HVAC Systems. Alfred Woody, PE. Ventilation/Energy Applications, PLLC Norton Shores, Michigan

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1 HVAC Systems Alfred Woody, PE Ventilation/Energy Applications, PLLC Norton Shores, Michigan

2 HVAC System Functions Control space temperature Heating Cooling Control space humidity Control airborne contaminates Exhaust systems Air filtration Provide outdoor air for occupants Provide space pressurization

3 HVAC System Components Air handling unit Air distribution Exhaust air equipment System controls Central energy equipment Boilers Chillers Distribution equipment

4 Air Handling Unit (AHU) Air intake Return air/outdoor air mixing box Filters Heating device Cooling device Fan Humidifier

5 Air Handling Unit

6 Air Handling Unit Con t. Filters Pressure drop depends on level of cleanliness desired Used to protect air tempering coils and maintain space cleanliness Replacement when dirty needed to avoid excessive pressure loss and assure cleanliness

7 Air Handling Unit Con t. Heating device Raises air temperature 20 F to 100 F Heating options Hot water, electric resistance or steam coil Gas fired heat exchanger Direct fired gas burner Heat recovery device

8 Heating Equipment Efficiency Direct fired gas 90% efficient Indirect fired gas 80% efficient

9 Air Handling Unit Con t. Cooling device Reduces air temperature 10 F to 20 F Cooling options Chilled water coil Refrigerant coil Evaporative cooler Heat recovery device

10 Air Handling Unit Con t. Fans Moves air through AHU and distribution system with minimum noise and pressure loss Options Centrifugal Axial Propeller

11 Air Handling Unit Con t. Humidifier Provides moisture for heating season humidity control Options Wetted pad Steam Ultrasonic

12 Types of AHU s Constant volume variable temperature Variable air flow or variable air volume (VAV) Multizone several flows of constant volume variable temperature Dual duct flow of warm air and a flow of cool air that mixes at each zone

13 Air Distribution Components Duct systems Dampers Thermostats and zone control devices VAV boxes Reheat coils Flow dampers Fan powered boxes Diffusers Insulation covering components

14 Types of Air Distribution Systems Mixing jets of air introduced into the room often at the ceiling that quickly mix with room air for desired temperature Displacement low velocity air introduced into room that tries to avoid mixing often low to allow warmer room air to rise for removal at ceiling

15 Air Mixing Uniform temperature Uses high velocity jets Good for dilution ventilation, bad for hood exhaust

16 Displacement Ventilation Warm air with airborne contaminants will rise Low air velocity in space with workers Cooler space temperatures

17 Exhaust Air Systems General exhaust where air is removed from space used in dilution ventilation Local exhaust for contaminant removal Hoods Close capture hood - Specially designed fixture for capture and removal of contaminant Canopy hood air removal device localed above contaminant Booths Enclosure that surrounds contaminant source that is at lower pressure than surrounding space

18 Close Capture Hood Exhaust Hood designed for application to capture & contain contaminant Can be single or multiple drops With proper air cleaning device can recirculate exhaust air.

19 Enclosures and Booths Airborne contaminants contained Apply exhaust for contaminant removal Air exhaust depends on openings Best protection for workers

20 Exhaust Air System Components Hood Type influences required air flow for contaminant control Duct system Air cleaning device Fan Stack

21 Exhaust Air System Components Con t. Duct System Flow determine by system dampers or pressure loss of components in system Flow needs to be fast enough to carry contaminants to air cleaning device Heavy particulate like wood chips need high velocity 3500 FPM velocity Gases have the most economical flow considering duct size and pressure loss

22 Exhaust Air System Components Con t. Air cleaning device Mechanical dry type - good for big particulate Filters - good for particulate but ineffective for gases Electrostatic precipitators - good for particulate but ineffective for gases Scrubbers - good for particulate and gases

23

24 Exhaust Air System Components Con t. Fans Centrifugal good for high pressure systems with airborne particulate Axial - good for high pressure systems with no airborne particulate Propeller - good for general exhaust systems Stack high enough to send discharged air from local building environment

25 System Controls The HVAC system performs in a dynamic world having varying conditions. It responds to these changing conditions by adjusting the operation of its components so that the desired environment is maintained. Conditions monitored and/or maintained include: Temperature Pressure Humidity CO2 Air velocity Energy Time

26 System Control Components Sensors Temperature Humidity Pressure Flow rate Lighting levels Electrical power Position switch Smoke Time Controllers Valves adjust hot water flow Dampers adjust outdoor air flow Electrical relay/switches start a fan

27 System Control Components Con t. Controllers Pneumatic Normally combined pneumatic element Typically proportional control Electric/Electronic On/off or proportional control Digital Uses microprocessors to execute software programs More precise and accurate control Can include time integration, demand setback, data collection, diagnostics and trouble shooting Type Energy Source Pneumatic Electric

