Lab 09 SGOs: Muscle Gross Anatomy (20 points)

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1 Pierce College Putman/Biol 241 Name: Lab 09 SGOs: Muscle Gross Anatomy (20 points) Lab Report 8: Marieb & Mitchell 9 th Ed: Exercise 15 (Activities 1-4) + Review Sheet; 10 th Ed: Exercise 13 (Activities 1-4) + Review Sheet. Pierce College Student Outcome: Lab Outcome 6: Draw and label the characteristic features of three types of muscle tissues: skeletal, cardiac and smooth. Include the connective tissue wrappings associated with muscle tissue organization. (in part) Lab Outcome 10: Identify and describe functions of major muscles by both individual definition and by functional group. By completing and understanding this lab, you should be able to do the following: 1. Define the terms synergists and antagonists, and state whether a given muscle is a synergist or antagonist, if appropriate, to another given muscle. 2. On models, diagrams, cadaver preparations or photographs of human muscles, identify the following muscles and structures (starred * structures are connective tissues you need to know) AND give the indicated principal actions: Muscles of the Head Muscles and Connective Tissues of Facial Expression: Frontalis (epicranius, frontal belly): raises eyebrows. Galea aponeurotica*: connects occipitalis and frontalis muscles. Occipitalis (epicranius, occipital belly): pulls scalp posteriorly. Orbicularis oculi: closes eye. Orbicularis oris: compresses & purses lips. Nasalis: compresses nostrils. Levator labii superioris: elevates superior section of mouth. Zygomaticus minor: elevates corners of the mouth. Zygomaticus major: elevates corners of the mouth. Risorius: draws corners of the mouth out laterally. Depressor anguli oris: draws corners of mouth down and laterally Depressor labii inferioris: depresses inferior section of mouth. Mentalis: protrudes lower lip; pouting. Buccinator: compresses cheek. Platysma: depresses lower lip; depresses mandible. Muscles of Mastication: Masseter: elevates mandible. Temporalis: elevates mandible. Platysma: depresses mandible. Digastric: depresses mandible. Putman/Pierce College Biol 241 Lab 09 SGOs/ /Page 1

2 Muscles and Connective Tissues of the Neck: Superficial Sternocleidomastoid: lateral flexion of neck. Scalenus complex (Scalenes): flexes neck; elevates ribs 1 & 2. Splenius capitus: extends neck Ligamentum nuchae*: stabilizes head Muscles of the Neck: Deep Digastric: depresses mandible, elevates hyoid Mylohyoid: elevates hyoid & base of tongue during swallowing. Stylohyoid: elevates/retracts hyoid Sternohyoid: depresses hyoid & larynx Omohyoid: depresses hyoid & larynx Sternothyroid: depresses hyoid & larynx Thyrohyoid: depresses hyoid & elevates larynx Muscles of the Shoulder Deltoid: abducts humerus Pectoralis major: flexes, adducts & medially rotates humerus Supraspinatus: abducts humerus Infraspinatus: laterally rotates humerus Teres minor: adducts & laterally rotates humerus Teres major: adducts & medially rotates humerus Latissimus dorsi: extends, adducts & medially rotates humerus Coracobrachialis: flexes & adducts humerus Muscles and Connective Tissues of the Spine and Trunk Erector spinae spinalis: spine extension Erector spinae longissimus: spine extension & lateral flexion; extends & turns head Erector spinae iliocostalis: spine extension & lateral flexion Quadratus lumborum: spine extension & lateral flexion Semispinalis group: spine & head extension & rotation Multifides: spine extension & lateral flexion External obliques: spine flexion, lateral flexion & rotation; compresses abdomen Internal obliques: spine flexion, lateral flexion & rotation; compresses abdomen Inguinal ligament*: abdominal muscle attachment Transversus abdominus: compresses abdomen Rectus abdominus: trunk flexion Linea alba*: abdominal muscle attachment Muscles of Respiration External intercostals: elevate ribs Putman/Pierce College Biol 241 Lab 09 SGOs/ /Page 2

