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1 3 IP Addressing Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 1 of 25

2 3 IP Addressing The IP Address (1/4) The IP Address (2/4) The IP Address (3/4) The IP Address (4/4) Address Classes (1/5) Address Classes (2/5) Address Classes (3/5) Address Classes (4/5) Address Classes (5/5) Network ID and Host ID (1/3) Network ID and Host ID (2/3) Network ID and Host ID (3/3) Subnet Masks (1/3) Subnet Masks (2/3) Subnet Masks (3/3) Subnetting (1/2) Subnetting (2/2) CIDR (1/4) CIDR (2/4) CIDR (3/4) CIDR (4/4) Private and Public Addresses (1/2) Private and Public Addresses (2/2)...25 Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 2 of 25

3 3.1 The IP Address (1/4) Each TCP/IP based computer, also called a TCP/IP host, is identified by a logical IP address. Each host or other network device using TCP/IP for communication requires a unique IP address. This marks the position of a system within a network, like an address identifies a house in a certain street. Just like a place of residence, an IP address must be globally unique, and be written in a standard format. Each IP address is composed of a network ID and a host ID. The network ID identifies the systems that are located in the same physical subarea, or segment. All systems of a segment require the same network ID, which must be unique among the existing networks. The host ID identifies a workstation, a server, a router or another TCP/IP host within a segment. The host addresses of a network must also be unique within the network. 3.1 The IP Address (2/4) Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 3 of 25

4 Just like a postal address consists of two parts - the house number and street on the one hand, and the postal code or ZIP code on the other - an IP address also consists of two parts - the host ID and the network ID. The first part, the network ID, identifies the network a computer belongs to. All computers on a segment must have the same network ID, just like all houses within a district require the same ZIP code. The second part of an IP address is the host ID, which identifies a particular computer, router, or other network device within a segment. The host ID must be unique within a network segment, just like the house number and street of a particular house must be unique within a district. In other words: two computers may have the same host ID, but only if they have different network IDs, just like two streets can have the same name, but only if they are in two different districts. The combination of both IDs, however, must provide a unique identification for each individual computer. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 4 of 25

5 3.1 The IP Address (3/4) IP addresses are always 32 bits long, and are divided into four fields of 8 bits each. Such an 8 bit field is referred to as an octet. These octets are separated from each other by dots. An octet is a decimal number between 0 and 255. This format is called "dotted decimal notation". For the internal processing of information, however, computers use binary notation, because the signals they use for communication can only be in two states: on or off. Since the binary system also comprises only two values, computers use binary notation. In our example, the IP address in binary notation would be: Let's recall how decimal numbers are converted to the binary format. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 5 of 25

6 3.1 The IP Address (4/4) In an octet, each bit has a decimal value assigned to it. If a bit is set to 0 it is assigned the value zero. A bit that is set to one can be converted into a decimal value. The bit with the lowest value corresponds to one, the bit with the highest value corresponds to 128 in decimal notation. Thus the highest value for an octet is 255, which will be the case where all bits are set to 1. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 6 of 25

7 3.2 Address Classes (1/5) There are five different IP address classes, in order to create networks of different size: class A, B, C, D and E. TCP/IP supports the assignment of the classes A, B, and C to hosts. The address class of an IP address determines which of its bits are assigned to the network ID and which to the host ID. It also defines the number of networks, and the number of hosts supported by a specific network. Class A addresses are assigned to networks with a very large number of hosts. In this address class, the bit with the highest value is always set to 0. The following 7 bits of the first octet complete the network ID. The remaining 24 bits, that is the last three octets, constitute the host ID. This means that 126 networks of 16,777,214 hosts each are supported. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 7 of 25

8 3.2 Address Classes (2/5) Class B addresses are assigned to medium- and large-sized networks. The two highest bits of a class B address are always set to 1 0. The 14 following bits complete the first two octets as well as the network ID. The remaining 16 bits of the last two octets form the host ID. This allows 16,384 class B networks of 65,534 hosts each. Class C addresses are used for smaller networks. The three highest bits of a class C address are always set to The following 21 bits complete the network ID, so there's one octet (or 8 bits) left for host identification. Class C addresses allow 2,097,152 networks of 254 hosts each. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 8 of 25

