Contents. Part I Earth s Energy, Climate, and Ocean Systems

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1 Contents Preface Acknowledgments Part I Earth s Energy, Climate, and Ocean Systems 1 Mapping our Course of Study Our Place on the Planet The Great Systems of Physical Geography The Nature of Geographic Systems The Physical Geographer s Perspective Scientific Thought and its Application in Physical Geography The Concept and Objectives of this Book 12 Chapter Summary and Overview 12 Review Questions 13 2 An overview of Planet Earth: Some Geographic Obser vations and Facts Some Geographic Observations About Earth The Shape, Size, and Geographic Organization of Earth Mapping Space and Time 24 Chapter Summary and Overview 30 Review Questions 31 3 The Sun Earth Energy System: Fuel for a Planet Light, Energy, and Work The Solar Energy System The Measurement and Types of Radiation The Organization and Motion of the Planets Earth s Motion in the Solar System The Concept of Earth as an Energy System Heat Energy and Temperature The Thermal Character of Earth as a Planet 50 Chapter Summary and Overview 52 Review Questions 55 4 Earth s Radiation and Heat Systems Over Land and Water Solar Radiation and the Composition of the Atmosphere The Effect of the Atmosphere on Solar Radiation Geographic Distribution of Solar Radiation at the Earth s Surface Heat Transfer in Land, Water, and Air The Heat Circulation System in the Landscape The Energy Balance System at the Earth s Surface Global Temperature Patterns and Controls 76 Chapter Summary and Overview 79 Review Questions 81 5 The Great System of Global Air and Ocean Circulation Atmospheric Mobility, Air Pressure, and Wind The Framework of Earth s Pressure and Circulation System Wind Systems at the Surface and Aloft The General Circulation of the Earth s Atmosphere The General Circulation of the Oceans Thermohaline Circulation: the Hidden System The Influence of the Oceans on the Atmosphere 106 Chapter Summary and Overview 108 Review Questions 110

2 6 Atmospheric Moisture, Precipitation, and Weather Systems The Water-vapor Precipitation System Atmospheric Instability Condensation and Precipitation Processes Orographic Precipitation: Patterns and Processes Convectional Precipitation: Thunderstorms and Tornadoes Cyclonic/Frontal Precipitation: Air Masses and Frontal Waves Convergent Precipitation: Hurricanes and Related Tropical Storms Violent and Destructive Storms 138 Chapter Summary and Overview 143 Review Questions Global Climate, Formative Systems, and Human Adaptation The Nature of Climate Systems The Great Engines of Global Climate Traditional Climate Classification Applied Climatology: Shelter and Clothing in a Changing World 163 Chapter Summary and Overview 167 Review Questions Climate Change, Past, Present, and Future The Nature and Indicators of Climate Change Some Climate Changes of the Past The Causes of Climate Change The Climates of Cities Climate Change in the Twenty-first Century 190 Chapter Summary and Overview 196 Review Questions 198 Part II Earth s Life Support Systems 9 Earth as an Ecosystem: Energy, Food, and Life The Form and Function of the Biosphere The Global Nutrient System: Earth s Biogeochemical Cycles The Structure and Processes of Ecosystems Ecosystems as Self-adjusting Energy Systems The Geography of Terrestrial and Marine Productivity Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Global Productivity 224 Chapter Summary and Overview 227 Review Questions Biogeography: Geographic Distribution of Plant and Animal Types Major Plant Groups Floristic Associations, Plant Habits, and Distributions Processes and Drivers of Geographic Change Major Animal Groups Some Animal Habits, Adaptations, and Distributions The Global Dispersal of Terrestrial Animals The Geographic Patterns and Character of Earth s Biota Vegetation Distributions Related to River and Mountain Systems Disturbance and the Nature of Change in Terrestrial Biota 261 Chapter Summary and Overview 264 Review Questions 265

