 The Lure of the West The West economy was: mining ranching agriculture. 20

21 Mining California Gold Rush (1849) 49ers helped bring thousands of people West looking to strike it rich. Gold & Silver strikes were big. Most people never found gold. 21

22 Ranching Cattle ranchers were attracted to Texas with its herds of free roaming longhorns. Many people wanted to make money by sending them to market back East. 22

23 Agriculture Farmers arrived by the thousands. They were encouraged by the federal gov t and railroads. 23

24 Main Ideas sectionalism differences between North and South slavery issue representation issue tariff issue states rights issue nullification reasons for sectionalism West economy 24

25 1. What is sectionalism? 2. What was the economy based on in the North? 3. What was the economy based on in the South? 4. Name four major inventions of the 1800 s. 5. Why did the South oppose protective tariffs? 6. What was the economy based on in the West? 7. What three factors contributed to sectionalism? 25

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