-most form when things die and are buried by sediments. -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms

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1 Fossils -preserved remains or traces of living things -most form when things die and are buried by sediments -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms -found in sedimentary rock: made of hardened sediment -sediment is the material removed by erosion. Made of rock particles and remains of living things. Molds and Casts: -mold: hollow area in sediment in the shape of an organism or part of an organism -cast: solid copy of the shape on an organism Petrified Fossils: -fossils in which minerals replace all or part of an organism Carbon Films: -extremely thin coating of carbon on rocks -materials leave an organism once it is buried in sediments, leaving a thin film of carbon behind Trace Fossils: -provide evidence of the activities of ancient organisms Preserved Remains: -processes that preserve the remains of organisms with little or no change -can be found in amber, tar, and ice

2 Changes Over Time: -Paleontologist- scientists who study fossils -fossils show how organisms and environments change over time Fossil Records: -provides evidence about the history of life and past environments on Earth -scientific theory- well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations -evolution- gradual change in living things over long periods of time -extinct- organisms that no longer exist and will never again live on Earth Relative age of rocks -relative age: the age of a rock compared to the age of rock layers -absolute age: the age of the rock -law of superposition: the geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it -extrusion: lava that hardens on Earths surface -intrusion: igneous rock layer formed when lava hardens beneath earths surface -fault: a break in Earths crust -unconformity: place where an old, eroded rock surface is in contact with a new rock layer -index fossil: fossils of widely distributed organisms that lived during only a short period of time

3 Position and Age -layers on top are younger than layers on the bottom -geologists use the law of superposition to determine a rocks age -geologists also use extrusions and intrusions to find a rocks age -fault is always younger than the rock it cuts through -to determine the age of the fault, geologists find the relative age of the youngest layer cut by the fault -some layers may erode away leaving gaps - to date rock layers, geologists give relative age to layer of rock in one location -they give age to matching layers of rocks -index fossils tell relative ages of rock layer of when they occur -ammonites are an index fossil -ammonites are a group of hard shelled animals -ammonites are a good fossil to use because they are widely distributed and they are extinct -they tell apart the different types of ammonites to tell the age of the rock Radioactive Dating: Stomatolites- remains of reefs built by organisms similar to bacteria. As sediment changed the reef scientists use absolute dating to determine the age Radioactive Decay- The process where elements break down by releasing particles and energy -During this atoms of one element break down to form atoms for another element

4 Radioactive Elements occur naturally in igneous rocks, scientists use the rate at which they decay to calculate age Half-life the time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms to decay Potassium-Argon Dating- form of potassium that decays to stable argon -40 and has a half-life of 1.3 billion years Carbon -14 Dating- carbon -14 is a radioactive form of carbon, as the organisms grown carbon is added to their tissues, as they die carbon -14 decays and changes to a stable nitrogen -14 Radioactive dating in layers of sedimentary rock- date the intrusions and extrusions near the sedimentary rock layers -extrusion is older than the shale above it, shale is older than the intrusion Radioactive Dating- step 1: determine the amount of a radioactive element in a rock. Step 2: compare the amount with the amount of a stable element into which the radioactive element decays The Geologic time scale Geologic time scale- a record of the geologic events and life forms in earths history Era- one of the three long units of geologic time between the Precambrian and the present Period- a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table; one of the units of geologic time into which geologists divide eras The way the geologic time scale was developed is when scientist study rock layers and index fossils worldwide Geologist studied the fossils record, the found major changes in life form at certain times

5 After Precambrian time, the basic units of geologic time scales are eras and periods Periods are shorter then eras The names of many of the geologic periods come from places around the world where geologists first described the rocks and fossils of that period Early Earth Scientists hypothesize that the Earth was formed at the same time as the rest of the planets They also have evidence to believe that the moon formed by a meteor crashing into the Earth. This happened about 4.6 billion years ago. The Earth used to be molten It had two atmosphere but solar winds destroyed it As the Earth started to cool down the oceans formed and started to erode the rocks The ocean started to absorb the Carbon Dioxide Life develops Cannot pinpoint where life started but it is believed that microorganisms were the first life forms 2.5 billion years ago the organisms used photosynthesis to obtain food As a byproduct Oxygen was released and the current ozone layer was formed

6 Eras of Earth s History organisms began to change at the end of the Precambrian Era at the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, great numbers of different organisms began to evolve invertebrate- organism without a backbone (jellyfish) Brachiopods and trylobites were common in the Cambrian sea amphibian- an animal that lives partly in land and water reptile- have scaly skin and lay eggs with tough leather shells during carboniferous period, winged insects evolved mass extinction: where many types of living things became extinct at the same time mass extinction ended the Paleozoic era The living things that survived the Permian mass extinction became the main forms of life early in the Triassic period The Mesozoic era is known as the Age of Reptiles because they were so successful during this period Mammal: a warm blooded vertebrate that feeds its young milk During the Jurassic period, dinosaurs became the dominant animals on land One of the earliest birds, called Archaeopteryx appeared Permian= primitive reptiles Triassic= first dinosaurs Jurassic= quarry dinosaurs

7 cretaceous= last dinosaurs during the quaternary period the earths climates began to cool causing a series of ice ages. during the tertiary period most of the modern mammals appeared.

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