3 11 Humans as Geographic Agents in a Changing World The Physical Geography of Early Human Existence Leaving Africa: The Geographic Diffusion of Early Homo sapiens The Origin and Development of Agriculture Some Geographic Consequences of Early Agriculture The Industrial Revolution and its Impact on Natural Systems The Urban Revolution and Modern Land-use Systems The Human System in a Global Context 288 Chapter Summary and Overview 289 Review Questions Soil Systems, Processes, and Formation Perspectives on Soil Soil as a Geomorphic System Soil as an Ecosystem Soil as a Hydrologic System Soil as a Biochemical System Soil Horizons, Profiles, and Formative Systems 307 Chapter Summary and Overview 309 Review Questions Soil Types, Distribution, and Land-use Relations Soil Formation and the Geographic Environment Influences on Soil Formation at the Local Scale Soil Classification and Distribution at the Regional Scale Soil and Civilization in the Ancient World Soil and Land Use in the Modern World 329 Chapter Summary and Overview 332 Review Questions 333 Part III Earth s Water Systems 14 The Global Water System How the Earth Got Its Water The Global Water System The Hydrologic Cycle on the Continents The Water-budget Concept The Hydrologic Landscape The Nature of Drought Modification of the Hydrologic System by Nature and Humans Global Warming and the Hydrologic Cycle 354 Chapter Summary and Overview 356 Review Questions Runoff, Streamflow, and Watershed Systems From Rainfall to Streamflow: The Role of Landscape in Runoff Streamflow Responses to Precipitation Watersheds, Channel Networks, and Streamflow Geographic Influences on Watersheds and Streamflow The Causes and Consequences of Flooding Watersheds of the World 376 Chapter Summary and Overview 381 Review Questions Groundwater Systems, Lakes, and Water Resources Pathways and Linkages Underground Groundwater Systems: Aquifers and Basins Human Impacts on Groundwater Groundwater, Streamflow, and Caverns Lake and Wetland Systems Water Use, Water Supply, and Land Use Human Impacts on Water-resource Systems 406 Chapter Summary and Overview 408 Review Questions 409

4 Part IV Earth s Rock and Mountain Systems 17 Earth s Internal System: Heat,Convection, Rocks, and the Planet s Skin Origin and Development of the Terrestrial Planets Extraterrestrial Sources of Geographic Change Earth s Inner Structure and Composition Earth s Internal Energy System The Rocks and Minerals of the Crust The Rock Recycling System 433 Chapter Summary and Overview 435 Review Questions The Formation and Geographic Organization of the Continents and Ocean Basins Major Features of the Lithosphere Essential Processes of Plate Tectonics Distribution and Motion of Tectonic Plates Formation of Ocean Basins and Island Systems Growth and Breakup of Continents Geographic Significance of Plate Tectonics 462 Chapter Summary and Overview 465 Review Questions Mountain Systems, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes Geographic Scale and Deformation of the Crust Folds, Faults, and Mountain Types Earthquakes and Seismic Hazards Volcanism, Volcanic Events, and History Mountain Systems and the Global Environment 494 Chapter Summary and Overview 495 Review Questions 497 Part V Earth s Erosional and Landform Systems 20 Geomorphic Systems: Rock Weathering, Hillslope Processes, and Slope Formation Geomorphic Systems and the Rock Cycle The Denudation System and the Erosion Cycle How Geomorphic Systems Operate Weathering Systems and the Breakdown of Rock Basic Types of Weathering Processes The Hillslope Segment of the Denudational System Denudation Rates and Trends Mass Movement Processes and Features The Systems of Hillslope Form and Formation 523 Chapter Summary and Overview 526 Review Questions Stream Systems, Valley Formation, and Fluvial Landscapes Streams as Geomorphic Systems Streamflow and the Energy of Running Water Channel Erosion and Sediment Transport Channel Forms, Processes, and Meanders The Watershed as a Sediment System Watershed Systems, Landforms, and Landscape Development The Geographic Cycle and Other Grand Ideas Human Impact on Stream Systems 553 Chapter Summary and Overview 555 Review Questions 557

5 22 Coastal Systems: Waves, Currents, and Landforms The Geomorphic Systems of Earth s Coastlines Wave Types, Origin, and Motion Wave-energy Distribution and Nearshore Circulation Systems Wave Erosion, Sediment Transport, and Coastal Landforms Coastal Development, Plate Tectonics and Sediment Supply: The Big Picture Classes of Ocean Coasts Land Use, Engineering, and the Coastal Challenge of the Twenty-first Century 580 Chapter Summary and Overview 583 Review Questions Glacial Systems: Growth, Motion, and Work of Glacial Ice Glacier Types, Environments, and Distribution Glaciers as Systems: Growth, Motion, and Decay Glacial Erosion, Debris Transportation, and Erosional Landforms Glacial Deposition and Depositional Landforms Pleistocene Glaciation and Global Change Ideas on the Cause of the Ice Age Periglacial Environments and Landforms 606 Chapter Summary and Overview 609 Review Questions Wind Systems: Sand Dunes, Dust, and Deserts The System of Airflow Over the Earth s Surface Some Geographic Patterns in Surface Winds Wind Erosion and Sediment Transport Sand-dune Formation, Movement, and Forms Global Distribution of Dunes, Loess, and Related Wind Deposits Long-distance Transport and Relations to Other Earth Systems 629 Chapter Summary and Overview 631 Review Questions 633 Appendices Glossary Photographic Credits Index A1 A15 G1 G19 P1 P6 I1 I17

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