Introduction to Local and Wide Area Networks

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1 Introduction to Local and Wide Area Networks Lecturers Amnach Khawne Jirasak Sittigorn Chapter 1 1

2 Routing Protocols and Concepts Chapter 6 : VLSM and CIDR Chapter 7 : RIPv2 Chapter 1 2

3 VLSM and CIDR Routing Protocols and Concepts Chapter 6 Chapter 1 3

4 Objectives Compare and contrast t classful l and classless l IP addressing. Review VLSM and explain the benefits of classless IP addressing. Describe the role of the Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) standard in making efficient use of scarce IPv4 addresses Chapter 1 4

5 Introduction ti Prior to 1981, IP addresses used only the first 8 bits to specify the network portion of the address In 1981, RFC 791 modified the IPv4 32-bit address to allow for three different classes IP address space was depleting rapidly the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) introduced Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) CIDR uses Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) to help conserve address space. VLSM is simply pysubnetting a subnet Chapter 1 5

6 Classful l and Classless l IP Addressing Classful IP addressing As of January 2007, there are over 433 million hosts on internet Initiatives to conserve IPv4 address space include: -VLSM & CIDR notation (1993, RFC 1519) -Network Address Translation (1994, RFC 1631) -Private Addressing (1996, RFC 1918) Chapter 1 6

7 Classful and Classless IP Addressing The High Order Bits These are the leftmost bits in a 32 bit address Chapter 1 7

8 Classful l and Classless l IP Addressing Classes of IP addresses are identified by the decimal number of the 1st octet Class A address begin with a 0 bit Range of class A addresses = to Class B address begin with a 1 bit and a 0 bit Range of class B addresses = to Class C addresses begin with two 1 bits & a 0 bit Range of class C addresses = to Chapter 1 8

9 Classful and Classless IP Addressing The IPv4 Classful Addressing Structure (RFC 790) An IP address has 2 parts: -The network portion Found on the left side of an IP address -The host portion Found on the right side of an IP address Chapter 1 9

10 Classful and Classless IP Addressing Chapter 1 10

11 Classful and Classless IP Addressing Purpose of a subnet mask It is used to determine the network portion of an IP address Chapter 1 11

12 Classful and Classless IP Addressing Classful Routing Updates -Recall that classful routing protocols (i.e. RIPv1) do not send subnet masks in their routing updates The reason is that the Subnet mask is directly related to the network address Chapter 1 12

13 Classful and Classless IP Addressing Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR RFC 1517) Advantage g of CIDR : - More efficient use of IPv4 address space - Route summarization Requires subnet mask to be included in routing update because address class is meaningless Recall purpose of a subnet mask: - To determine the network and host portion of an IP address Chapter 1 13

14 Classful l and Classless l IP Addressing Classless IP Addressing CIDR & Route Summarization - Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) - Allows a subnet to be further sub-netted according to individual needs - Prefix Aggregation a.k.a. Route Summarization - CIDR allows for routes to be summarized as a single route Chapter 1 14

15 Classful and Classless IP Addressing Classless Routing Protocol Characteristics of classless routing protocols: -Routing updates include the subnet mask -Supports VLSM -Supports Route Summarization Chapter 1 15

16 Classful and Classless IP Addressing Classless Routing Protocol Routing Protocol Routing updates Include subnet Mask Supports VLSM Ability to send Supernet routes Classful No No No Classless Yes Yes Yes Chapter 1 16

17 VLSM Classful routing -only allows for one subnet mask for all networks VLSM & classless routing -This is the process of subnetting a subnet -More than one subnet mask can be used -More efficient use of IP addresses as compared to classful IP addressing Chapter 1 17

18 VLSM VLSM the process of sub-netting a subnet to fit your needs -Example: Subnet /16, 8 more bits are borrowed again, to create 256 subnets with a /24 mask. -Mask allows for 254 host addresses per subnet -Subnets range from: / 24 to / 24 Chapter 1 18

19 Classless l Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Route summarization done by CIDR -Routes are summarized with masks that are less than that of the default classful mask -Example: / 13 is the summarized route for the / 16 to / 16 classful networks Chapter 1 19

20 Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Steps to calculate a route summary -List networks in binary format -Count number of left most matching bits to determine summary route s mask -Copy the matching bits and add zero bits to determine the summarized network address Chapter 1 20