9 3.2 Address Classes (3/5) Class D addresses are used for multicasting. A multicast group can include one or more hosts. In this class, the four highest bits are set to The remaining bits define the multicast group of a host. With multicast operations there are no network bits and host bits. The packets are forwarded to a particular subgroup within a network, and are received only by those hosts that are registered with this multicast group. Class E is an experimental address class, which is not designed for general use. It is reserved for future applications. The highest bits of class E addresses are always set to Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 9 of 25

10 3.2 Address Classes (4/5) Let's summarize what we have learned about address classes: Class A offers 126 networks of almost 17 million hosts each. Class B includes more than 16,000 networks of more than 65,000 hosts each. Class C allows the representation of over 2 million networks of up to 254 hosts each. Adding up the maximum number of hosts in all networks, you will find that this 32 bit addressing scheme supports a total of 3,720,314,628 hosts. One would think that this huge supply of IP addresses should be enough. But later in this chapter we will see that, due to the ever growing number of Internet users and due to the addresses' class-based structure, this pool of available IP addresses will soon be exhausted. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 10 of 25

11 3.2 Address Classes (5/5) However, there are some guidelines that must be observed when IP addresses are assigned. In a class A network, the network ID 127 must not be used, because it has been reserved for the loopback function, which checks whether TCP/IP has been properly installed on a computer. The host ID must not be made up entirely of ones. This value has been reserved for the broadcast address , for example, addresses all hosts on the class C network The network ID and host ID must not be both set to 0, otherwise the address will be interpreted as "this network only". Furthermore, the host ID must be unique in the local network. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 11 of 25

12 3.3 Network ID and Host ID (1/3) Let's look at the following example to see how addresses and address classes are handled in practice. Let's consider three different networks. Network 1 is a class A network. Its network ID is 124, and the last 3 numbers define the host ID. Network 2 is a class C network with the network ID "Z" stands for the host ID. This network supports up to 255 host IDs. Network 3 is a class B network with the network ID The last two decimal values, y and z, are reserved for the host ID. Routers interconnect the networks. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 12 of 25

13 3.3 Network ID and Host ID (2/3) Routers are devices found at a network's borders. When data is transferred between different networks or network segments, the routers analyze the packet header, where the destination address of the packet is contained, to find the best path for the packet. Thanks to the information in its routing table, a router knows the paths to all the network segments it is connected to. If a router is unable to assign the address stored in a header, it sends the packet to another router which is able to forward the packet. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 13 of 25

14 3.3 Network ID and Host ID (3/3) As we have seen already, the host ID identifies a particular computer on a network, and therefore has to be unique within the segment. All hosts and routers require a unique host ID. All packets that are transmitted from the computer whose IP address is to computer , are forwarded to network 3 over the two routers. If a destination address is not on the same segment the data packets are passed on to a default router which has an interface to other networks. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 14 of 25

15 3.4 Subnet Masks (1/3) To recognize whether another host, to which a packet must be sent, is local or remote, the sending host needs some additional information. This information is the subnet mask. A subnet mask is a 32 bit address used to mask a part of the IP address. This way, a computer can distinguish the bits relating to the network ID from those belonging to the host ID. Thus, each host on a network needs a subnet mask. If the network is not subdivided into subnets, it is called a default subnet mask: If we split a network into several subnets it is called custom subnet mask. 3.4 Subnet Masks (2/3) Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 15 of 25

16 Networks that are not subnetted use the default subnet mask. Its structure depends on the address class. All network bits are set to 1. The decimal value of each octet is 255. The host bits are set to 0. The subnet mask of a class B address, like , is The network ID is y.z, and the host ID is w.x Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 16 of 25

17 3.4 Subnet Masks (3/3) The internal process used to determine whether a packet is intended for a local or for a remote host is known as ANDing. ANDing is a logical AND operation. Before a packet is sent, the destination address is ANDed in order to obtain the subnet mask of the destination network. The result is the destination computer's network ID. By comparing its own network ID with the destination computer's network ID, the source computer can decide whether the destination computer is local, or whether the packet has to be sent to a router in order to get to the other network. During the ANDing operation, each individual bit of the destination IP address is compared with the corresponding bit of the subnet mask. If both bits are set to 1, the resulting bit is also 1. With other combinations, the result is always 0. Version 2.1 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 17 of 25

