# We consider a hydrogen atom in the ground state in the uniform electric field

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1 Lecture 13 Page 1 Lectures Hydrogen atom in electric field. Quadratic Stark effect. Atomic polarizability. Emission and Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation by Atoms Transition probabilities and selection rules. Lifetimes of atomic states. Hydrogen atom in electric field. Quadratic Stark effect. We consider a hydrogen atom in the ground state in the uniform electric field The Hamiltonian of the system is [using CGS units] orienting the quantization axis (z) along the electric field. Since d is odd operator under the parity transformation r -r even function product Therefore, need second-order correction to the energy We will use the approximation Note that we included 100 term to make use of the completeness relation since it is zero anyway.

2 Note that polarizability of classical conductive sphere of radius a is Lecture 13 Page 2

4 Lecture 13 Page 4 Transition Probabilities. Induced and Spontaneous Transitions, Einstein Coefficients. Process 1: Absorption An atom in the state k> with energy E k in the electromagnetic radiation field with spectral energy density ω ν (ν) can absorb a photon hν, which brings the atom into a state with higher energy E i = E k + hν. The spectral energy density ω ν (ν) is the field energy per unit volume and unit frequency interval ν = 1 s 1. ω ( ν ) = n( ν ) hν ν where n(ν) is the number of the photons hν per unit volume within the frequency interval ν = 1 s 1. The probability per second for such an absorbing transition is given by dp dt abs ki = B ω ( ν ) ki ν Einstein coefficient for absorption Process 2: Induced (or simulated) emission The radiation field can also induce atoms in an excited state with energy E i to emit a photon with energy hν= E i E k and to go into the lower state E k. This process is called induced (or stimulated) emission. The two photons have identical propagation directions. The energy of the atom is reduced by dp dt ind ki. = B ω ( ν ) ik ν Einstein coefficient for induced emission

5 Lecture 13 Page 5 Process 3: spontaneous emission An atom in the excited state can transition to a lower state and give away its excitation energy spontaneously without an external radiation field. This process is called spontaneous emission. Note that unlike the case of the induced emission, the spontaneous emission photon can be emitted into an arbitrary direction. The probability per second for such a spontaneous emission is Einstein coefficient for induced emission The Einstein coefficient for induced emission depends only on the wave functions of the states i> and k>. This process and the corresponding Einstein coefficients determine the lifetime of the atomic state. Therefore, we are mostly interested now in the A ik coefficients but will mentioned important results regarding the other processes: If both states have equal statistical weights (g i = g k ) the Einstein coefficients for induced absorption and emission are equal. The statistical weight is number of possible realizations of a state with energy E and total angular momentum quantum number J, i.e. g=2j+1. Population inversion (i.e. more atoms in the upper state than in the lower state) is required to make a laser. This can not be achieved in a two level system. How to make a laser: a 3-level scheme

6 Lecture 13 Page 6 How to make a laser: a 4-level scheme Question for the class: What are the requirements for decays 4 3, 3 2, and 2 1 to make a laser? Which one(s) of the levels 2, 3 and 4 should be metastable? Answer: Level two should be metastable, i.e. 3 2 is a slow decay and 4 3 and 2 1 have to be fast decays to maintain population inversion between 3 and 2. Spontaneous emission: transition probability (i.e. Einstein coefficients A ik ). During the absorption or emission of a photon the atom undergoes a transition between two levels i> and k>, i.e it changes its eigenstate in time. Therefore it cannot be described by the stationary Schrödinger equation, but we have to use the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. However, the relation between transition probabilities and the quantum mechanical description by matrix elements can be illustrated in a simple way by a comparison with classical oscillators emitting electromagnetic radiation. A classical oscillating electric dipole (Hertzian dipole) with electric dipole moment emits the average power, integrated over all directions ϑ against the dipole axis The emitted radiation power is therefore proportional to the average of the squared dipole moment. The quantum mechanical version can be rigorously derived by time-dependent perturbation theory which is relatively lengthy. Therefore, we will just use an analogy with the classical case above. The time-dependent wave function for the state k> with energy E k is

7 Lecture 13 Page 7 From W. Demtröder, chapter 7 The linear combination of these solutions is also a solution In the classical model, a periodically oscillating dipole moment emits radiation. We define a transition dipole moment for transition between states i> and k>: We use indices i and k to designate a complete set of quantum numbers. Vector r is from the origin at the atomic nucleus and is shown at the picture above. Note that many-body problem for transitions in atoms with many electrons will still reduce to the "one-body" dipole matrix elements defined above (in other words D=er is a "one-body" operator). The correct result for A ik can be obtained by replacing in the classical expression for average radiation power emitted by the atom with the transition i> k>.

