Name Date Class. Geologic Time. The largest division of the geologic time scale is the. the most recent of which is the. which is divided into three

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1 Chapter Content Mastery Geologic Time LESSON 1 Directions: Use the following terms to complete the concept map below. Cenozoic eon eras Mesozoic Paleozoic Phanerozoic The largest division of the geologic time scale is the 1. the most recent of which is the 2. which is divided into three 3. called Directions: Name three types of catastrophic events that contribute to mass extinctions The History of Life on Earth 11

2 Chapter Content Mastery Early Earth History LESSON 2 Directions: Write the letter of the term or phrase that correctly completes each sentence below. 1. The Precambrian age represents of Earth s history. A. roughly half B. about two-thirds C. less than one-fourth D. more than three-fourths 2. The atmosphere of early Earth contained. A. a lot of oxygen B. very little oxygen C. atmospheric ozone D. pyrite and uraninite 3. are thought to be one of the first life forms to have appeared on Earth. A. Amniotes B. Trilobites C. Cyanobacteria D. Ediacaran fauna 4. The Paleozoic Era ended with the late extinction, in which 90 percent of all marine species disappeared. A. Permian B. Siberian C. Cretaceous D. Orduvician 5. During the Cambrian explosion, the number of animals with A. teeth B. shells C. feathers D. backbones greatly increased. 6. The development of helped plants spread into drier areas. A. oxidation B. stromatolites C. photosynthesis D. vascular systems 12 The History of Life on Earth

3 Chapter Content Mastery Directions: Decide whether each statement is true or false. If it is true, write T in the blank. If it is false, replace the italicized term with the correct term and write it on the blank. 1. The Mesozoic Era is divided into three periods: the Triassic Period, the Jurassic Period, and the Cambrian Period. 2. Insects were one of the few groups of organisms that declined during the Mesozoic Era. 3. Pterosaurs were flying mammals, many of which were the size of today s predatory birds. 4. Most scientists today believe that dinosaurs were cold-blooded reptiles. 5. Most of the more than 250,000 species of flowering plants evolved during the Eocene Epoch of the Cenozoic Era. Middle and Recent Earth History 6. Archaeopteryx is an early ancestor of amphibians. LESSON 3 7. As dinosaur species became extinct, mammals moved into the niches they once occupied. 8. Hominids, the group that includes human beings, evolved about 4.4 thousand years ago. 9. Flowerless plants called gymnosperms dominated the plant population of the Mesozoic Era. 10. A mass extinction, which killed off 85 percent of all ocean species and the last of the dinosaurs, marked the end of the Paleozoic Era. 11. Fossil sequences show that complexity increases over time. The History of Life on Earth 13

4 Reinforcement Geologic Time LESSON 1 Directions: The table below lists four criteria for selecting an index fossil. For each criterion, fill in the reason why it is important. Index Fossil Criteria They must have hard parts. 1. Importance They must be geographically widespread. 2. They must have lived in many types of environments. They must have lived for a relatively short time before becoming extinct Directions: Order the four divisions of the geologic time scale from largest to smallest. eon epoch era period Directions: Describe how each of the following catastrophic events could contribute to a mass extinction. 9. climate change 10. volcanic eruptions 11. asteroids The History of Life on Earth 17

5 Reinforcement Early Earth History LESSON 2 Directions: Respond to each question or statement in complete sentences. 1. Name two reasons why Precambrian rocks are difficult for scientists to study. 2. How do scientists know that Earth s early atmosphere had little oxygen? 3. What happened to increase oxygen levels in Earth s atmosphere? 4. To what does the Cambrian explosion refer? 5. What major change in the fossil record marked the end of the Proterozoic Eon and the beginning of the Paleozoic Era? 6. What is an amniote, and why was the appearance of amniotes important? 7. Do scientists believe all early bony fishes evolved into modern-day fish? Explain. 8. What development in plant species allowed plants to begin spreading on land? 9. What do scientists believe caused the Permian extinction, which ended the Paleozoic Era? 18 The History of Life on Earth

