VOLCANOES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS. Objectives. Volcanoes and volcanic hazards. Volcano

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "VOLCANOES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS. Objectives. Volcanoes and volcanic hazards. Volcano"

Transcription

1 VOLCANOES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS Objectives Identify several different categories of volcanic eruptions. Identify the volcanic hazards. Describe how temperature, pressure, and water content affect a rock s melting point. Identify three properties that distinguish one lava from another. Distinguish between and identify volcanic and plutonic rocks. Describe the most common plutonic formations. Volcanoes and volcanic hazards Volcano A vent through which lava, solid rock debris, volcanic ash, and gasses erupt from Earth s crust to its surface Can be explosive or nonexplosive 1

2 Volcanoes and volcanic hazards Lava Molten rock that reaches Earth s surface Magma Molten rock, which may include fragments of rock, volcanic glass and ash, or gas Gases Eruptions, landforms and materials Eruption types Hawaiian type; fluid eruptions, least explosive Shield volcano A broad, flat volcano with gently sloping sides, built of successive lava flows Produce flood basalts or basalt plateaus (from fissures instead of central vents) Lava flows and shield volcanoes Iceland Shield Volcano-Iceland 2

3 Mauna Loa from Kilauea Mauna Loa, as seen from Kilauea Eruptions, landforms and materials Eruption types Strombolian More explosive than Hawaiian Create loose volcanic rock called spatter cones or cinder cones Eruptions, landforms and materials Eruption types Vulcanian More explosive than Strombolian and, as a result, can generate billowing clouds of ash up to 10 km Produce pyroclastic flows Hot volcanic fragments (tephra) that, buoyed by heat and volcanic gases, flow very rapidly Strato (composite) volcano; mixture of lava and pyroclastics 3

4 Eruptions, landforms and materials Eruption types Plinian Named after Pliny the Elder, who died during eruption of Mount Vesuvius Most violent eruptions, generating ash columns the can exceed 20 kilometers Produce steep sided volcanoes, called stratovolcanoes Composed of solidified lava flows interlayered with pyroclastic material. Steep sides that curve upward Mt. Fuji Mt. St. Helens, 1980 Lateral Blast 4

5 Eruptions, landforms and materials Shield volcano Eruptions, landforms and materials Stratovolcano 5

6 Eruptions, landforms and materials Viscosity The degree to which a substance resists flow, Less viscous liquid is runny More viscous liquid is thick Volcanic materials Pyroclasts Tephra: General term, all sizes Ash: smallest size Agglomerates: welded larger particles Tuff: welded smaller particles Eruptions, landforms and materials Other volcanic features Craters Resurgent dome Thermal spring Geysers Fumaroles

7 Primary effects Pyroclastic flows Volcanic gases Secondary effects Related to, but not a direct result of, volcanic activity Fires Flooding Mudslides Debris avalanche Volcanic hazards Volcanic hazards Lahars Orting, Washington Mt. Rainier 7

8 Mt. Pelee, 1902 Town of St. Pierre, Carribean Island of Martinique 30,000 killed Volcanic hazards Volcanic hazards Tertiary and beneficial effects Change a landscape Affect climate on regional and global scale Renew mineral content and replenish fertility Geothermal energy Provide mineral deposits 8

9 Predicting Eruptions Establish a volcano s history Active (eruption in recorded history) Dormant Monitor changes and anomalies Earthquakes Changes in shape or elevation Volcanic gases Changes in ground temperature Composition of water Predicting Eruptions How, Why and Where Rocks Heat and pressure inside Earth Continental crust: temperature rises 30 C/km, then about 6.7 C/km (geothermal gradient) Ocean crust: temperature rises twice as rapid 9

10 How, Why and Where Rocks How, Why and Where Rocks Effect of temperature and pressure on melting How, Why and Where Rocks Heat and pressure inside Earth Fractional melt A mixture of molten and solid rock Fractionation Separation of melted materials from the remaining solid material during the course of melting 10

