Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER

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1 Chapter 2 NETWORK LAYER

2 This chapter provides an overview of the most important and common protocols associated with the TCP/IP network layer. These include: Internet Protocol (IP), Routing protocols Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Inter-Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). These protocols that are operating at the network layer (also called the internet layer), offer services to the transport layer protocols, implementing functions like: packets (datagrams) routing and delivery through communications networks that form the Internet (IP, RIP, IGRP), datagram addressing(ip), dynamic address configuration (DHCP), message exchange between parties in Internet (ICMP), resolving the correspondence between the network layer addresses and the network interface layer (or data link layer) addresses (ARP).

3 2.1 INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) The third layer most important protocol is Internet Protocol (IP). IP is the protocol that hides the underlying physical networks by creating a virtual network operating over a larger scale. IP is an unreliable, best-effort, and connectionless packet delivery protocol. Note that best-effort means that the packets sent by IP might be lost, arrive out of order, or even be duplicated. It is assumed that higher layer protocols will deal with these problems. IP is a routed protocol, which means that other network layer protocols deal with the IP packets routing.

4 2.1 INTERNET PROTOCOL (contin.) IP functions: users addressing (IP addresses), packet segmentations and packet reassembling, respectively (necessary to fulfill the frame size imposed by the protocol used at the data link layer), transmitting the transport layer data, packet differentiation service type (quality of service - QoS) for routing, IP header integrity check, specifying a maximum existence time for each packet in the network.

5 The IP packet format: IP version 4 Packet

6 2.1.1 IPv4 Packet (contin.) Version - Identifies the packet source IP protocol version. IP version 4 (IPv4) is used nowadays, version 5 is an experimental version, and standards were defined for the IP version 6 (IPv6). Header size - Specifies the header size (it does not include the data field) expressed as the number of 32 bits words. The minimum header size corresponds to the case when it doesn t contain the options field, and its value is 5 words (20 bytes). Service type - Shows the required QoS for transporting the packet in the network. The QoS is expressed by means of four parameters: priority (precedence), delay, throughput (data rate efficiency), and reliability. This field value may influence the routers in their search for a route to the destination, but as it was mentioned before the IP protocol doesn t guarantee the required QoS for the data transport.

7 2.1.1 IPv4 Packet (contin.) Total size - This field specifies the entire packet size measured in bytes, including the header and the data. Identification, Flags and Fragment offset - These fields control the packets fragmenting and reassembling operations. Each fragment has the same format as the entire packet. The Identification field contains a number that identifies the packet in the sequence. When a router divides a packet the Identification field must be copied inside the header of each fragment. Hence, the destination (also using the source address) is able to find out which packet each fragment belongs to. Fragment offset is used to aid the reassembly of the full datagram in the receiver. The value in this field contains the number of 64-bit segments (header bytes are not counted) contained in earlier fragments, already transmitted from the current packet. If this is the first (or only) fragment, this field contains a value of zero.

8 2.1.1 IPv4 (contin.) The three bits denoted as flags may signal the packet fragmenting interdiction (when the source imposes this restriction), and in case of fragmenting one flag bit specifies the last fragment in the sequence: 0: Reserved, must be zero. DF (Do not Fragment): 0 means allow fragmentation; 1 means do not allow fragmentation. MF (More Fragments): 0 means that this is the last fragment of the datagram; 1 means that additional fragments will follow. When fragmenting is done the total size field specifies the fragment size instead of the whole packet size. Time to live - determines the time (expressed in seconds) that the packet is allowed to spend in the network. The interconnecting equipments (routers) decrease the value of this field by one unit when they redirect the packet.

9 2.1.1 IPv4 (contin.) Protocol - Identifies the upper layer protocol (transport: TCP or UDP) associated to the packet. For example the TCP identifier is 6 and UDP identifier is 17. Header check sequence - Allows the integrity check for values in the header fields. This field value is determined by processing the whole header value, considered as a sequence of 16 bits integers. Each router computes the header check sequence and compares it with the value in the IP datagram header. If the header checksum does not match the contents, the datagram is discarded. Address fields - Contain the 32 bits IP addresses, corresponding to the source and destination systems. These fields are not modified when the packets pass by the routers. Options - This field has a variable length (a maximum of 40 bytes) being reserved for introducing some control functions necessary for routing, network security, and others. Data field - Has a variable length, but always is an integer multiple of bytes. This field contains at least 576 bytes, and the maximum length is of bytes.