28 Control Actions Two position Modulating Proportional control device positioned proportionally in response to change in controlled variable Proportional plus Integral (PI) Improves proportional control by reducing over-shooting the adjustment to the response Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Improves PI control by adding anticipation action to the controller Adaptive

29 System Controls - Levels Local System Combines all elements of system for optimum results Building Combines several systems into one operation Site Optimizes all building systems for most economical performance considering energy cost Diagnostic function useful in early trouble shooting by DPW personnel Can collect energy use information

30 Central Energy Equipment Heating Boilers Heat exchangers Cooling Chillers Refrigeration equipment Distribution Water Steam Refrigerant

31 Central Heating Equipment Boilers Output Hot water Steam Fuel Natural gas Oil Solid fuel Burner type On/off High/low/off Modulating

32 Central Cooling Equipment Chiller Compressor type Reciprocating Screw Centrifugal Absorption Hot water/steam Gas fired Condenser Cooling tower water Air cooled

33 Distribution System Water hot & chilled Steam Valves - balancing Constant flow three way control valves Variable flow two way control valves Pressure reducing valves Traps Condensate receivers/pumps Refrigerant Gas - to condenser & from evaporator coils Liquid condenser to evaporator coils

34 Other Cooling Systems Evaporative cooling Good for dry climates Evaporating water into air lowers air temperature Radiant cooling In ceiling

35 Other Heating Systems Unit heaters Poor efficiency Radiators Fin Tube Convectors Radiant heaters At ceiling In floor

36 System Size Considerations Heating and cooling loads Desired space conditions Climate Building Shell performance Building processes and operating equipment

37 Heating and Cooling Loads Heat added or removed by AHU Heat gains due to solar radiation Heat gains/losses due to infiltration H e a t L e a v i n g w i t h L o c a l E x h a u s t H e a t L e a v i n g w i t h P r o c e s s E x h a u s t Heat leaving with Exfiltration Heat exhchange with outdoor air Heat gain /loss with cascading air in/out of adjacent space Heat sink Internal Heat source Internal Heat source Internal Heat source Heat exchange with a ground

38 HVAC Energy Waste & Inefficiency

39 AHU Waste & Inefficiency Air intake location poor bring in contaminants Return air/outdoor air mixing box Excess outdoor air No economizer cycle Filters Excessive pressure drop Too dirty Heating device High flows Dirty heat exchange surfaces dirty Water too hot

40 AHU Waste & Inefficiency Con t. Cooling device High flows Dirty heat exchange surfaces dirty Chilled water too cold Fan Poorly selected fan Operating when not required Humidifier Operating when not required Cabinet - poorly insulated Leaking control valves

41 Air Distribution Waste & Inefficiency Duct systems Excessive air velocity Leaks Dampers Thermostats and zone control devices VAV boxes Reheat coils Flow dampers Fan powered boxes Diffusers Insulation covering components Excess air velocity

42 Exhaust Air Equipment Waste & Inefficiency Poor contaminant capture Excessive air flows Operating equipment when not required Failure to recover heat from hot exhausts Poor duct design Excessive damper use

43 System Controls Waste & Inefficiency Lack of calibration and good maintenance Failure to turn off when not needed Failure to react to occupancy changes Temperature reset Ventilation air adjustment Lack of economizer/enthalpy control No central EMCS System-wide optimization Diagnostic and performance evaluations

44 Central Energy Equipment Waste & Inefficiency Failure to reset temperatures when possible Lack of water treatment leading to fouling of heat transfer surfaces Failure to recover energy from waste streams Not using high performance controls Use of oversized equipment

45 Heat Recovery Using waste heat to reduce energy use in some system There must be a heat source to recover There must be a simultaneous heat use It must be cost effective

46 Heat Recovery Systems From Air Sensible heat exchangers Run-around system Plate Heat wheel Latent heat exchanger Heat wheel Absorbing solution From Fluids Heat exchangers Shell & tube Plate Heat pumps Raise temperature to 180 F Double bundle condensers can provide 140 F water

47 Run-Around Coils No cross contamination Can recover energy from multiple sources Low efficiency Suited for dirty air applications Air streams can be removed from each other

48 Plate Heat Exchanger No cross contamination No moving parts Low maintenance Exhaust and supply airstreams must be adjacent and parallel to each other Preheat coil needed to prevent of exhaust condensate

49 Thermal Wheels High efficiency Low first and operating cost Cross contamination possible High maintenance cost Exhaust and supply air streams must be adjacent and parrell to each other Preheat coil required to prevent freezing of exhaust condensate

50

51 Common HVAC System ECM s Following will be several slides of ECM s found during site surveys

52

53 Thank you Questions?

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