VRF Technology: The future of HVAC

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1 Wednesday, September 21 VRF Technology: The future of HVAC Kartik Singla, Principal, DXS Ontario

2 The VRF Solution Refrigerant distribution system vs water Multiple DX indoor units with electronic expansion valves Variable inverter compressors in outdoor units Optimized for part load efficiencies

3 The VRF Solution *Trademarked VRV in 1982 Variable - System output depending on required load Refrigerant - R-410A Direct Expansion System Volume - Refrigerant flow regulated by EEV and variable speed compressor Variable - System output depending on required load Refrigerant - R-410A Direct Expansion System Flow - Refrigerant flow regulated by EEV and variable speed compressor

4 Heat Pump Systems All indoor units are in either heating or cooling Automatic switchover within minutes, year round Heat Heat Heat

5 Heat Pump Systems No compressors in space No water for HVAC

6 Heat Recovery Systems Groups of indoor heads can heat or cool independently Transfer of heat Heat Fan Only Cool

7 Heat Recovery Systems Heating & Cooling independence No compressors in space No water for HVAC

8 Water-Cooled VRV

9 The Water-Cooled VRV Solution Conventional water-source heat pumps - Centralize all compressors into indoor VRV water-cooled condensing units - Stack VRV condensing units in closets on each floor, feeding off central condenser water lines - Distribute refrigerant in hallway ceilings from condensing units into each suite - Use stacked VRV fan coils (similar to stacked heat pumps), or ceiling mounted horizontal fan coils - LESS : compressors (1/10 th ), maintenance, in-suite noise, custom calls and complaints - MORE : reliability, efficiency (helps meet SB-10, TGS Tier 1, Tier 2, LEED)

10 The Water-Cooled VRV Solution Conventional water-source heat pumps

11 Water-Cooled VRV

12 Air-Cooled Example Layout #1 Normally Heat Recovery Up to 295ft.

13 Vertical fan coil in each suite Air-Cooled Example Layout #2 Normally Heat Pump Multiple condensing units on roof (one condensing unit per system, serving each floor) Refrigerant risers for each suite stack (2/3-pipes per riser, ~1 per pipe)

14 Standard 2/4 Pipe VFC system Cooling Towers HVAC Pumps Tanks Filtration Heat Exchangers Chillers Boilers Domestic F/P Pumps

15 Air-Cooled VRV System Cooling Towers HVAC Pumps Tanks Filtration Heat Exchangers Chillers Boilers Domestic F/P Pumps

16 Air-Cooled VRV System VRV CU s Convert mechanical rooms into more leasable / sellable space Boilers Domestic F/P Pumps

17 Standard 2/4 Pipe VFC system Cooling Towers HVAC Pumps Tanks Filtration Heat Exchangers Chillers Boilers Domestic F/P Pumps

18 Water-Cooled VRV System Cooling Towers HVAC Pumps Tanks Filtration Heat Exchangers Chillers Boilers Domestic F/P Pumps

19 Water-Cooled VRV System Cooling Towers Convert some mechanical room space into more leasable / sellable space HVAC Pumps Tanks Filtration Boilers Domestic F/P Pumps VRV Indoor Watercooled condensing units in closets on each floor with one main water riser

20 Office VAV HVAC Pumps Tanks Boilers Air Cooled Chiller Central VAV Air Handlers Filtration Domestic F/P Pumps Large ductwork An HTS Company Your local VRF experts.

21 Office VAV HVAC Pumps Tanks Boilers Air Cooled Chiller Central VAV Air Handlers Filtration Domestic F/P Pumps Large ductwork An HTS Company Your local VRF experts.

22 Office VRV Boilers VRV CU s VRV Fan Coils Increased ceiling heights Reduced mechanical rooms Domestic, F/P Pumps An HTS Company Your local VRF experts.

23 Independent Energy Analysis Smith & Anderson [Footprint Division] Energy Modelling report VRF vs WSHP vs VAV vs VVT 25% Annual cost savings vs WSHP

24 Independent Energy Analysis Nemetz & Associates Evaluation of a VRV system vs four pipe fan coil system for a downtown Toronto Condo 40.7% annual cost savings vs 4-Pipe fan coil

25 Why VRV in High-Rise Residential Annual energy cost savings due to efficiency - Rule of thumb : 30% savings vs standard systems - Save capital costs in glazing, enveloped, ERV s etc. while still meeting: - ASHREA SB10 (>3 stories) + OBC 2017 (SB %)

26 Independent Energy Analysis Provident Energy Management Building Permit Stage Energy Modeling Report Air-Cooled VRF vs 2-Pipe Fan Coil Condo. 9 Story. 106 Suites. 111,000 sq.ft. Toronto.

