Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery for Commercial Applications

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1 Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery for Commercial Applications A CPD course by AIRFLOW DEVELOPMENTS LTD Presented by Steven Mulholland Specification Manager

2 Airflow Developments Ltd Innovators and producers of Air Movement Solutions since 1955 From a domestic toilet extract fan to a Mechanical Ventilation System with Heat Recovery for residential and commercial buildings

3 Commercial Ventilation HVAC Fans and Blowers Heat Recovery Ventilation Flue Dilution Fans Hot Gas Fans OEM Specific Products Residential Ventilation Intermittent Extractor Fans Whole House Extraction Decentralised Mechanical Extraction Heat Recovery Ventilation Ducting Solutions

4 Course Content Why do we need ventilation? Why is ventilation with MVHR an ideal solution? How does MVHR work? Key drivers for MVHR Legislation Types of Heat Exchangers Energy saving via different MVHR technologies Typical MVHR applications

5 Why Do We Need Ventilation? Ventilation is required for one or more of the following purposes: Provision of Fresh Air Dilution of Airborne Pollutants Controlling Excess Humidity Provide Air for Fuel Burning Appliances

6 Why is Ventilation with MVHR an ideal solution?

7 Why Ventilation with MVHR is an ideal solution? Energy efficient buildings need ventilation in order to: Avoid humidity damages Guarantee healthy indoor climate Ensure minimum air exchange Window ventilation alone is not practical Extract systems are less comfortable and efficient Efficient ventilation means ventilation with heat recovery

8 How does MVHR work?

9 How Does MVHR Work? Filtered and Warmed To Outside Warm, Moist, Stale, Odours From Outside

10 MVHR: Key Components 100% SUMMER BYPASS Provides a flow of cool, fresh and filtered air into the property DIGITAL CONTROL BOX internet and BMS connections SAFETY SWITCH Shut off power in case of emergency SMOOTH INTERNAL CASING WITH 30mm insulation, avoids thermal bridging, absorbs noise and meets sanitary standards CONDENSATE DRAIN For ceiling suspended unit TEMPERATURE SENSOR For automatic operation of summer by-pass and frost protection facilities LOW ENERGY EC FANS Ensures long term savings and operation costs M5/ F7 HIGH GRADE FILTERS Provide hygienic indoor climate and protect heat exchangers from particulates. PRESSURE SENSORS For filter monitoring CROSS-COUNTER FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER Exceeds 90% thermal efficiency, reducing heating bills significantly and guarantee quick return on investment. CONDENSATE DRAIN For floor mounted unit LOCKABLE ACCESS DOORS Simplify and accelerate the maintenance process

11 Key drivers for MVHR

12 Key Drivers For MVHR Save Energy and Reduce Costs Need to Improve Indoor Air Quality Need to Protect Environment Need to Meet Regulations and Guidelines

13 Key Drivers For MVHR Relevant Regulations and Guidelines: European Energy Related Products Directive Lot 6 Lot 11 Building Regulations Part F Ventilation Part L Conservation of Fuel and Power Non-Domestic Building Services Compliance Guide Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in Schools Building Bulletin 93 Environmental Assessments BREEAM EPBD

14 Legislation Energy Distribution in Commercial Buildings 23% 24% Heating Cooling 6% Auxiliary E. Hot Water 32% 8% 7% Lighting Equipment

15 Legislation Passive House Requirements A Passive House Institute certified MVHR unit must include: High thermal efficiency; ηhr,eff > 75% Low power consumption; SFP < 1.62 W/l/s (0.45 W/m 3 /h) High grade filters; minimum G4 extract air / F7 supply air Frost protection; pre-heater assisted Air tightness and insulation; air leakage less 3% Balancing ; adjustable extract and supply air volumes

16 Types of Heat Exchangers

17 Types of Heat Exchangers Cross-flow Rotary-Wheel Counter-Cross-flow 50% - 65% Thermal Efficiency 65% - 80% Thermal Efficiency 80% - 95% Thermal Efficiency Owing to the extended heat exchange surface, the effectiveness is increased (as is the air side pressure drop) dependent on the type. Supply air temp. (after heat recovery) Outside air temp. Thermal efficiency (%) = Extract air temp. (before heat recovery) Outside air temp.

18 Types of Heat Exchangers Cross-Flow Within a cross-flow heat exchanger, heat is transferred directly from the extracted air to the fresh air through the separating fins of the heat exchanger. Both sensible and latent heat may be transferred. Latent heat when moisture in the extract air condensates on the heat exchanger. Moisture is not transferred. Benefits: Simple construction low price No cross contamination between extract and supply air Reduction in casing size and weight Restrictions: Low thermal efficiency

19 Types of Heat Exchangers Rotary With a rotating heat exchanger (thermal wheel), the extracted air heats part of the exchanger as the wheel passes through the extract air side. The thermal energy is then transferred to the fresh air as the wheel rotates through the fresh air. Note: This system is open and there is a risk impurities and odours will be transferred between the airflows. This can be avoided to some extent using correctly designed systems with more precise pressure conditions. Both sensible and latent heat may be transferred using hygroscopic wheels. Benefits: High thermal efficiency Low pressure drop Restrictions: Risk of cross-contamination Additional components (motors, belt) less reliable as a result

