CS5008: Internet Computing

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1 CS5008: Internet Computing Lecture 10: IP Part II IP Addressing A. O Riordan, 2009, latest revision 2016 Some slides based on Fitzgerald and Dennis, and Tanenbaum

2 IP Address Notation IPv4 addresses are 32 bits so address space is 4,294,967,296 (2 32 ) addresses but in practice not all of this address space can be used Internet address (IP address) usually given in dotted-decimal notation a period separates each octet (8 bits), given as a decimal number (between 0 and 255) Example:

3 Address assignment Addressing is managed by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) operated by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) manages the assignment of both IP addresses and domain names worldwide both assigned at the same time and in groups manages some domains directly (e.g.,.com,.org,.net) and authorizes Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) European RIR is RIPE NCC Example: University College Cork domain names that end in.ucc.ie IP addresses in the x.x range (where x is any number between 0 and 255) 3

4 Address Classes IP address can be interpreted in two parts: network number part NET_ID (higher order octets) used for routing and host number part HOST_ID To accommodate different size networks several address classes were defined This was introduced in 1981 as part of IP and operated until 1993 Classes A, B, C differ in length of NET_ID and HOST_ID subfields 4

5 Classes Class A address has an 8-bit NET_ID and 24-bit HOST_ID intended for very large networks can address up to 16,777,214 (2 24-2) hosts per network. Class B address has a 16-bit NET_ID and 16-bit HOST_ID intended for moderate sized networks can address up to 65,534 (2 16-2) hosts per network. Class C address has a 24-bit NET_ID and 8-bit HOST_ID intended for small networks can address only up to 254 (2 8-2) hosts per network. Class D (for multicast) and Class E (reserved for future use) 5

6 IP Address - Classful 7 bits 24 bits Class A 0 Net ID Host ID 2^31 = 2 Billion addresses bits 16 bits Class B 1 0 Net ID Host ID 2^30 = 1 Billion addresses bits 8 bits Class C Net ID Host ID 2^29 = 536 Million addresses Class D ^28 = 268 Million addresses Class E ^28 = 268 Million addresses 6

7 IPv4 Addresses continued Class D is used for multicast e.g All Hosts multicast group addresses all hosts on the same network segment All Routers multicast group addresses all routers on the same network segment Class E is reserved Special use address Used in boot process Loopback Broadcast 7

8 Network Masks Routing (network) prefix got by using a network mask Default masks are Class A network mask is Class B network mask is Class C network mask is Boolean bitwise AND operation (Wikipedia) used for calculating the network prefix Example: IP Address Network Mask Network prefix Host part

9 IP Address Exhaustion Classful network design served its purpose in the startup stage of the Internet, but it lacked scalability Insufficient IPv4 public addresses with growth of Internet, esp. scarcity of class C addresses Acceleration of IPv4 address exhaustion caused by mobile devices Various solutions: CIDR and reallocate existing unused address space Network Address Translation (NAT) whereby a single public IP address can masquerade as multiple internal local area network (LAN) hosts with private addresses covered later Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) covered later IPv6 provide a lot more addresses not covered this year 9

10 Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) CIDR was interim scheme introduced in 1993 before full introduction of IPv6 to conserve existing address space slow growth of router tables strategy for allocation of IPv4 addresses not a new protocol CIDR is primarily concerned with routing no impact on client aggregate IP addresses into topologically adjacent networks with variable length subnetting CIDR has been successful in limited the size of the Internet backbone's routing tables today Internet addresses are (re-)allocated in CIDR blocks 10

11 Subnets Subnet masks can also be used to subdivide a large address space into subnetworks or to combine multiple subnets into supernets May subdivide network s address space to define multiple logical networks by segmenting HOST_ID subfield into a subnet Identifier (SUBNET_ID) and new smaller HOST_ID e.g. Class B address space could be segmented into 16-bit NET_ID, 4-bit SUBNET_ID, and 12-bit HOST_ID network mask for backbone routing purposes would be , while the mask for routing to individual subnets within the larger Class B address space would be ( = ) subnet mask bits come from the high-order bits of the host field Source: Gary C. Kessler,

12 CIDR Scheme Uses variable-size subnet masks on any address bit boundary, instead of on octets in classful scheme Allow re-division of Class-A, -B and -C networks so that smaller (or larger) blocks of addresses may be allocated allows aggregation of multiple contiguous prefixes into supernets can for example introduce networks between Class B and Class C certain CIDR address blocks are reserved e.g. for private networks (RFC 3330, updated in 2010 in RFC 5735) Syntax: base address/routing prefix IPv4 CIDR blocks consist of a dotted-decimal address, followed by a slash, then a number (the prefix length counting from the most-significant bit (left-most) of the address) Example: /22 12

13 Subnet masks Example: Binary form Dot-decimal IP address Subnet mask Routing prefix Host part

14 Effect on Routing Tables

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