Pre-assessment Questions

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1 Pre-assessment Questions 1. Which of the following is NOT part of a data packet? a. Body b. Header c. Checksum d. Trailer 2. Which of the following protocol enables communication between applications running on different hosts on a LAN? a. NetBEUI b. NetBIOS c. TCP d. IP 3. Which of the following is NOT an ICMP message? a. Redirect b. Parameter Problem c. Source Quench d. Maximum Response Time Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 1 of 28

2 Pre-assessment Questions (contd.) 4. Port numbers can range from 0 to. a b c d Which is the lowest layer of the TCP/IP architecture? a. Application layer b. Internet layer c. Network Access layer d. Transport layer Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 2 of 28

3 Solutions to Pre-assessment Questions Ans 1. c. Checksum Ans 2. b. NetBIOS Ans 3. d. Maximum Response Time Ans 4. b Ans 5. c. Network Access layer Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 3 of 28

4 Objectives In this lesson, you will learn about: Internet Addressing Subnetting Classless Interdomain Routing Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 4 of 28

5 Introducing Internet Addressing On a network each node needs to have a unique address to enable identification. The address allocated to each node on a network is known as the Internet address or IP address. This address allows nodes to connect and communicate over a network, as shown in the following figure: Nodes on a Network with their Respective IP Addresses Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 5 of 28

6 Internet Addressing Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages, distributes, and ensures that every node on the Internet has a unique IP address. With the phenomenal growth of the Internet, it has been virtually impossible for IANA to manage IP address allocation. As a result, the IP address allocation has been divided into subregistries, known as Regional Internet Registries (RIR), for various geographical regions. RIRs include: Asia-Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) Latin American and Caribbean IP Network Information Center (LACNIC) Reseaux IP Europeans (RIPE) Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 6 of 28

7 Internet Addressing (Contd.) Depending on the region, an Internet Service Provider (ISP) must obtain the required IP address block from the registry that controls IP address allocation in its region. An IP address is divided into four groups, which are separated by dots ("."). These groups are commonly known as octets. Each octet constitutes 8bits, where each bit can either have abinary value of 1or 0, as shown in the following figure. 32-bit Structure of an IP Address Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 7 of 28

8 Converting IP Addresses from Binary to Decimal Format Computers communicate through digital signals, which can have either an on state or an off state. The on and off states of a digital signal correspond to the binary values of 1 and 0, respectively. Each bit in an octet has a bit value, as shown in the following figure: Bit Values of Each Bit in the Octet Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 8 of 28

9 Converting IP Addresses from Binary to Decimal Format (Contd.) To calculate the decimal value of octets, you need to add the bit value for the binary bits, which have the binary value 1. For example, you need to calculate the decimal equivalent of the binary representation To do so, the steps to be followed are : 1. Identify the On bits for each octet and create a table containing the bit values and the binary bits of each octet, as shown in the following table. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 9 of 28

10 Converting IP Addresses from Binary to Decimal Format (Contd.) Decimal bit value 1st octet binary bit value 2nd octet binary bit value 3rd octet binary bit value Identifying bit value for On binary bits 4 th octet binary bit value Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 10 of 28

11 Converting IP Addresses from Binary to Decimal Format (Contd.) 2. Add the bit values of the On bits, which correspond to the binary value of 1. For example, as shown in the above table, the "On" bits in the case of the first octet ( ) have the bit values of 128 and 64. When you add these two bit values, you arrive at the number 192. This number represents the decimal value of the first octet. Similarly, calculate the bit values of the other octets to determine the IP address in decimal format. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 11 of 28

12 Converting IP Addresses from Decimal to Binary Format Consider a computer whose IP address is The binary equivalent for this IP address can be computed, by following the steps given below: 1. The four octets in the specified IP address are: 209, 100, 9, and 1. To start converting the decimal values for each octet into binary format, divide the value of the first octet 209 by 2 until the quotient value is 0 or You need to record the quotient and remainder values that are obtained after each division. The following table depicts the division of the first octet of the sample IP address. The quotient and remainder values that are obtained after each division are recorded, as shown in the following table. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 12 of 28

13 1 Internet Addressing Converting IP Addresses from Decimal to Binary Format (Contd.) Octet Division by 2 Quotient Remainder / / / / / / /2 1 1 Dividing the First Octet Value (209) by 2 Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 13 of 28

14 Converting IP Addresses from Decimal to Binary Format (Contd.) 3. Combine the remainder values in reverse order to obtain the binary bits. As shown in the preceding table, the remainder values for 209 are in the form of 1s and 0s. To derive the binary equivalent for 209, combine the remainder values in the reverse order. You should arrive at the value This number is the binary equivalent for 209. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 14 of 28

15 IP Address Classes You can determine the range of octets that are allotted to the network ID using IP address classes. To determine the total number of hosts that you can connect using a particular class, the formula 2 m -2 is used. In the preceding formula, m represents the number of bits that are available for a specified host ID and is the product of the following: The bits in each octet (8 bits) The number of octets that are available for host ID allocation Based on the network IDs of IP addresses, the classes used for IP addressing are as follows: Class A: In Class A, the first octet is used as the network ID. The other three octets are used as host IDs. The following figure shows the structure of a Class A IP address : Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 15 of 28