8 Lecture 13 Page 8 N i atoms in level i> emit the average radiation power on the transition i> k> with frequency ω ik. The Einstein coefficient A ik for spontaneous emission gives the probability per second that one atom emits a photon on the transition i> k> with frequency ω ik. Then, the average power emitted by N i atoms is given by Transition probability (or "transition rate") The expectation values D ik for all possible transitions between arbitrary levels i, k = 1, 2,..., n can be arranged in an n n matrix. The D ik are therefore called electric-dipole matrix elements. If some of the matrix elements are zero, the corresponding transition does not occur. One says that this transition is not allowed but forbidden, or electric-dipole forbidden. Note that the absolute square D ik 2 of the matrix element is directly proportional to the probability of the transition i> k>, i.e., of the intensity of the corresponding line in the atomic spectrum. The larger the matrix element, the stronger the transition. Such electric-dipole transitions associated with the operator D=er are also called E1 transitions. Later, we will also discuss magnetic-dipole M1 and electric-quadrupole E2 transitions which are much weaker than the E1 transitions and have different corresponding expressions for their transition probabilities. Our next goal it to determine which transitions are electric-dipole allowed, i.e. when does matrix elements D ik are not zero. We already mentioned that the electric-dipole operator is an odd operator since it is ~ r. Therefore, we first need to discuss the parity of the atomic states. Parity of the atomic states Parity (spatial inversion) transformation: r -r, i.e. x -x, y -y, z -z. What are the eigenvalues of the parity operator P? Since applying the parity operator twice returns us to the original coordinate system, P 2 =1, the eigenvalues are 1 and -1. Wave functions that remain unchanged under the spatial inversion are said to be of even parity. Wave functions that change sign under the spatial inversion are said to be of odd parity. How do we determine the parity of the atomic state?

9 Lecture 13 Page 9 Let's assume that electron moves in the central potential of the nucleus and other atomic electrons. Then, the wave function separates into a radial and angular parts. Then, the radial part R nl (r) does not change and the parity of the atomic wave function is determined by the angular part. From the properties of the spherical functions Y lm : Since a multi-electron wave function is a (antisymmetrized) product of the wave functions of the electrons, the total parity of the many-electron atom is given by the product of the parities for each electron: for atom with n electron. NOTE THAT ANGULAR MOMENTUM L! IS NOT EQUAL TO THE TOTAL ORBITAL One immediate observation from the equation above is that you can exclude all fully closed subshells when determining the parity of the atomic states, since the number of electrons in the subshell is even. Question to the class: What is the parity of the and states of Li? What is the parity of and state of Mg?

10 Lecture 13 Page 10 Selection rules for electric-dipole transitions 1. For the electric dipole transition between the states i and k, the states i and k must be of opposite parity since the dipole operator is odd operator with respect to parity transformation and parity is conserved in electromagnetic interaction. Next consideration: what differences in the quantum numbers are allowed? We are going to consider selection rules based on J and M J quantum numbers. To answer this question, we need to consider when the electric dipole matrix element between states i and k turns to zero: The spherical components of the electric dipole moment are given by The dipole operator is irreducible tensor of rank 1. The general definition of the irreducible tensors is the following: a family of 2k+1 operators commutation relations satisfying the with angular momentum operators and are called irreducible tensor operators of rank k. For example, the spherical harmonics are irreducible tensor operators of rank l. The matrix elements of irreducible tensor operators between angular momentum states are evaluated using the Wigner- Eckart theorem which separates out the part than depends of M J quantum numbers. We use abbreviated designations

11 Lecture 13 Page 11 Wigner-Eckart theorem does not depend on magnetic quantum numbers m 1, m 2, and q. It is called a "reduced matrix element". The quantity in ( ) is called a 3-j coefficient related to the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients as The matrix element of D is zero when the corresponding 3-j coefficient is zero. The 3-j coefficients are non-zero if the following is true: This leads to the following selection rules for rank 1 irreducible tensor operator Summary: selection rules for electric-dipole transitions between states i and k 1) States i and k have to be of opposite parity 2)

12 Lecture 13 Page 12 Question for the class: What electric-dipole transitions are allowed between the Ca + atomic levels on the picture below? Magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole transitions Derivation of the above formulas assumes "dipole approximation" Considering the next term in the expansion, leads to magnetic dipole and electricquadrupole transitions, which are several orders of magnitude weaker than the electric-dipole transitions. If electric-dipole transition between states i and k is allowed, the contribution of all other transitions to the lifetime is negligible. Magnetic moment operator is The selection rules for magnetic-dipole (M1) transitions are the following: 1) States i and k have to be of the same parity 2) For non-relativistic single-electron states this would mean, but will vanish because the corresponding wave functions are orthogonal. The relativistic effects with lead to non-zero (but very small) transition amplitudes for such transitions. Therefore, M1 transitions are generally significant for transitions between fine-structure components (for example 3d 5/2-3d 3/2 transition for the figure above) or between Zeeman components.

13 Lecture 13 Page 13 The electric-quadrupole operator in spherical coordinates is given by It is irreducible tensor of rank 2 and parity even (since r 2 ). Question for the class: what are the selection rules for electric-quadrupole transitions? 1) States i and k have to be of the same parity 2) Transition rates for E1, M1, and E2 transitions Applying the Wigner-Eckart theorem to sum over possible magnetic quantum numbers, and substituting the relevant constants gives the following expressions for the transitions rates for E1, E2, and M1 transitions: S is reduced matrix element squared in atomic units,

14 Lecture 13 Page 14 Comparing these formulas illustrates why E1 transition rate is larger than M1 and E2 transition rates by several orders of magnitude even when the reduced matrix elements are similar: The lifetime of the atomic state a is determined as Therefore, the larger are the transition rates, the smaller is the lifetime. This formula also shows that if E1 is allowed, contributions of all other transitions, M1, E2, etc. are negligible. Note that several E1 transitions may be allowed, these generally should be added (unless factor significantly reduce their contributions)

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