10 2.1.2 IPv4 addressing The IP addresses consist in 32 unsigned binary values used to identify a unique system in Internet. These 32 bits of the IP address are written in a 4 bytes form, each byte (octet) being expressed as a decimal number taking values from 0 to 255, and the whole address has the form p.q.r.s. IPv4 address general format:

11 2.1.2 IPv4 addressing (contin.) Depending on values of the first byte (p), more precisely, for the first 4 bits, several classes of addresses can be identified, being noted as A, B, C, D, etc. For A class addresses the first byte specifies the network, having the most significant bit fixed to 0, and the remaining three bytes specify the host. Therefore, the maximum number of A class addresses is 126 (0 and 127 first byte values are not used to identify networks), these networks may have 16 million hosts, each (24 bits for system identification), and a total of more than 2 billion addresses. IPv4 address classes:

12 2.1.2 IPv4 addressing (contin.) Addresses from class B have the first two bits fixed to 10, the following 14 bits are used to identify the network, and the remaining 16 bits identify the system. Therefore, there are up to (16382) networks, each with up to (65534) systems a total of more than 1 billion addresses. Addresses from class C have the first three bits fixed to 110, the following 21 bits are used to identify the network, and the remaining 8 bits identify the system. Therefore, there are up to ( ) networks, each with up to (254). Addresses from class D have the first four bits fixed to 1110, and are used to send packets from a system to a group of systems in the global network (only to hosts using the same class D address). This is the reason why the D class addresses are named as multicast addresses, and are used by some routing protocols and by some firmware protocols for communicating between equipments made by the same company (i.e., CISCO switches and routers). Class E addresses are reserved for future or experimental use.

13 Reserved IP addresses For all these classes, two sequences are eliminated from each of the identifiers, network and system, namely the sequence having all bits 1 and the sequence having all bits 0. These two special significance sequences are not used for defining system addresses, but they are used as address mask, and as whole network address from the class, respectively. Another special purpose type of address is the loopback address. For example, the class A network is defined as the loopback network. These loopback interfaces do not access a physical network. A network mask is a 32 bits sequence (the same size as addresses) that has all bits 1 in all positions corresponding to the network identifier, and all bits 0 in all positions corresponding to the system identifier. The masks are used by each router for taking the decision about the router output network interface where to redirect the IP datagram according to the destination address within.

14 Reserved IP addresses (contin.) The mask allows the network identifier selection from a specified address. The network identification needed for routing is performed by a bit-by-bit logical AND operation between the target IP address and the network mask. An example of mask use is presented below for a class B address. Broadcast address for a given network is that address that has all bits 1 in the system identifier positions, and the network identifier specifies the domain where to do the broadcast. Example presenting the broadcast address use for a class B address: AND = (system address) = (class B network mask) = (network address) = (class B network broadcast address) = (global broadcast address)

15 The network division (subnetting) The principle of assigned IP addresses became too inflexible to allow easy changes to local network configurations in each class, the network division using the concept of IP subnetting. The assignment of subnets is done locally. The entire network still appears as one IP network to the outside world. There are two types of subnetting: static and variable length. A subnet of a network is created by borrowing a sequence of most significant bits from the system identifier, thus obtaining a new identifier dedicated to the subnetwork.

16 The network division (contin.) If we borrow a bits for subnetting then the number of created subnets is 2 a 2 (again, the network address and the network mask are not considered), and the number of systems in each subnet is 2 System Id. a 2. The subnet mask and the subnet broadcast address have the same significances as in the case of classified networks.

17 Static subnetting Static subnetting implies that all subnets obtained from the same network use the same subnet mask. Advantages: simple to implement and easy to maintain. Disadvantage: waste of considerable address space, especially in small networks. Example of a class B network division into static subnets d (2 4 2 = 14 subnets are obtained, each one including a maximum number of = 4094 systems): = (class B network address) = (class B network mask) = (a subnet address) = (subnets mask, or /20 ) = (subnet broadcast address) = (a subnet system address)

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