1 Chapter 7 Local Area Network Communications Protocols
2 IP Version 4 The most commonly used network layer protocol is IP, or the Internet Protocol. As its name would indicate, IP is the protocol used on the World Wide Web (WWW). All WWW browsing, exchanging, and media streaming on the Internet is carried by IP. The Internet Protocol was the first packet switched protocol The version of IP most currently used is version four, or IPv4. However, as IP continues to gain acceptance and the size and traffic levels on the Internet continue to grow, IPv4 is hitting its limits an updated version of IP: IPv6, also known as IPng (for Next Generation) was developed
3 IP Addressing Rather than breaking the segment and host portions of the network layer address into separate units, as was done in IPX, IP combines IPv4 addresses are 32 bits long and are represented as a sequence of four octets. Each octet is a decimal representation of an 8-bit section of the overall IP address. In Figure 7-20, each 8-bit section of the overall IP address is converted to its decimal value and separated by a period. This is commonly referred to as a dotted decimal approach to representing IP addresses the two into a single hierarchical IP address
4 The IP Address Figure 7-20: IPv4 addresses are 32 bits long and are represented as a sequence of four octets. Each octet is a decimal representation of an 8-bit section of the overall IP address
5 IP Address Classes Because the IP address contains both the network segment and host addresses, there must be a means of differentiating which bits belong to which each part. The original IPv4 specification provided this differentiation through the use of address classes. There are three basic address classes used for addressing normal network hosts that vary in the number of hosts that can be located on the network segment. The relatively few Class A networks support the largest number of hosts, Class B networks offer more segments of fewer hosts and Class C networks offer many segments of relatively few hosts.
6 As illustrated in Figure 7-21, these classfull addresses are broken apart on octet boundaries In addition to these basic address classes, two additional classes, class D and class E, can be used for IPv4 addressing. Class D addresses are reserved for multicast systems such as routers, while Class E addresses are reserved for future use. As shown in Figure 7-21, the class of an address can be identified by examining the first few bits of the address
7 IPv4 Class Addressing IP addresses contain both the network segment and host addresses. The original IPv4 specification provided the ability to differentiate segment and host addresses through the use of address classes.
8 The assignment of address classes and network ID ranges to a particular organization wishing to connect to the Internet is the responsibility of the Internet Activities Board (IAB) If an organization has no intention of ever accessing the Internet, then there may not be a need to register with the IAB for an IP address class and range of valid network IDs. However, even in this case, all workstations on all communicating networks must have IP addresses unique within the internal corporate network
9 Subnetworking One of the strengths of the IP protocol is its ability to support network subnetworking An organization with only ten hosts that needs to be on the Internet must be given at least a class C network. The unused addresses cannot be used elsewhere on the Internet and are wasted. This problem is compounded if the organization has three locations that each need ten hosts. In a true classfull addressing scheme the organization would require at least three class C networks be assigned even though there are theoretically enough addresses in a single class C network to meet their needs
10 Ideally, there would be a way to take the address space available in a classfull network and break it into multiple subnetworks that each contain a limited number of hosts. For instance, a given organization could be issued a single class B network ID address with its associated 65,534 host IDs. This host section could be broken into multiple subnetworks (or subnets) and be distributed across multiple, geographically distributed locations
11 The solution to the above dilemma is subnetworking. By applying a 32 bit subnet mask to their assigned Class B IP address, a portion of the bits which make up the host ID can be reserved for denoting subnetworks, with the remaining bits being reserved for host IDs per subnetwork. If the first 8 bits of the host ID were reserved for subnetwork addresses and the final 8 bits of the host ID were reserved for hosts per subnetwork, this would allow the same class B address to yield 254 subnetworks with 254 hosts each, as opposed to one network with 65,534 hosts.