11 How, Why and Where Rocks How, Why and Where Rocks Magma Molten rock below surface Lava Magma when it reaches the surface Differ in composition, temperature and viscosity How, Why and Where Rocks Lava Composition 45-75% of magma by weight is silica Water vapor and carbon dioxide Temperature Lavas vary in temperature between 750 C and 1200 C Magmas with high H 2 O contents melt at lower temperatures Viscosity Lavas vary in their ability to flow Influenced by silica content and temperature 11

12 How, Why and Where Rocks The tectonic setting Lava characteristics influenced by location Oceanic, divergent margins Lithosphere (crust) is thin with a steep geothermal gradient Subduction zones Aleutian Islands; Andes Typically have high water content and melt at lower temperatures Hot- spots; Hawaiian Islands Lava tends to be hot and basaltic Build giant shield volcanoes Continental; Yellowstone Continental divergent margins are all different High silica lava How, Why and Where Rocks Pillow lavas, mid-ocean ridge Continental hot spot; silica rich How, Why and Where Rocks Continental-oceanic subduction zone: andesite Oceanic-oceanic subduction zone: andesite Oceanic hot spot: basalt 12

13 How, Why and Where Rocks Yellow-hot spot; red, volcano Cooling and Crystallization Crystallization The process whereby mineral grains form and grow in a cooling magma (or lava) Classified as: Volcanic Plutonic Rapid cooling: Volcanic rocks and textures Volcanic rock An igneous rock formed from lava Glassy Aphanitic Porphyritic Pumice Vesicular basalt Rate of Cooling 13

14 Rate of Cooling Aphanitic, vesicular Porphyritic; 2 sizes of crystals Slow cooling: Plutonic rocks and textures Plutonic rock An igneous rock formed underground from magma Phaneritic-a coarse grained texture Can have exceptionally large grains (pegmatite) Rate of Cooling Chemical composition Igneous rocks subdivided into three categories based on silica content Felsic-high Intermediate Mafic-low 14

15 Plutons and Plutonism Plutons Any body of intrusive igneous rock, regardless of size or shape Batholith A large, irregularly shaped pluton that cuts across the layering of the rock into which it intrudes Plutons and Plutonism Dikes Forms when magma squeezes into a cross cutting fracture and solidifies Sills Magma that intrudes between two layers and is parallel to them 15

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 9 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 9 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 9 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Source: Photograph copyright Paul Hickson, 1980 Image by NPS

Source: Photograph copyright Paul Hickson, 1980 Image by NPS Volcanoes Source: Photograph copyright Paul Hickson, 1980 Image by NPS I. Volcanoes release magma A. Molten rock is less dense than solid rock so it rises through fractures Shield Volcano B. Speed of magma

More information

Slide 1. Earth Science. Chapter 6 Volcanoes

Slide 1. Earth Science. Chapter 6 Volcanoes Slide 1 Earth Science Chapter 6 Volcanoes Slide 2 Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcano - a weak spot in the crust where molten material, or magma, comes to the surface. Ring of Fire - Major Volcanic Belt

More information

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals

More information

Section 2 Types of Volcanoes

Section 2 Types of Volcanoes Section 2 Types of Volcanoes Key Concept Tectonic plate motions can result in volcanic activity at plate boundaries. What You Will Learn Nonexplosive eruptions of basaltic magma occur at divergent boundaries.

More information

WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY?

WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY? Name: Class: Date: What is a Volcano? WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY? A volcano is a weak spot in the crust where molten material, called magma, erupts to the surface. Magma is a mixture of rock-forming

More information

Chapter 5: Magma And Volcanoes

Chapter 5: Magma And Volcanoes Chapter 5: Magma And Volcanoes Introduction: Earth s Internal Thermal Engine Magma is molten rock beneath Earth s surface. Because liquid magma is less dense than surrounding solid rock, and obviously

More information

Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and

Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and freezes solid. Can be intrusive (formed deep in the earth) or extrusive (formed at the surface of the earth). Magma: : Molten

More information

Viscosity and Volcano Types

Viscosity and Volcano Types 20 LESSON Viscosity and Volcano Types This photo, taken in 1943 in Paricutin, Mexico, shows an eruption of the Paricutin volcano at night. Glowing hot, broken rocks outline the shape of the volcano, called

More information

Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism

Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism Test 3 Earth Formation, Structure, Plate Boundaries, Volcanism Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The shape of Earth most closely resembles

More information

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Igneous Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Magma Compositions Ultramafic - composition of mantle Mafic - composition of basalt, e.g. oceanic crust. 900-1200 o C, 50% SiO 2 Intermediate

More information

Holes in the Ground! Cracks in the ground (fissure eruptions)

Holes in the Ground! Cracks in the ground (fissure eruptions) VOLCANOES What is a volcano? A place on the earth s surface (or any other planet) where molten rock and gases are erupted. A hill or mountain built up by the eruption of molten rock. There are, however,

More information

Magmas and Igneous Rocks

Magmas and Igneous Rocks Page 1 of 14 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Magmas and Igneous Rocks This page last updated on 03-Sep-2015 Magma and Igneous Rocks Igneous Rocks are formed by crystallization

More information

Science of Natural Disasters: Volcanoes! 13 April 2016. Rebecca Clotts Department of Geology, University of St Thomas

Science of Natural Disasters: Volcanoes! 13 April 2016. Rebecca Clotts Department of Geology, University of St Thomas Science of Natural Disasters: Volcanoes! 13 April 2016 Rebecca Clotts Department of Geology, University of St Thomas What is a volcano? Volcano Types: CINDER CONE and it was then I saw how, in the hole,

More information

INTRODUCTION. This project is about volcanoes and how they form and how they function. It will also show you the different aspects of a volcano.

INTRODUCTION. This project is about volcanoes and how they form and how they function. It will also show you the different aspects of a volcano. BY RYAN O MAHONY INTRODUCTION This project is about volcanoes and how they form and how they function. It will also show you the different aspects of a volcano. MAP OF VOLCANOES AROUND THE WORLD DIAGRAM

More information

Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Essential Questions What evidence can students observe that the Earth is changing? How do scientists know what s inside the Earth? What processes

More information

FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types of

More information

Geol 101: Physical Geology Summer 2007 EXAM 1

Geol 101: Physical Geology Summer 2007 EXAM 1 Geol 101: Physical Geology Summer 2007 EXAM 1 Write your name out in full on the scantron form and fill in the corresponding ovals to spell out your name. Also fill in your student ID number in the space

More information

DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE VOLCANOES

DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE VOLCANOES DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE VOLCANOES The earth is a dynamic planet. Its rigid outer surface layer is broken into several tectonic plates which are in constant motion relative to one another. As demonstrated

More information

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation.

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation. Heat Flow Heat from Earth s Interior Earth s interior heat comes from a combination of the following factors: Original heat from the formation and gravitational compression of the Earth from the solar

More information

Volcanoes. These icons indicate that teacher s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page.

Volcanoes. These icons indicate that teacher s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. Volcanoes These icons indicate that teacher s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not

More information

Understanding: Volcanoes: Teacher s Guide

Understanding: Volcanoes: Teacher s Guide Understanding: Volcanoes: Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6-8 Curriculum Focus: Earth Science Lesson Duration: Two class periods Program Description Once, the power of volcanoes was thought to be the work

More information

MAJOR LANDFORMS IN VOLCANIC REGIONS

MAJOR LANDFORMS IN VOLCANIC REGIONS MAJOR LANDFORMS IN VOLCANIC REGIONS Volcanism is not randomly distributed over the world. It is concentrated near plate boundaries where plate subduction or seafloor spreading takes place. Other occurrences

More information

Geology of the Hawaiian Islands

Geology of the Hawaiian Islands Geology of the Hawaiian Islands Class 10 12 February 2004 Any Questions? Styles of Eruptions and Volcanic Hazards Styles of volcanic eruptions Some volcanoes may erupt only once (Diamond Head) Other volcanoes