27 Independent Energy Analysis Provident Energy Management Building Permit Stage Energy Modeling Report Ontario Energy Efficiency Requirements Over 3 Story & Window to Wall ratio > 40% Permits > January : Part 12 of OBC & SB-10 Building Efficiency (based on model) > ASHRAE

28 Independent Energy Analysis Provident Energy Management Building Permit Stage Energy Modeling Report Ontario Energy Efficiency Requirements Over 3 Story & Window to Wall ratio > 40% Permits > January : Part 12 of OBC & SB-10 Building Efficiency (based on model) > ASHRAE

29 Independent Energy Analysis Provident Energy Management Building Permit Stage Energy Modeling Report Air-Cooled VRF vs 2-Pipe Fan Coil

30 How to compare VRV efficiency AHRI Standard 1230 Testing and rating standard specially designed for VRF This will allow manufacturer s to show VRF efficiency levels for: - Full Load - Part Load - Heat Recovery

31 What is IEER IEER - Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio - New part load efficiency metric - Replaces IPLV in ASHRAE for Unitary Equipment above 65,000 Btu/h IEER vs. IPLV - IEER requires ratings at specific load conditions - Uses sliding temperature scale

32 System kw/ton comparison kw/ton 4.0 VRV vs. W/C Centrifugal kw/ton 4.0 VRV vs. A/C Screw Chiller VRV AHU CHW PUMP CW PUMP COOLING TOWER CHILLER System Load % System Load %

33 System kw/ton kw/ton 4.0 VRV vs. VFD W/C Centrifugal kw/ton 4.0 VRV vs. VFD A/C Screw Chiller VRV AHU CHW PUMP CW PUMP COOLING TOWER CHILLER System Load % System Load %

34 Global oil crises 1979 New energy efficiency laws passes in Japan 1980 Chiller design engineers challenged with making a higher efficiency chiller 1982 The worlds first VRV System is launched by Daikin in Japan Daikin introduces VRV to European and Middle Eastern markets 2001 VRV is introduced to North America

35 VRF s delay in move to North America Low utility rates Existing AC market / solutions Force air / Chilled water AC Strong N/A brands & products High utility rates Single Split replacement Retrofit / AC addition New AC markets

36 After Daikin McQuay in 2006 All 4 major North America brands have partnered with an Asian VRF manufacturer ALL IN THE PAST 24 MONTHS The shift is happening

37 VRV growth and projected growth in North America VRF Units p.a % p.a. growth through 2018 Fastest growing segment of North American HVAC market

38 THEN North America Life cycle commitment to one manufacturer NOW No secondary market Limited to single source reps / distributors Multiple sources of distribution 10 year parts warranty (Daikin) ASHRAE 15 / CSA B52 Refrigerant charge limitations Limited to 13 lbs / 1,000 cu.ft. until 2007 (US ASHRAE) 2009 (CANADA CSA B52) Eliminated major VRF verticals Mid/High-rise residential & hospitality Office Limit increased to 26 lbs / 1,000 cu.ft 2010 (US ASHRAE ADD-L) 2013 (CANADA CSA B52 < 1,000m) VRF product performance & certification Non-existent No ASHRAE reference AHRI industry standard (Standard 1230) VRF section in 2012 ASHRAE Handbook

39

40 THEN North America Contracting Community NOW Very few trained installers Very few trained for service & maintenance Many (many) trained contractors Multiple contractors for service & maintenance Up-front Capital costs High equipment cost High install cost (lack of training) Resulted in long pay backs Competitive equipment cost Competition on install costs In-line or up-front savings vs traditional Price of utilities & paybacks Avg. US electricity : ~7 cents Price of oil : $25 Avg. Ontario electricity : ~4.3 cents Avg. US electricity : ~10 cents Price of oil : $45 Avg. Ontario electricity : ~11 cents

41 Northern US / Canada THEN NOW Heating Capability of Air-Cooled Heat Pump No Data at design temperatures No easy integration with auxiliary heating No market confidence Tested data down to -13F Direct integration with auxiliary heating Market confidence via operational data *2014/15 Winter Polar Vortex tests

42

43 Existing projects (large) Northern US / Canada 400,000 sq.ft (42F) 110,000 sq.ft (22F) 175,000 sq.ft. 500,000 sq.ft. (42F) 265,000 sq.ft. 300,000 sq.ft. 150,000 sq.ft. 310,000 sq.ft.

44 Existing projects (large) Northern US / Canada 800 Tons 220 Tons 350 Tons 964 Tons 530 Tons 600 Tons 300 Tons 620 Tons

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