12 Figure 7-22 provides examples of subnet masks. The overall effect of subnetworking is to create multiple network segments within the address space given by the IAB Subnetworking allows multiple network segments to be created within a single IP network address space. By creating such subnetworks, routing is also easily extended. From the perspective of a host outside the network, all hosts on any of the subnetworks appear to be on the original single network. Therefore these hosts simply route the packets to the gateway router for the network regardless of the actual destination subnetwork.
13 The gateway router is configured to understand the subnetworking method used and routes the packets across the subnetworks to their intended destination
14 Routing with Subnetting The gateway router accepts all packets destined for the 10.x.x.x network and routes them based on class B subnet working where the second octet has been made part of the network address rather than part of the host address.
15 Subnet Masks As previously mentioned, an IP address contains both a segment address and a host address for a host, with the first X bits representing the segment address and the remaining 32-X bits representing the host address. As long as addresses are used in a classfull manner, the location of the split between the segment address and the host address can be determined by the first few bits of the IP address
16 However, when a classfull network segment is subnetworked, this is no longer possible. The segment address becomes the original network address plus the sub-network address, with the remaining bits used for the host address. Because there is no way of knowing if an address has been subnetworked or how many bits have been stolen from the original host section to create subnetworks, there is no way to know exactly how many bits are used for each merely by looking at the IP address.
17 This problem is illustrated in Figure To resolve this problem there must be a way of identifying which bits are used for each portion of the overall address. This is accomplished via a subnet mask. Asubnet mask is a 32-bit binary sequence that divides the IP address by using a 1 to indicate that the corresponding position in the IP address is part of the segment address and by using a 0 to indicate that the corresponding portion in the IP address is part of the host address. Because the segment address is the first x bits and the host address is the remaining bits, a subnet mask will always consist of x ones followed by 32-x zeros.
18 The effect of using varying subnet masks on an IP address is shown in Figure Just like IP addresses, subnet masks are usually referred to in dotted decimal forma
19 IP Segment Address vs. Host Address Fig: There must be a way of identifying which bits are used for each portion of the overall address. This is accomplished via a subnet mask
20 Use of Subnet Masks Fig 7-24: A subnet mask is a 32-bit binary sequence that divides the IP address by using a 1 to indicate that the corresponding position is part of the segment address and by using a 0 to indicate that the corresponding portion is part of the host address
21 Special Host Addresses Once an IP address had been divided into a segment address and a range of host addresses through the application of a subnet mask, the resulting IP addresses may be assigned to the hosts on the network segment. However there are two reserved host-section addresses that may not be assigned to a host the address that corresponds to all ones in the host section and the address that corresponds to all zeros in the host section. Using all ones in the host section of the IP address denotes the broadcast address for the segment. This address is used to send a single message to every host on the network segment.
22 All zeros in the host section of the IP address is the address of the network segment itself. This address is used by routers to refer to the network in their routing tables. For a class C network these addresses correspond to x.x.x.255 and x.x.x.0, respectively
23 Default Gateway (Router) For IP networks that consist of multiple network segments, each host must also be configured with a default gateway (sometime referred to as a gateway of last resort). The default gateway address represents a router that should be used to route packets on remote network segments
25 The routing prefix is expressed in CIDR notation. It is written as the first address of a network followed by the bit-length of the prefix, separated by a slash (/) character. For example, /24 is the prefix of the Internet Protocol Version 4 network starting at the given address, having 24 bits allocated for the network prefix, and the remaining 8 bits reserved for host addressing In IPv4 the routing prefix is also specified in the form of the subnet mask, which is expressed in quad-dotted decimal representation like an address. For example, is the network mask for the /24 prefix
26 The routing prefix of an address is written in a form identical to that of the address itself. This is called the network mask, or netmask, of the address. For example, a specification of the most-significant 18 bits of an IPv4 address, , is written as If this mask designates a subnet within a larger network, it is also called the subnet mask The modern standard form of specification of the network prefix, used for both IPv4 and IPv6, counts the number of bits in the prefix and appends that number to the address with a slash (/) separator: , netmask is written as /16