More information

Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6

Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6 TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) EARTH SCIENCE Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6 Created by: Debra McKey (Mountain Vista Middle School); Valerie Duncan (Upper Lake Middle School); and Lynn Chick (Coyote Valley

More information

Fertile Soils: Volcanic soils are very fertile. These rich soils are called laterite soils and are rich in minerals. They are common in many

Fertile Soils: Volcanic soils are very fertile. These rich soils are called laterite soils and are rich in minerals. They are common in many By Sam McCormack Fertile Soils: Volcanic soils are very fertile. These rich soils are called laterite soils and are rich in minerals. They are common in many countries such as Brazil, where coffee is grown,

More information

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas 1 Igneous Geochemistry What is magma phases, compositions, properties Major igneous processes Making magma how and where Major-element variations Classification using a whole-rock analysis Fractional crystallization

More information

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

More information

FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Learning the shapes of volcanoes. LAB: Experimenting with "lava." POST: Comparing

More information

VOLCANOES AND OTHER IGNEOUS FEATURES

VOLCANOES AND OTHER IGNEOUS FEATURES VOLCANOES AND OTHER IGNEOUS FEATURES INSTRUSVE IGNEOUS FEATURES Plutonic-Intrusive igneous rocks can cool and solidify into large rock bodies: plutons Plutons form in all sizes several square meters to

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition. Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

1 Exploring Earth s Interior

1 Exploring Earth s Interior 1 Exploring Earth s Interior Crust Mantle Outer Core Crust-to-Mantle Inner Core Cross Section From Surface to Center SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2 Evidence for Continental

More information

Section 3 Effects of Volcanic Eruptions

Section 3 Effects of Volcanic Eruptions Section 3 Effects of Volcanic Eruptions Key Concept The effects of volcanic eruptions can change human and wildlife habitats. What You Will Learn Volcanic eruptions can cause the loss of human life and

More information

Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1

Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Teacher Workbooks Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Copyright 2005 Teachnology Publishing Company A Division of Teachnology, Inc. For additional information, visit

More information

Chapter 2. Igneous Rocks

Chapter 2. Igneous Rocks Chapter 2 Igneous Rocks Most students find the definition of a mineral to be rather long and cumbersome. In contrast, the definition of a rock is short and sweet. A rock is any naturally occurring aggregate

More information

Earth Science: Volcanoes Teacher s Guide

Earth Science: Volcanoes Teacher s Guide Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6 8 Curriculum Focus: Earth Science Lesson Duration: 3 class periods Program Description Just beneath Earth s crust lies a ball of molten rock, kept semi-liquid thanks to heat

More information

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle Smith & Pun, Chapter 3 Processes link types Plate tectonics is driving force If we look closely we see

More information

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and

More information

Grade Level: Description: Objectives: Materials shield Vocabulary: volcanoes Introduction domes volcano magma Warm-up: Food Viscosity

Grade Level: Description: Objectives: Materials shield Vocabulary: volcanoes Introduction domes volcano magma Warm-up: Food Viscosity Grade Level: Middle to High School Description: Features associated with active volcanoes on Jupiter s moon Io are studied to determine what they are made of and how they were put in place. Students will

More information

Earth s Interior: Structure, Composition, and Temperature

Earth s Interior: Structure, Composition, and Temperature Course Outline Introduction: Course Objectives, Outline, Geology Basics Earth s Interior: Composition and Plate Tectonic Impact Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Theory, Data, Mechanisms Tectonic

More information

Composite Volcano. ByAlejandro

Composite Volcano. ByAlejandro ByAlejandro Facts about Composite volcanoes: Mount Kilimanjaro is located in northern Tanzania Mount Kilimanjaro is measured to be 19,340 Farmers harvest bananas and coffee beans on lower parts The volcano

More information

ANSWER KEY: VOLCANOES

ANSWER KEY: VOLCANOES ANSWER KEY: VOLCANOES Reading 1: Volcanic Eruptions (25 minutes/25 points) Read the questions first and then look for the information in the article. You do not need to write in complete sentences. 1.