6 Reinforcement Middle and Recent Earth History LESSON 3 Directions: Decide whether each of the statements below refers to the Mesozoic (M) or the Cenozoic (C) Era, and write M or C in the blank. 1. This era is divided into the Triassic, the Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods. 2. Most of the 250,000 species of angiosperms evolved during this era. 3. Primates diversified rapidly, living in both trees and on the ground. 4. Frogs, turtles, and crocodiles evolved during this time. 5. Dinosaurs became extinct at the end of this era. 6. Fossils of Archaeopteryx date from this era. 7. The first mammals appeared during this era. 8. Humans, members of the hominid group, appeared in the Pliocene Epoch. 9. Extinctions occurred during this era, but there was no mass extinction event. 10. An important development for marine species was the evolution of reef-building corals. Directions: Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 11. Why do scientists now think dinosaurs were not cold-blooded like modern reptiles? 12. Were all prehistoric reptiles dinosaurs? Explain. 13. What happened to organisms that survived the Cretaceous mass extinction? 14. Do you think there will be a mass extinction in the Cenozoic Era? Why or why not? The History of Life on Earth 19

7 Content Vocabulary Directions: Use the following terms to complete the sentences below. amniote cyanobacteria index fossil paleontologist primate pterosaur stromatolites trilobite 1. A flying reptile called the was the size of modern predatory birds. 2. An organism that lays watertight eggs is called a(n). 3. The, an animal with a hard outer skeleton, is a common fossil. 4. A mammal with opposable thumbs and eyes that look directly forward is a. The History of Life on Earth 5. The release of oxygen by photosynthetic single-celled greatly contributed to a change in Earth s atmosphere. 6. A(n) is the remains of a species that existed over vast regions of Earth for a relatively short period of time. 7. A studies the types and ages of fossils in rock layers. 8. Fossils of one of the earliest known organisms occur in. Directions: Compare and contrast the following pairs of terms. 9. angiosperm, gymnosperm 10. mass extinction, catrastrophic event 11. cold blooded, warm blooded The History of Life on Earth 23

8 Content Vocabulary CONTINUED Directions: Match up the units of geologic time with the specific corresponding names below. 12. Cenozoic 13. Eocene 14. Cambrian 15. Pliocene 16. Proterozoic 17. Paleozoic 18. Jurassic 19. Mesozoic Eon Epoch Era Period Directions: On the lines below, order the four major units of the geologic time scale from largest to smallest The History of Life on Earth

9 Chapter Review Part A. Vocabulary Review The History of Life on Earth Directions: Write the letter of the correct term from Column II next to each definition in Column I. Column I 1. the dying off of many different species in a short period 2. relying on the surrounding air to regulate body temperature 3. a flowering plant that bears seeds with hard outer coverings 4. an animal with opposable thumbs and two eyes that look directly forward 5. something that happens to cause a drastic change in the number of organisms 6. a flying reptile the size of a predatory bird 7. an organism that lays watertight eggs Column II A. amniote B. primate C. cold blooded D. catastrophic event E. gymnosperm F. pterosaur G. index fossil H. mass extinction I. angiosperm 8. a plant that produces seeds but no flowers 9. the remains of a species that was geographically widespread for a short period Part B. Concept Review Directions: Using the words and the table below, arrange the units of geologic time in order from largest to smallest. Then, write in the name of the specific eon, era, period, and epoch that corresponds to the the time period in which hominids first appeared. Cenozoic eon epoch era period Phanerozoic Pliocene Tertiary Unit of Geologic Time Name of Time Unit The History of Life on Earth 25

10 Chapter Review CONTINUED Directions: Respond to each question or statement in complete sentences. 9. Compare and contrast the three most recent geologic eras. 10. Evaluate the role and importance of cyanobacteria in the evolution of life forms. 11. Consider which organisms in our modern epoch might become index fossils for paleontologists millions of years in the future. Justify your choice with specific criteria. 12. Distinguish between extinctions occurring in the Cenozoic Era and mass extinctions of the past. Do you think there might still be a mass extinction in the future? Explain. 26 The History of Life on Earth

11 Chapter Outline Lesson 1: Geologic Time The History of Life on Earth A. Earth s history is recorded on a time line called the geologic. 1. divide units of time using index fossils selected by certain criteria. a. must have hard parts, so they are preserved easily. b. They must be geographically, so they are easily found. c. They must have lived in many, so as to be preserved in many rock types. d. They must become after a short period, so that small units can be established. 2. The divisions of the geologic time scale are eons, eras, periods, and. a. are the largest divisions and represent the longest time periods. b. The Phanerozoic Eon is divided into three : Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. c. The Cenozoic Era is divided into the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary. B. A is the dying off of many different species during a short geologic time period. 1. percent of all species that ever lived are now extinct. 2. Mass extinctions can happen over a period of several years. C. A causes a drastic change in the numbers of organisms over a short period of time. 1. There is evidence that (global warming or cooling) has caused some mass extinctions, including those ending the Ordovician periods. and a. Global warming is linked to, such as carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere. 36 The History of Life on Earth