3 Internal intercostals: depress ribs Diaphragm: increases and decreases thoracic volume Muscles that Move the Scapula Pectoralis minor: protracts scapula Serratius anterior: protracts scapula Trapezius superior portion: elevates scapula Trapezius medial portion: retracts scapula Trapezius inferior portion: depresses scapula Levator scapulae: elevates scapula Rhomboideus minor: retracts scapula Rhomboideus major: retracts scapula Muscles of the Arm Biceps brachii: flexes arm at shoulder & elbow Brachialis: flexes arm at elbow Brachioradialis: flexes arm at elbow Triceps brachii: extends arm at shoulder & elbow Anconeus: extends forearm. Pronator teres: pronates forearm at radioulnar joints Supinator: supinates forearm at radioulnar joints Muscles and Connective Tissues of the Forearm & Wrist (Brachioradialis: flexes arm at elbow) Flexor carpi radialis: flexes hand Palmaris longus: flexes hand Flexor carpi ulnaris: flexes hand Extensor carpi ulnaris: extends hand Extensor digiti minimi: extends hand & digit 5 Extensor digitorum: extends hand & digits 2-5 Extensor carpi radialis brevis: extends hand Extensor carpi radialis longus: extends hand Carpal tunnel*: pathway for hand tendons Flexor digitorum superficialis: flexes hand & digits Flexor pollicis longus: flexes digit 1 Connective Tissues of the Hand Flexor retinaculum*: attachment & stabilization for hand muscles) Extensor retinaculum*: attachment & stabilization for hand muscles Putman/Pierce College Biol 241 Lab 09 SGOs/ /Page 3

4 Muscles and Connective Tissues of the Hip and Upper Leg Gluteus maximus: extends femur Gluteus medius: abducts femur Gluteus minimus: abducts femur Piriformis: rotates femur laterally Superior gemellus: rotates femur laterally Obturator internus: rotates femur laterally Inferior gemellus: rotates femur laterally Quadratus femoris: rotates femur laterally Sartorius: flexes leg and laterally rotates femur Iliopsoas (iliacus + psoas major): flexes femur Pectineus: adducts, flexes & rotates femur Adductor longus: adducts, flexes & rotates femur Adductor magnus: adducts, flexes & rotates femur Gracilis: adducts, flexes & rotates femur Semitendinosus: flexes knee & extends femur [a hamstring muscle] Semimembranosus: flexes knee & extends femur [a hamstring muscle] Biceps Femoris: flexes knee & extends femur [a hamstring muscle] Tractus iliotibialis*: insertion for gluteus maximus & tensor fascia lata Tensor fasciae latae: abducts & flexes femur Quadriceps Femoris Muscles and Structures Vastus lateralis: extends knee Rectus femoris: extends knee Vastus medialis: extends knee Vastus intermedias: extends knee Tendon of quadriceps femoris*: connects quadriceps to patella & patellar ligament Patellar ligament*: connects tendon of quadriceps femoris & patella to tibial tuberosity Muscles and Connective Tissues of the Lower Leg and Foot Triceps Surae Muscles and Structures Gastrocnemius: plantar flexes foot Soleus: plantar flexes foot Achilles (calcaneal) tendon*: connects soleus & gastrocnemius to calcaneous Tibialis anterior: dorsiflexes foot Extensor digitorum longus: dorsiflexes foot & digits 2-5 Extensor hallucis longus: dorsiflexes foot & big toe Peroneus (fibularis) longus: plantar flexes & everts foot Peroneus (fibularis) brevis: plantar flexes & everts foot Plantaris: plantar flexes foot Putman/Pierce College Biol 241 Lab 09 SGOs/ /Page 4

5 Flexor hallucis longus: plantar flexes foot & flexes big toe Flexor digitorum longus: plantar flexes foot & flexes digits 2-5 Tibialis posterior: plantar flexes & inverts foot. Superior & inferior extensor retinacula*: muscle/ligament attachments; stabilizes foot Tutorials & Practice Tests: - Go to Lab Study, Practice Anatomy Lab (PAL). Go to Anatomical Models, Muscular System and locate and learn the muscles you need to know! Next, go to Human Cadaver, Muscular System and locate and learn the muscles you need to know! Putman/Pierce College Biol 241 Lab 09 SGOs/ /Page 5

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