More information

What causes Earth s surface to change?

What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 1 Earth s Landforms Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics Lesson 3 Volcanoes Lesson 4 Earthquakes What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 5 Shaping Earth s Surface landform relief map topographical map

More information

Volcanism and Volcanoes

Volcanism and Volcanoes Volcanism and Volcanoes Volcanism is one of the most impressive displays of Earth s dynamic internal processes. From a human perspective, volcanism can be a destructive force causing property damage, injuries,

More information

Magma and Igneous Rocks

Magma and Igneous Rocks Magma and Igneous Rocks Rock: A coherent, naturally occurring, aggregate of minerals or glass Geologists distinguish three main types of rocks 1- Igneous Rocks that form by the freezing or solidification

More information

Lecture Notes: Bill Engstrom Instructor Igneous Rocks GLG 101: Physical Geology

Lecture Notes: Bill Engstrom Instructor Igneous Rocks GLG 101: Physical Geology Lecture Notes: Bill Engstrom Instructor Igneous Rocks GLG 101: Physical Geology In our overview of the Earth, we found out that Earth s internal heat combined with other mechanisms causes rocks to melt

More information

Lecture 21 Mount St. Helens

Lecture 21 Mount St. Helens Lecture 21 Mount St. Helens Debris Avalanches Volcanoes are not very stable structures. From time to time, they collapse producing large rock and ash avalanches that travel at high speeds down valleys.

More information

Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface

Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface TEKS investigate rapid changes in Earth s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface Constant Changes Earth s surface is constantly changing. Wind,

More information

Alaskan volcanoes 101

Alaskan volcanoes 101 Alaskan volcanoes 101 Michelle Coombs U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory Cleveland and Carlisle volcanoes, May 31, 2012. Photo by Cyrus Read Outline Introduction to magma Three types of

More information

Some Processes that Change the Earth s Surface

Some Processes that Change the Earth s Surface PART ONE Some Processes that Change the Earth s Surface Science standards To prepare students to understand the Essential Academic Learning Requirements (EALRs) introduced at middle school, this series

More information

Lab # 3 Volcanic Hazards along the Cascadia Subduction Zone

Lab # 3 Volcanic Hazards along the Cascadia Subduction Zone Names: ESS 315 Lab # 3 Volcanic Hazards along the Cascadia Subduction Zone Introduction In the Pacific Northwest, the Juan de Fuca Plate is being subducted beneath the North American Plate. As the denser

More information

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Sea Floor Spreading Where is it located? How does it form? How does it change the Earth s surface? Earthquakes Where are earthquakes located? Most earthquakes happen around

More information

CATACLYSMIC ERUPTIONS

CATACLYSMIC ERUPTIONS CATACLYSMIC ERUPTIONS The really big ones! This figure compares the size of some recent, well-known eruptions. Note how small the eruptions of Mount St. Helens and even Vesuvius are compared to Katmai,

More information

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form?

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? 298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

More information

Inside Earth Chapter 3

Inside Earth Chapter 3 Name Hour Due Date Inside Earth Chapter Page 1 Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Page 2 Volcanic Activity Page - Mapping Earthquakes and Volcanoes Page 4 Mapping Earthquakes and Volcanoes table Page 5 - Mapping

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on:

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Continental Drift Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Similarities in shorelines

More information

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

More information

What do you imagine about the nature

What do you imagine about the nature CHAPTER INTERIOR OF THE EARTH What do you imagine about the nature of the earth? Do you imagine it to be a solid ball like cricket ball or a hollow ball with a thick cover of rocks i.e. lithosphere? Have

More information

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS Introduction Igneous rocks form from the cooling and crystallization of molten rock material. This can occur below the surface of the earth forming intrusive rocks