27 The process of subnetting involves the separation of the network and subnet portion of an address from the host identifier. This is performed by a bitwise AND operation between the IP address and the (sub)network prefix. The result yields the network address or prefix, and the remainder is the host identifier
28 the address specification /24 represents the given IPv4 address and its associated routing prefix , or equivalently, its subnet mask The IPv4 block /22 represents the 1024 IPv4 addresses from to The number of addresses of a subnet defined by the mask or prefix can be calculated as 2 address size - mask, in which the address size for IPv6 is 128 and 32 for IPv4. For example, in IPv4, a mask of /29 gives: = 2 3 = 8 addresses
29 The mathematical operation for calculating the network prefix is the binary and. The result of the operation yields the network prefix and the host number 130 of a possible maximum of 256 addresses Determining the network prefix The following example shows the separation of the network prefix and the host identifier from an address ( ) and its associated /24 network mask ( ). The operation is visualized in a table using binary address formats
30 Subnetting Subnetting is the process of designating some high-order bits from the host part and grouping them with the network mask to form the subnet mask. This divides a network into smaller subnets. The following diagram modifies the example by moving 2 bits from the host part to the subnet mask to form a smaller subnet one fourth the previous size:
31 The subnet mask is the network address plus the bits reserved for identifying the subnetwork. (By convention, the bits for the network address are all set to 1, though it would also work if the bits were set exactly as in the network address.) In this case, therefore, the subnet mask would be It's called a mask because it can be used to identify the subnet to which an IP address belongs by performing a bitwise AND operation on the mask and the IP address
32 Subnet and host counts The number of subnetworks available, and the number of possible hosts in a network may be readily calculated. In the example (above) two bits were borrowed to create subnetworks, thus creating 4 (22) possible subnets
34 Packet Construction IP packets have a minimum length of 576 bytes and a maximum length of 64K bytes. Depending on the underlying layer two protocol(s) used to deliver the packet, an IP packet may be broken into smaller packet fragments as described earlier in this chapter. As shown in Figure 7-26, the IP header can be either 20 or 24 bytes long, resulting in an effective data payload of 552 to 65,516 bytes. Packets are sent with the bits transmitted in network byte order (from left to right). The IPv4 packet layout is illustrated in Figure 7-26
35 IPv4 Packet
36 Private Addressing and Network Address Translation One way to cope with the rapid depletion of IP addresses is through the use of private addressing However, traffic that remains only on an organization s private network does not need to be globally unique. It only needs to be unique across that organization s private network Three ranges of private IP addresses:
37 Traffic using any of the above address ranges must remain on the organization s private network. Since anyone is welcome to use these address ranges, they are not globally unique and therefore cannot be used on the Internet. Computers on a network using the Private IP address space can still send and receive traffic to/from the Internet by using network address translation (NAT). There are two basic types of NAT Static NAT and dynamic NAT with dynamic NAT the most commonly implemented
38 Regardless of the approach used, NAT is provided by a router (such as Internet gateway devices from Linksys and D-Link among others) A static NAT (SNAT) solution has multiple public IP addresses defined on the external NIC on the NAT server. The server then statically binds a public address with a private address from the internal network. The SNAT process is shown in Figure 7-28.
39 Static Network Address Translation
40 Dynamic Network Address Translation
41 Dynamic NAT (DNAT), also known as Port Address Translation, takes the concept of NAT further by allowing a single public address to serve multiple private addresses. This is accomplished by translating port numbers as well as source addresses. As shown in Figure 7-29, the DNAT process consists of the following steps:
42 1. Outbound traffic from the internal host is sent to the NAT box. 2. The source address is translated from the private address of the internal host to the public address of the NAT box. 3. The source port number is changed from its original value to a value that represents the internal host. 4. The NAT box makes a table in which ports are assigned to each internal address. 5. The packet is forwarded to the original destination
43 ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) delivers a variety of error status and control messages related to the ability of IP to deliver its encapsulated payloads. ICMP uses IP as a transport mechanism and is able to deliver a variety of error and control messages through the use of type and code fields as illustrated in Figure 7-30
44 ICMP Protocol Layout ICMP delivers a variety of error status and control messages related to the ability of IP to deliver its encapsulated payloads The most common use of ICMP from the user s perspective checking for network connectivity between two hosts.