12 Chapter Outline CONTINUED b. Global can cause oxygen levels in water to decrease and sea levels to rise. c. Global cooling could sea levels and decrease warm, shallowwater environments. 2. can contribute to mass extinctions by emitting dust, ash, lava, and gases that can affect climate and organisms. a. The 1902 eruption of Mt. Pelee produced a cloud of dust and gas that caused worldwide. b. The mass extinction ending the _ period is attributed to volcanic eruption. c., including the Siberian and Deccan Traps, may have caused mass extinctions. d. Volcanic haze can cause climate change by the Sun s rays. 3. An impact is thought to have contributed to the Cretaceous mass extinction. a. The impact could shroud the Earth in sun-blocking dust and haze, lowering temperatures and inhibiting. b. Scientists debate the role asteroid impacts played in the mass extinction, since many species were extinct before the impact. Lesson 2: Early Earth History A. time represents 88 percent of Earth s history. 1. in adjacent rock layers are more similar than fossils in widely separated layers. 2. The more a fossil was formed, the more it resembles a living organism. 3. Precambrian time is divided into three : Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic. 4. Most Precambrian rock is, so it is more difficult to date. 5. Precambrian atmosphere had very little and no ozone layer. The History of Life on Earth 37

13 Chapter Outline CONTINUED 6. Ancient contain fossils of Earth s earliest known organisms. a. Stromatolites are composed of alternating layers of sediments and. b. Cyanobacteria are single-celled, blue-green algae. 7. Cyanobacteria released oxygen into the through photosynthesis. a. began to favor organisms that used oxygen. b. An developed to shield Earth from ultraviolet rays. 8. More complex, organisms, called Ediacaran fauna, evolved. B. Organisms with hard parts evolved during the Era. 1. During the, shelled animals and other invertebrates greatly increased in number and diversity. a. were the most commonly fossilized organisms of the Cambrian Period. b. Invertebrates, such as corals and brachiopods, evolved, as did. 2. evolved during the Paloeozoic Era, many of which lived in oceans. a. One group of evolved into modern fish; the other evolved into amphibians. b., which lay watertight eggs, allowed organisms to spread into drier habitats. 3. Plants developed systems, allowing them to spread onto land. a., ferns, and pine trees appeared during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Periods. b. They became large deposits used as an energy resource today. 4. occurred during the Ordovician, Devonian, and Permian Periods. a. The late Permian extinction the Paleozoic era, with the extinction of 90 percent of marine species and 70 percent of land species. b. Two causes are the of Pangaea and the emission of ash and sulfur from the Siberian Traps. 38 The History of Life on Earth

14 Chapter Outline CONTINUED Lesson 3: Middle and Recent Earth History A. The includes the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods. 1. Algae, clams, stromatolite organisms, and corals evolved. 2. Ocean vertebrates included predatory reptiles; land vertebrates included frogs, crocodiles,, and dinosaurs. a. evolved from small to larger species, including the Apatosaurus. b. Scientists originally thought dinosaurs were, but they now believe dinosaurs structures were more similar to those of mammals and birds. c. Dinosaurs became at the end of the Cretaceous Period. d. was a dinosaurlike animal believed to be an ancestor of birds. e. evolved in the Triassic Period alongside the dinosaurs. f. As dinosaurs became extinct, mammals moved into their. 3., plants with seeds but no flowers, dominated the Mesozoic Era. a., flowering plants, appeared near the end of the Mesozoic Era. 4. Mass extinctions occurred at the end of the, Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods. B. The current era, the, is divided into seven epochs. 1. Modern mammals, including modern whales and, evolved. a. Primates have opposable and two eyes that look forward. b. About 4.4 million years ago, the, the group that includes homo sapiens, evolved. 2. plants increased and diversified into the more than 250,000 species that exist today. 3. Extinctions in the Cenozoic Era have occurred by and due to human causes. The History of Life on Earth 39

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