More information

SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Investigating the parts of a volcano. LAB: Comparing the parts of a volcano

More information

Pyroclastic Flows and Surges

Pyroclastic Flows and Surges Pyroclastic Flows and Surges Also known as glowing ash clouds, glowing avalanches and nuées ardentes (French). These are the most hazardous of all volcanic processes. Estimated to have caused about 55,000

More information

Transform Boundaries

Transform Boundaries Lecture 7 Plates and Mantle Plumes Transform Boundaries Transform boundaries occur where one segment of rigid lithosphere slides horizontally past another in response to stresses in the lithosphere. The

More information

5thscience earth science (5thscience_earth)

5thscience earth science (5thscience_earth) Name: Date: 1. An extinct volcano is one that A. erupts only once. B. erupts once every 100 years. C. is expected to erupt soon. D. has not erupted in many years. 2. An acorn fell into a crack in a large

More information

What is a volcano? The Earth s Layers

What is a volcano? The Earth s Layers 29 I m sure we re all familiar with what a volcano looks like. I ll bet we re all familiar with what a volcano looks like when it erupts, too. But, are you sure why volcanoes erupt? Are you sure why volcanoes

More information

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67)

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to

More information

Ongoing eruption, Kilauea Volcano, 1983 - present

Ongoing eruption, Kilauea Volcano, 1983 - present Ongoing eruption, Kilauea Volcano, 1983 - present Eruptions on Hawaiian volcanoes occur at the summit caldera or along one of the two narrow rift zones. This is because magma moves upwards from a shallow

More information

IGNEOUS ROCKS. Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information

IGNEOUS ROCKS. Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information IGNEOUS ROCKS Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information Lesson 1 - Rock Cycle Lesson 2 - Formation of Igneous Rocks Lesson 3 - Classification of Igneous Rocks Lesson 4

More information

Volcano Under the City

Volcano Under the City Volcano Under the City Program Overview NOVA investigates the dangers of Nyiragongo volcano, located in a densely populated valley in the heart of Africa. The program: recounts Nyiragongo s 2002 eruption,

More information

Modeling Volcanic Eruptions

Modeling Volcanic Eruptions Modeling Volcanic Eruptions New Mexico Adventures in Supercomputing Challenge Final Report April 6, 2005 Team 052 Rio Rancho Mid-High School Team Members John Bell Nick Vigil Teacher Sponsor Debra Loftin

More information

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere is the branch of physical geography, shared with the fields of Geomorphology and Tectonics, that specifically examine the landforms, continents

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II 4. Which of the following statements about paleomagnetism at spreading ridges is FALSE? A. there is a clear pattern of paleomagnetic

More information

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four stages in the development of a terrestrial planet? 2. That Earth, evidence that Earth differentiated.

More information

MeMoVolc workshop on The dynamics of volcanic explosive eruptions, Geneva, 29-31 January 2014 Eruption classification

MeMoVolc workshop on The dynamics of volcanic explosive eruptions, Geneva, 29-31 January 2014 Eruption classification MeMoVolc workshop on The dynamics of volcanic explosive eruptions, Geneva, 29-31 January 2014 Eruption classification Dr Atl, El Paricutin FIRST CLASSIFICATIONS OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS based on form and

More information

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Does not include complete lecture notes. Continental drift: An idea before its time Alfred Wegener First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 Published The Origin

More information

Volcanic Hazards & Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanic Hazards & Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions Page 1 of 11 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Volcanic Hazards & Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions This page last updated on 03-Jul-2012 Volcanic Hazards This lecture

More information

Unit 4: The Rock Cycle

Unit 4: The Rock Cycle Unit 4: The Rock Cycle Objective: E 3.1A Discriminate between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock into another. E 3.1B Explain the relationship

More information

hot spot Encyclopedic Entry

hot spot Encyclopedic Entry This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Encyclopedic Entry hot spot For the complete

More information

Soda Bottle Volcano An Eruption Begins

Soda Bottle Volcano An Eruption Begins Soda Bottle Volcano An Eruption Begins Overview: Examine how gases provide the energy to create explosive volcanic eruptions by making comparisons to gases in a soda bottle and by conducting a carefully

More information

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment

Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment 1a. What is the center layer of the Earth called? a. crust b. core c. mantle d. middle 1b. Label each layer of the Earth. 1c. What are the Earth

More information

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?