45 Transport Layer Protocols The remaining OSI session, presentation, and application layer functionality are implemented by Internet application layer protocols
46 UDP User Datagram Protocol The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is used to provide unreliable, connectionless messaging services for applications. The header has two main purposes: It allows UDP to keep track of which applications it is sending a datagram to and from through the use of port addresses. It passes those messages along to IP for subsequent delivery. Because UDP does not provide reliable connection-oriented services, the UDP packet header is small. UDP uses only an 8-byte header as illustrated in Figure 7-32
47 UDP Header Layout User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is used to provide unreliable, connectionless messaging services for applications.
48 Due to the small size of UDP packet headers and the fact that they require no acknowledgments from the receiving host, UDP is the perfect transport/session layer protocol for delivering streaming media packets
49 TCP Transmission Control Protocol The majority of network traffic requires a more reliable connection than UDP offers. To provide connection-oriented, reliable data transmission, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the transport/session layer protocol of choice. Reliability is assured through the additional fields contained within the TCP header that offer flow control, acknowledgments of successful receipt of packets after error checking, retransmission of packets as required, and proper sequencing of packets.
50 The fact that TCP is considered connection-oriented implies that a point-to-point connection between source and destination computers must be established before transmission can begin and that the connection will be torn down after transmission has concluded. This is accomplished through the use of TCP flags. When an originating host needs to establish a connection with another host, it sends a TCP packet containing an SYN flag and a sequence number to the destination. This sequence number is used as the starting point for the stream of TCP packets from the source to the destination.
51 TCP Header Layout Reliability is assured through the additional fields contained within the TCP header that offer flow control, acknowledgments of successful receipt of packets after error checking, retransmission of packets as required, and proper sequencing of packets
52 When the destination host receives the initial SYN packet, it responds by sending an ACK of the SYN packet s sequence number with a SYN packet and sequence number to establish the return half of the connection. The originating host then sends an ACK to the destination host s SYN packet and the connection is established. Subsequent packets in each direction increment the sequence numbers. When communication is complete the originating host sends an FIN flag to the destination and tears down the connection. This process is illustrated in Figure 7-34
53 Connection Creation & Tear Down A point-to-point connection between source and destination computers is established before transmission begins The connection is torn down after transmission has concluded
54 UDP and TCP Port Numbers UDP and TCP provide session layer addressing through the use of ports. Ports are specific 16-bit addresses that are uniquely related to particular applications. Source port and destination port addresses are included in the UDP/TCP header
55 Automatic IP Address Assignment Each host on an IP-based network must have a unique IP address. Traditionally, these addresses were statically assigned to each host through an interactive process. Although this is an effective manner to assign IP addresses, it does represent some problems: Someone must serve as the central authority to ensure that each host has a unique IP address. From a practical perspective it makes sense to have the DNS administrator perform this task as they keep track of all IP addresses while managing the DNS tables. When the IP address of a host is changed, it requires administrator intervention in assigning a new IP address.
56 To resolve these issues services have been developed to automatically assign IP addresses to network hosts: DHCP Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol allows special servers to dynamically assign TCP/IP addresses to hosts. A DHCP server references a database of available IP addresses and can dynamically assign available addresses to requesting clients.
57 IP addresses issued by DHCP are leased, rather than being permanently assigned. The length of time that IP addresses can be kept by DHCP clients is known as the lease duration. Dial-in users are typically assigned an IP address only for the duration of their call
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