18 3.5 Subnetting (1/2) When a network is divided into subnets, each subnet needs a different subnet ID. A unique subnet ID is generated by dividing the bits of the host ID into two parts. One part is used for the unique subnet ID, and the other is used for host identification. This process of dividing a network into two or more subnetworks is called subnetting. The advantage of subnetting is that the network can span several physical segments, for example combining different technologies like Ethernet and Token Ring. The principal advantage, however, is a visible reduction of net traffic. This is because the broadcast traffic does not affect the entire network, as routers, which are located between the networks, do not forward broadcast messages. Version 2.0 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 18 of 25

19 3.5 Subnetting (2/2) Let's summarize what we have learned so far: With the class-based method, each address class has a default subnet mask. For subnetting we need a custom subnet mask, depending on how many subnets and how many hosts per subnet we require. By using the custom subnet mask , a class B network like , with the default subnet mask , could thus be split into 255 subnetworks of 254 hosts each. To divide our network into 2 subnetworks, we require the subnet mask ( ). As you can see, this subnet mask provides the highest bit of the third octet for subnet distinction. The remaining bits of the third and fourth octets belong to the host ID. Version 2.0 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 19 of 25

20 3.6 CIDR (1/4) Due to the Internet's explosive growth, however, the use of address classes in the assignment of IP addresses to networks brings considerable problems. First, the supply of available class B addresses is nearly exhausted, since an organization with for example 2000 computers in a class B network is assigned 65,534 IP addresses. This means that 63,534 IP address are wasted. This problem could be avoided by assigning 8 class C networks of 254 hosts each to this organization. But this would cram the Internet routing tables, since the forwarding of a packet would now require 8 entries instead of 1. The solution for this problem is a method called CIDR - Classless Inter-Domain Routing. Version 2.0 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 20 of 25

21 3.6 CIDR (2/4) In contrast to the class method, CIDR uses only the binary notation. This means that all IP addresses and subnet masks are converted into zeros and ones, which makes 32 values instead of 4 values like in the class system. This structure allows a larger variety of network sizes, and optimizes the assignment of IP addresses. Let's look at the following example. Version 2.0 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 21 of 25

22 3.6 CIDR (3/4) Let's take the IP address and convert it into binary, and do the same with a custom subnet mask, e.g Then we will apply the ANDing operation to calculate the network ID, and convert this into decimal notation. We will see that the classless method alway requires the IP address and the subnet mask to clearly determine whether another computer is local or remote. In order to avoid having to append the entire subnet mask to the IP address every time, the subnet bits that are set to 1 are added and attached to the IP address with a /. For our example this means =20. This provides a unique definition of the IP address in the CIDR notation. Version 2.0 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 22 of 25

23 3.6 CIDR (4/4) The number of available hosts results from the number of zeros in the subnet mask. If we call this number n, then the formula for calculating the number of hosts will be 2 to the power of (n - 2). Two host IDs are subtracted from the total, one being reserved for the network (all bits set to 0), and another one for the broadcast address (all bits set to 1). For our example this means 12 zeros make 2 n-2 = 4094 hosts. Version 2.0 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 23 of 25

24 3.7 Private and Public Addresses (1/2) The Internet's rapid growth has dramatically increased the demand for public IP addresses. Each host on a big company's corporate intranet needs its own IP address. But the only hosts that need a public address are those directly connected to the Internet: the servers, the firewalls and the routers. Nevertheless, the hosts on a corporate intranet need both a legal address space, and a possibility of access to the Internet. For this purpose, a private address space has been created as a subset of the IP address space. The private and the public address space are separated from each other, and do not overlap. But this also implies that private addresses are not accessible from the Internet. Therefore, hosts with a private IP address that want to communicate with hosts on the Internet need to be connected to the public network with the help of a Network Address Translator, or NAT. Version 2.0 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 24 of 25

25 3.7 Private and Public Addresses (2/2) A Network Address Translator is a system, like e.g. a router, which converts private addresses into public ones for data transfer over the Internet. The private address space is defined by three address blocks: / / /16 If we recall the detailed notation, we will recognize that we have a class A, a class B, and a class C address block with their respective network addresses and subnet masks. These private address spaces can be used for any subnetting pattern in a private intranet. Version 2.0 T.O.P. BusinessInteractive GmbH Page 25 of 25

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