More information

Volcano in the lab: a wax volcano in action: teacher s notes

Volcano in the lab: a wax volcano in action: teacher s notes Volcano in the lab: a wax volcano in action: teacher s notes Level This activity is designed for students aged 11-14, as a simple demonstration of igneous activity. English National Curriculum reference

More information

3.9 GEOLOGY, SOILS, AND SEISMICITY

3.9 GEOLOGY, SOILS, AND SEISMICITY 3.9 GEOLOGY, SOILS, AND SEISMICITY The Hawaiian Islands formed as the Pacific Plate moved over a relatively permanent hot spot in the mantle beneath the plate. The long chain of islands that stretch for

More information

Viscosity experiments: physical controls and implications for volcanic hazards. Ben Edwards Dept of Geology, Dickinson College

Viscosity experiments: physical controls and implications for volcanic hazards. Ben Edwards Dept of Geology, Dickinson College Viscosity experiments: physical controls and implications for volcanic hazards Student Name: Ben Edwards Dept of Geology, Dickinson College OBJECTIVES OF LAB Learn about the rheological property called

More information

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES Purpose John J. Thomas Frequently, people cannot visualize the mineral associations that form the sequences of igneous rocks that you find in the earth's crust and what happens

More information

Venusian Structure. Iron-Nickel rich core Mantle composed of magnesium-rich silicates and oxides Basaltic crust Venera 13 & 14 Tholeiitic basalt

Venusian Structure. Iron-Nickel rich core Mantle composed of magnesium-rich silicates and oxides Basaltic crust Venera 13 & 14 Tholeiitic basalt Vulcanism on Venus Venusian Structure Iron-Nickel rich core Mantle composed of magnesium-rich silicates and oxides Basaltic crust Venera 13 & 14 Tholeiitic basalt Tesserae From latin word for Tile Covers

More information

VOLCANIC ERUPTION. Definition of Hazard

VOLCANIC ERUPTION. Definition of Hazard VOLCANIC ERUPTION Definition of Hazard A volcano is a vent in the earth's crust through which molten rock (magma), rock fragments, gases, and ashes are ejected from the earth's interior. A volcano is created

More information

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 1. Please fill in the missing labels. 2. Please fill in the missing labels. 3. How many large plates form the outer shell of the earth?

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

VOLCANOES. Teacher Notes. Gary B. Lewis Original Notes and activities & Christine V. McLelland US Content. Record No.GA 1995/24

VOLCANOES. Teacher Notes. Gary B. Lewis Original Notes and activities & Christine V. McLelland US Content. Record No.GA 1995/24 VOLCANOES Teacher Notes Gary B. Lewis Original Notes and activities & Christine V. McLelland US Content Record No.GA 1995/24 US Edition 2003 developed in partnership with Volcanoes - 2 - GEOSCIENCE AUSTRALIA

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

Learn more at www.pbs.org/nature

Learn more at www.pbs.org/nature Lesson Title: Vibrant Volcanoes Grade level: 2 4 Topic/Subject Matter: Earth Science Time Allotment:1-2 class periods Overview This lesson will introduce elementary students to the fiery and explosive

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

Lava Flows. Most lava flows are basaltic in composition. Basalt 90% Andesite 8% Dacite/Rhyolite 2%

Lava Flows. Most lava flows are basaltic in composition. Basalt 90% Andesite 8% Dacite/Rhyolite 2% Lava Flows Most lava flows are basaltic in composition Basalt 90% Andesite 8% Dacite/Rhyolite 2% This is because most silicic and intermediate magmas erupt explosively (higher gas content and viscocity)

More information