16 IP Address Classes (Contd.) Class A Network ID Host ID Host ID Host ID Structure of a Class A IP Address Class B: The first two octets in Class B addresses are reserved for network ID. The last two octets are reserved for host id. The structure of a Class B IP address is shown in the following figure. Class B Network ID Network ID ( 255 x 255 x 255 )-2 Host ID Host ID = 64 bits ( ) ( 64 x 255 ) ( 255 x 255 )-2 Structure of a Class B IP Address Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 16 of 28

17 IP Address Classes (Contd.) Class C: In Class C IP addresses, the first three octets are reserved for assigning the network ID. The last octet of a Class C address is reserved for host ID. The following figure shows the structure of a Class C address. Class C Network ID Network ID Network ID Host ID = 32bits ( ) ( 32 x 255 x 255 ) The Structure of Class C IP Address Class D: Class D addresses are not available for allocating network or host IDs. The first four bit values of this class are reserved as Class E: Class E is a special class that has been reserved for future use in IP addressing and for various research and development purposes. The first four bit values of this class are reserved as Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 17 of 28

18 IP Addressing Rules The base rule followed by IP addressing standards is that no IP address can start or end with either 0or 255. There are a number of IP addresses, which are reserved and are used for performing predetermined tasks. These types of IP addresses are as follows: Network Addresses: Anetwork address identifies aphysical network over an internetwork. Broadcast Addresses: A broadcast address transmits frames to all the hosts on anetwork simultaneously. The various types of broadcast addresses are: Directed Broadcasts Limited Broadcasts Special-Case Source Addresses: A node on a network uses a special-case source address to obtain an IP address when it boots up or does not have an IP address. Loopback Addresses: Loopback addresses test network connectivity and applications. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 18 of 28

19 Reserved IP Addressing Reserved IP addresses are reserved for private networks. These networks are not accessible through the Internet. IANA provides three sets of blocks or ranges reserved for assigning private network address. These blocks are: to to to Some of the advantages of reserved IP addressing are as follows: Large Address Space Reduction in the cost of implementing the network Avoids IP address conflicts Some of the limitations of reserved IP addressing are: The hosts in a private network need not necessarily have a globally unique IP address, which reduces their access to the Internet. The flexibility of the network design is also reduced in case two networks are merged. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 19 of 28

20 Understanding Subnetting A subnetwork or a subnet is a logical division of a large network into smaller networks, as shown in the following figure: Subnets on a Network Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 20 of 28

21 Understanding Subnetting (Contd.) Creation of subnets enables better management of the network and optimum utilization of network s capabilities. These are attributed to the following reasons: Reduced network traffic Enhanced network management Improved network connectivity over a large geographical area Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 21 of 28

22 Understanding Subnet Masks A subnet Mask is an essential component of TCP/IP addressing and is required for identifying the network ID, the subnet ID and the host ID in an IP address. The following figure shows the IP address after using subnet masks to identify the network address in a host address: Identifying the Network Address From a Host Address The following table lists the default subnet masks for these classes: IP address class Subnet mask A B C Default Subnet Masks for the Class A, B, and C addresses Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 22 of 28

23 Custom Subnet Masks Custom subnet masks create a user-defined number of subnets for a network. Before customizing the subnet mask, it is essential to determine the : Total number of subnets to be created Number of bits to be borrowed from the host ID The custom subnet mask depends on the number of subnets that need to be created within a network. Demonstration- Implementing Subnets Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 23 of 28

24 Classless Interdomain Routing The most common method for assigning IP addresses is the classful method. In this method, IP addresses are assigned based on the IP address classes, Class A, Class B, and Class C. However, beyond a limit, 32-bit IP addresses cannot be assigned to the networks or hosts. To overcome this problem of limited availability of unique IP addresses, the Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) method was introduced. CIDR is a method of routing based on the number of masked bits of the IP address. The CIDR notation gives the number of masked bits of the address consisting of the IP address and the subnet mask. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 24 of 28

25 CIDR Notation CIDR is a method of routing based on the number of masked bits of the IP address. It is frequently used in routers to represent routes. The CIDR notation gives the number of masked bits of the address consisting of the IP address and the subnet mask. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 25 of 28

26 Summary In this lesson, you learned: An IP address is a 32-bit address, which can be represented in binary and decimal format. The International Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is an organization that issues the IP addresses being used all over the world. An IP address is divided into two parts, network ID and host ID, where the network ID precedes the host ID. IP address classes are a distinct classification of networks used to divide internetworks based on network ID. The classes used for IP addressing are: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 26 of 28

27 Summary (Contd.) These types of IP addresses are: Network Address Broadcast Address Special-Case Source Address Loopback Address Reserved IP addresses are reserved for private networks, which are not accessible through the Internet. To manage large networks without affecting the network performance, you can divide anetwork into smaller networks called subnetworks or subnets. Asubnet Mask is an essential component of TCP/IP,which is required for identifying the network ID, the subnet ID and the host ID in an IP address. The custom subnet mask depends on the number of subnets that need to be created within asubnet. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 27 of 28

28 Summary (Contd.) Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) provides flexibility to IP addressing and reduces wastage of IP addresses. The CIDR binary notation is an addressing methodology that links the subnet masks to the corresponding IP addresses. Internet Addressing Lesson 2B / Slide 28 of 28

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