21 Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Subnet Mask CIDR Value / / / / / / / / / / / /19 Subnet Mask CIDR Value / / / / / / / / / / / /31 Not valid Chapter 1 21

22 Subnet Planning Network /23 IP Address IP Address IP Address IP Address IP Address IP Address IP Addre ess x x Chapter 1 22

23 Subnet Planning 62 hosts Network E 126 hosts Network D 17 hosts Network A Network C 30 hosts Network B 62 hosts Chapter 1 23

24 Subnet Planning Network Req. Max. Network Subnet mask Host Host A 126 B 62 C 30 D 17 E 62 Chapter 1 24

25 Subnet Planning Subnet Mask CIDR Value / / / ?.x Chapter 1 25

26 Subnet Planning Network Max. Host A 126 B 62 E 62 C 30 D 30 Network Chapter 1 26

27 Subnet Planning Network Max. Host A 126 B 62 E 62 C 30 D 30 Network Chapter 1 27

28 Subnet Planning Link F 2 hosts Link I 2 hosts Link G 2 hosts Link H 2 hosts Chapter 1 28

29 Subnet Planning Network Max. Host A 126 B 62 E 62 C 30 D 30 F 2 G 2 H 2 I 2 Network Chapter 1 29

30 Summary Classful IP addressing IPv4 addresses have 2 parts: -Network portion found on left side of an IP address -Host portion found on right side of an IP address Class A, B, & C addresses were designed to provide IP addresses for different sized organizations The class of an IP address is determined by the decimal value found in the 1 st octet IP addresses are running out so the use of Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) and Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) are used to try and conserve address space Chapter 1 30

31 Summary Classful Routing Updates Subnet masks are not sent in routing updates Classless IP addressing Benefit of classless IP addressing Can create additional network addresses using a subnet mask that fits your needs Uses Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) Chapter 1 31

32 Summary CIDR Uses IP addresses more efficiently through use of VLSM -VLSM is the process of subnetting a subnet Allows for route summarization -Route summarization is representing multiple l contiguous routes with a single route Chapter 1 32

33 Summary Classless Routing Updates Subnet masks are included in updates Chapter 1 33

34 Chapter 1 34

35 RIPv2 Routing Protocols and Concepts Chapter 7 Chapter 1 35

36 Objectives Encounter and describe the limitations it ti of RIPv1 s limitations. Apply the basic Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2) configuration commands and evaluate RIPv2 classless routing updates. Analyze router output to see RIPv2 support for VLSM and CIDR Identify RIPv2 verification commands and common RIPv2 issues. Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RIPv2 in handson labs Chapter 1 36

37 Introduction ti Chapter focus -Difference between RIPv1 & RIPv2 RIPv1 -A classful distance vector routing protocol -Does not support discontiguous subnets -Does not support VLSM -Does not send subnet mask in routing update -Routing updates are broadcast RIPv2 -A classless l distance vector routing protocol that t is an enhancement of RIPv1 s features. -Next hop address is included in updates -Routing updates are multicast -The use of authentication is an option Chapter 1 37

38 Introduction Similarities between RIPv1 & RIPv2 -Use of timers to prevent routing loops -Use of split horizon or split horizon with poison reverse -Use of triggered updates -Maximum hop count of 15 Chapter 1 38

39 RIPv1 Limitations Lab Topology Scenario: 3 router set up Topology is discontiguous There exists a static summary route Static route information can be injected into routing table updates using redistribution. Routers 1 & 3 contain VLSM networks Chapter 1 39

40 RIPv1 Limitations Scenario Continued VLSM -Recall this is sub netting the subnet Private IP addresses are on LAN links Public IP addresses are used on WAN links Loopback interfaces -These are virtual interfaces that can be pinged and added to routing table Chapter 1 40

41 RIPv1 Limitations Null Interfaces This is a virtual interface that does not need to be created or configured -Traffic sent to a null interface is discarded -Null interfaces do not send or receive traffic Static routes and null interfaces null interfaces will serve as the exit interface for static route -Example of configuring a static supernet route with a null interface -R2(config)#ip route Null0 Chapter 1 41

