Diagnostic X-ray Tube. Producing a radiograph(1) Overview - Equipment found in a general X- ray room

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1 Radiographic Science Basic Overview of diagnostic radiography Marc Griffiths Overview - Equipment found in a general X- ray room Diagnostic X-ray tube Tube support Mechanism Diagnostic Table Upright stands Cassette scatter control (Bucky) units Exposure control device (control console) Radiation Protection aids Cassettes & film Patients! Methodology of producing a medical radiograph Patient positioned in relation to exam being undertaken Radiographic equipment (ie X-ray tube) positioned Exposure set on control panel Instructions given to patient Radiographer stands behind lead glass screen Exposure undertaken Cassette processed Radiograph reviewed Producing a radiograph(1) Producing a radiograph (2) Diagnostic X-ray Tube Electrons produced from filament (-ive) of X-ray tube Attracted to anode (+ive) via a potential difference (kv) Electrons interact with anode to produce X-ray photons (+ a lot of heat!) Each X-ray photon has a specific energy up to the maximum potential difference that was applied to the X-ray tube (i.e. 70 kv) An X-ray Spectrum is therefore created 1

2 Types of X-ray tube support Diagnostic X-ray Tubes Attached to a tube support (luckily) Produces X-rays (& heat) Operated at high voltage ( kvp) > Insulation required Oil used to cool X-ray tube during exposures Oil also acts as an insulator X-ray tube lead lined Incorporate safety interlocks Light Beam Diaphragm Integrated Collimation Equipment Earthed (Shockproof) Ceiling Mounted X-ray Tube Floor Mounted X-ray Tube Floor Mounted Equipment Table supports (1) Easy clean table top Cross infection < Can you think of the disadvantages of floor mounted X-ray tubes? What are the advantages of floor mounted X-ray tubes? Room 1F01 Pressure sensors cut off switch EM Interlock controls Ultra thin, but strong carbon fibre table tops Table Support (2) Strong enough to support large patients Low attenuation materials (Carbon Fibre) Rise and fall facilities Kick buttons Integrated Bucky tray Insulated Easy to clean Cross infection < Pressure switches Upright Chest Stands (1) Chest Stand Similar materials to table top 2

3 Upright Chest Stands (2) Chest Radiography Technique Integral cassette tray Support mechanism for infirm patients Location in X-ray important (?) Patient handles Safety interlocks Utilised for various examinations Chests Cervical Spine Weight Bearing Knees 180 cms Focus Film Distance 10 cms Object Film Distance Think about why we perform chests PA where possible? Magnification MAGNIFICATION in Diagnostic Imaging Focus Clinical Example - Cervical Spine Inappropriate FFD Magnification is reduced by: Close contact between object and and film i.e. short Object Film Distance (OFD) Long Focal Film Distance (FFD) FFD FOD + OBJECT - IMAGE OFD Ug 10 cms OFD 100 cms FFD Clinical Example - Cervical Spine Inherent large OFD 10 cms OFD + - Integral Cassette Tray (1) Integrated within table top Lock mechanism ensures cassette is secure Grid mechanism incorporated within cassette tray Grid reduces scatter radiation from certain examinations Abdomen Pelvis Hips 180 cms FFD 3

4 Integral Cassette Tray (2) Integral Cassette Tray - Images Important that X-ray tube and cassette tray are aligned Set distance between X-ray tube and Cassette tray Oscillating movement ensures scatter is absorbed before reaching film Right Hip Replacement Intravenous Urography (IVU) Exposure consoles (1) Exposure consoles (2) Circ Approx. Modern Day Anatomical Programmed Units Modern day control consoles anatomically programmed Pre-set exposures Manual exposure values available to radiographer (kv, ma, sec) Modern X-ray tubes incorporate exposure factors Integrated Diagnostic X-ray units Automatic Exposure Devices (AED) (1) X-ray Tube encased within Lead lined case Integrated Exposure Display Integrated Exposure Controls **Does not include actual exposure button** Light Beam Diaphragm- incorporating Collimator adjusters Variable densities exist within subjects Think back to earlier lecture Production of X-ray radiation can be measured AED s monitor the beam of X-rays transmitted from the patient Located under patient but above cassette Minimises inaccurate exposures Automatic Exposure Chamber Ionisation Chamber 4

5 Automatic Exposure Devices (AED) (2) Radiation Protection Diagnostic X-ray Rooms Exposure terminates once a sufficient quantity of radiation has been received to produce a radiographic image of required density Permit accurate exposures Usually three AED s incorporated in table tops and vertical chest stands Markings usually on surface of table/chest stand Individual chambers may be selected depending on the exam being performed Table Top Birds eye view of table top Lateral Chambers Central Chamber Lead (Pb) glass Pb lined doors Pb Screens Barium plaster walls Lead coats Inverse square law Dose measurement tools Accurate collimation X-ray beam hardening methods Gonad protection devices Why Lead & Barium? High Atomic (Z) numbers Mobile Diagnostic Equipment Fluoroscopy X-ray Equipment Typical features of X- ray unit Stability and flexibility required Low/medium power units Dual power operation (battery or wall power) Remote exposure unit available Fluoroscopy units Mobile Fluoroscopy Unit Fluoroscopy Unit Barium Enema Radiograph Intensification Utilised in Radiotherapy X-ray Tube Isocentric positioning used in radiotherapy 5

6 Digital Radiography Typical kinetics of CR examination Radiograph Created ID card passed through ID terminal Barcode of IP read Computerised Radiography Direct Capture Radiography Laser dry-view imager prints film Image manipulated & sent to printer / archive IP Cassette inserted into the image reader (30 sec to read 17 x 14 IP) Digital Images Further information Resolution will be affect by: matrix size (64 x x 1032) pixel size pixel depth noise within image window width and height monitor resolution Carter P., (1994) Chesneys equipment for student radiographers, 4 th Edition, London, Blackwell Scientific Publications Blackboard - Radiographic Science- Radiographic equipment 6

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