20 Types of Heat Exchangers Counter Cross-Flow In a counter-cross flow heat exchanger heat is transferred directly from the extracted air to the fresh air through the separating fins of the heat exchanger. The extract and supply air are not in contact with each other which results in low leakage. Both sensible and latent heat may be transferred. Like the cross-flow, latent heat as moisture in the extract air condensates on the heat exchanger. But due to increased heat transfer area, this type of heat exchangers achieve highest thermal efficiency. Benefits: Highest thermal efficiency No cross-contamination Restrictions: Increases casing size Slight increase in pressure drop

21 Energy saving via different MVHR technologies

22 Energy Saving via Heat Recovery Source: The CIBSE Journal CPD Programme, February 2013

23 What is EC Fan Technology? EC stands for Electronically Commutated and it combines AC and DC voltages, bringing the best of both technologies where the motor runs on a DC voltage, but with a normal AC supply. Mainly DC motors have low power consumption. If it is used in an AC application, the power needed converting AC to DC, using a bulky, inefficient transformer. The EC technology incorporates this voltage transformation already within the motor. The nonrotating part of the motor (stator) is extended to make room for an electronic PCB board which includes power transformation AC to DC, as well as the controls.

24 EC vs. AC Fans Energy savings: Minimum power consumption & better efficiency than AC equivalent. Control: 100% speed controllable, not frequency dependant. Can be set-up for constant airflow or constant pressure applications, 0-10VDC or PWM control signal. Low motor temperature: Longer lifespan than AC equivalent Simplicity: Electronic & power transformation are completely integrated within the motor. Easy connection: No complicated wiring and set-up with a frequency converter, EC fans have very little configuration.

25 The Need For Efficient Control Good control of the HVAC system is an absolute prerequisite for an energy efficient building. Without controls that are correctly set-up and used, a building can never achieve its efficiency potential. Delivering to much ventilation air to a building is wasteful of energy and increases the running costs. On the other hand the impact of inadequate ventilation is a serious issue, particularly for schools and offices as insufficient ventilation can have a detrimental effect on the concentration and productivity of pupils or employees.

26 Demand Control Ventilation The optimum quantity of fresh air is supplied and excessive energy consumption is avoided. Sensors control dampers that are used to continuously measure ambient conditions, which adjust the fan speed according to the occupancy / specific use of the building.

27 Building Management System A Building Management System (BMS) is a computer-based control system installed in buildings that controls and monitors the building s mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, fire and security systems etc. According to Carbon Trust, a BMS can reduce total energy costs by 10% and increase comfort if used correctly. By connecting more than one ventilation units to the BMS the user can control and monitor all the units from one location and can receive notification from units if they do incorporate fault indicator facility.

28 Internet Connection

29 Internet Connection User Interface Remote control / adjustment Real time monitoring Service Interface Remote diagnostic Reduced down-time Lower carbon footprint due to fewer service visits

30 Typical Applications

31 Application 1 Classrooms CO 2 sensors to control the air volume based on the occupancy and keep the CO 2 levels within prescribed limits. School classrooms and lecture theatres are only occupied during lesson time by a variable number of students. Building Bulletin 101 The CO 2 levels should not exceed 1500ppm. Building Bulletin 93 Low noise levels should be maintained. Supply and extract air to be kept separate as daily activities cooking etc. may create odours. Therefore a MVHR with plate heat exchanger would be suitable.

32 Application 2 Restaurants PIR (passive infra red) sensors boost the fan speed when movement in the restaurant washroom is detected. For premises such as restaurants where it is known in advance at what times the premises are used by approximately how many people, ventilation control with weekly time schedule is an excellent alternative, The weekly schedule is set to let the fans run at high speed when many people are present in the premises and low speed when few or no people are present. Additionally, a PIR sensor can be used for demand control when the sensor detects movement in the toilets.

33 Application 3 Fitness Centres Humidity sensors boost the fan speed when the preset humidity level is exceeded in the shower/changing rooms. In certain applications such as shower/ changing rooms it must be guaranteed that the humidity does not reach too high levels. The heat recovery unit runs on high speed when needed to reduce the humidity and can run on a lower speed when the humidity is lower, thereby saving energy. Alternatively, a PIR sensor can be used for demand control when the sensor detects movement in the changing rooms.

34 Application 4 Office / Meeting Room CO 2 sensors to control the air volume based on the occupancy and keep the CO 2 levels within prescribed limits. Offices and meeting rooms are open plan areas which accommodate a variable number of people during the day. Recirculation air in combination with CO 2 control and heat recovery can be one optimised solution for these types of premises. When there are few people present, CO 2 levels will be low and an increased amount of return air can be mixed into the system. As the number of people increases, the amount of return air is reduced and replaced with fresh outdoor air in order to meet required airflow rates.

35 Temperature sensor control help achieve considerable savings where excess heat is available from various processes.

36 Thank you for your attention Any questions? Visit us at airflow.com

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