42 RIPv1 Limitationsit ti Route redistribution -Redistribution command is way to disseminate a static route from one router to another via a routing protocol -Example R2(config-router)#redistribute static Chapter 1 42

43 RIPv1 Limitations Verifying and Testing Connectivity Use the following commands: show ip interfaces brief ping traceroute Chapter 1 43

44 RIPv1 Limitations RIPv1 a classful routing protocol -Subnet mask are not sent in updates -Summarizes networks at major network boundaries -if network is discontiguous and RIPv1 configured convergence will not be reached Chapter 1 44

45 RIPv1 Limitations Examining the routing tables -To examine the contents of routing updates use the debug ip rip command -If RIPv1 is configured then Subnet masks will not be included with the network address Chapter 1 45

46 RIPv1 Limitationsit ti RIPv1 does not support VLSM Reason: RIPv1 does not send subnet mask in routing updates RIPv1 does summarize routes to the Classful boundary Or uses the Subnet mask of the outgoing interface to determine which h subnets to advertise Chapter 1 46

47 RIPv1 Limitations No CIDR Support In the diagram R2 will not include the static route in its update Reason: Classful routing protocols do not support CIDR routes that are summarized with a smaller mask than the classful subnet mask Chapter 1 47

48 Configuring RIPv2 Comparing RIPv1 &RIPv2 Message Formats -RIPv2 Message format is similar to RIPv1 but has 2 extensions 1st extension is the subnet mask field 2nd extension is the addition of next hop address Chapter 1 48

49 Configuring RIPv2 Enabling and Verifying RIPv2 Configuring RIP on a Cisco router By default it is running RIPv1 Chapter 1 49

50 Configuring RIPv2 Configuring RIPv2 on a Cisco router -Requires using the version 2 command -RIPv2 ignores RIPv1 updates To verify RIPv2 is configured use the show ip pprotocols command Chapter 1 50

51 Configuring RIPv2 Auto-Summary & RIPv2 RIPv2 will automatically summarize routes at major network boundaries and can also summarize routes with a subnet mask that is smaller than the classful subnet mask Chapter 1 51

52 Configuring i RIPv2 Disabling Auto- Summary in RIPv2 To disable automatic summarization issue the no auto-summary command Chapter 1 52

53 Configuring RIPv2 Verifying RIPv2 Updates When using RIPv2 with automatic ti summarization turned off Each subnet and mask has its own specific entry, along with the exit interface and next-hop address to reach that subnet. To verify information being sent by RIPv2 use the debug ip rip command Chapter 1 53

54 VLSM & CIDR RIPv2 and VLSM Networks using a VLSM IP addressing scheme Use classless routing protocols (i.e. RIPv2) to disseminate network addresses and their subnet masks Chapter 1 54

55 VLSM & CIDR CIDR uses Supernetting Supernetting is a bunch of contiguous classful networks that is addressed as a single network. Chapter 1 55

56 VLSM & CIDR To verify that supernets are being sent and received use the following commands -Show ip route -Debug ip rip Chapter 1 56

57 Verifying i & Troubleshooting RIPv2 Basic Troubleshooting steps -Check the status of all links -Check cabling -Check IP address & subnet mask configuration -Remove any unneeded configuration commands Commands used to verify proper operation of RIPv2 Show ip interfaces brief Show ip protocols Debug ip rip Show ip route Chapter 1 57

58 Verifying & Troubleshooting RIPv2 Common RIPv2 Issues When trouble shooting RIPv2 examine the following issues: Version Check to make sure you are using version 2 Network statements Network statements may be incorrectly typed or missing Automatic summarization If summarized routes are not needed then disable automatic summarization Chapter 1 58

59 Verifying & Troubleshooting RIPv2 Reasons why it s good to authenticate ti t routing information -Prevent the possibility of accepting invalid routing updates -Contents of routing updates are encrypted Types of routing protocols that can use authentication -RIPv2 -EIGRP -OSPF -IS-IS -BGP Chapter 1 59

60 Summary Routing Distance Classless Uses Use of Max Auto Support Supports Uses Protocol Vector Routing Split Summary CIDR VLSM Authentication Protocol Horizon Hold- Down Timers or Split Horizon w/ Poison Reverse Hop count = 15 RIPv1 Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No RIPv2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Chapter 1 60

61 Chapter 1 61

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