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1 Westminster Institute of Education How to reference Harvard referencing for Westminster Institute students Kate Williams Jane Spiro Nick Swarbrick

2 How to reference Introduction Students often say that lecturers give conflicting advice on how to reference assignments, and have asked for clearer and more consistent guidelines. This guide explains how to use the Harvard (author/date) referencing style. This style is used by most courses and programmes in WIE, but not all. Check the style used on each module from your Module Handbook, or Module Leader. While individual lecturers may have their preferences for how Harvard references should be laid out (in the use of underlining and italics for example), the guidelines in this booklet are acceptable to all lecturers in the School on modules that use the Harvard style. Why reference? When you write academic assignments, you are expected to acknowledge all the sources you have referred to, so your reader knows where the information you are using has come from. It is therefore important that any statements you make in your work are supported by references to the materials you have read. Good referencing is important because it shows the sources you have used in your work enables other people to find the sources you have used supports facts and claims you have made in your work avoids the accusation of plagiarism. Does it matter what referencing system I use? There are various referencing styles, and all are correct. However most Schools and programmes within Oxford Brookes University, including most at Westminster Institute of Education, use the Harvard (Author-date) system, and this is the system explained in this guide. Edition 1 September Westminster Institute of Education Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

3 Contents How this guide works 1 How to use sources in your writing Acknowledgement Paraphrase Summary Quotation How to place references in your text Citing secondary sources Page 4 This section looks closely at the different ways you can refer to what you read in your writing. 2 How to present your reference list References or bibliography? How to reference a journal article How to reference a book How to reference an internet source 3 Essential sources and examples Journal article references Book references A chapter in a book The same author has several publications Page 10 This section shows you how to write the references for your reference list at the end of your assignment. You can see exactly how to write references for a journal article, a book, and an internet source. Page 14 Here are models for referencing some of the essential sources you may use in your work. 4 Other sources you might want to use Page 16 Here are models for referencing some of the less frequently used sources you may want to use in your work, such as lecture notes and films. 5 Avoiding plagiarism Page 17 If you follow our guidelines, you will not plagiarise by accident and will be well on the way to developing a good academic style. This section highlights pitfalls to avoid. 6 Frequently asked questions Page 18 Here you can find answers to questions students often ask. If you have a question which this handbook does not answer, ask your module leader or programme leader. Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford 3

4 How to reference 1 How to use sources in your writing This section outlines good practice in how to use your sources in writing. It explains and gives examples of Acknowledgement Paraphrase Summary Quotation It shows when it is useful to use each of these citation styles how to use each citation style clearly and accurately Acknowledgement You may find that an author has provided you with an overarching idea or structure for your assignment. You do not want to quote or summarise their work, but are actually using their ideas to structure or inform your own. OR Example 1 Using an author to structure your ideas My assignment is divided into the following sections, which were suggested by the work of Jotangia et al (2006) Section One covers social factors such as level of income and whether or not their parents are obese Section Two covers demographic factors such as where a child lives Section Three covers behavioural factors such as how much fruit and vegetables the child eats and how much physical activity he does. (Jotangia et al 2006: 5). Example 2 Acknowledging a cluster of authors who informed you Wellbeing is increasingly visible as a part of the curriculum with explicit learning goals and objectives. (Baylis and Morris 2007, OfSTED 2005, ESRC 2005, Bieke et al 2005). A critique of wellbeing has only recently emerged in response to this visibility, addressing the concern that teaching goals are becoming therapeutic goals. (Furedi 2003, Ecclestone 2007). Your overall understanding of a subject has been influenced by a number of authors, who all share discussion of a common theme. To support a general statement that is informed by your reading, you want to acknowledge the writers you have read without actually quoting them. 4 Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

5 Paraphrase A paraphrase explains a specific section, chapter or paragraph from a source, and makes it shorter. For example, an author explains the conclusions of research in a paragraph that is too long to quote. You wish to capture the essence of this explanation in a few lines. Murray (2006) explains that teenage girls who have a negative self-image are less likely to become involved in sports activities. She hypothesises that this self-image becomes self-perpetuating, because 76% of the girls in the survey cited fitness and physical activity as indicators of positive self-image and health. She concludes that educators need to be aware of exercise not only from a behaviourist point of view: do this and you will feel better - but also from an analytical point of view: what are the blocks to doing this? (Murray 2006: 87). It is useful to use a paraphrase when you wish to capture the detail of a specific section of your source the author explains something in more detail and at greater length than you really need the key information contributes to your overall discussion. A good paraphrase is in your own words correctly captures the key information in the source, without oversimplifying or misrepresenting is clearly referenced to the source and the specific pages has not been used simply to display what you know. Summary A summary offers a broader overview of a whole argument, a whole book, chapter or research paper. For example, you now wish to briefly summarise the whole shape of Murray s research in order to illustrate the kind of research being conducted in the field. Murray (2006) surveyed 1000 teenage girls in secondary education in Oxfordshire and Bedfordshire, to determine the link between exercise and self-image. She found that girls who did not participate in any kind of sport had a lower self-image, even though they cited physical fitness as one of their aspirations. Murray concludes with specific recommendations for the educator that consider exercise both for its physical and its psychological benefits. It is useful to use a summary when the argument as a whole contributes to your discussion. For example, a summary may include several elements and pieces of information which you might want to refer back to later you are less interested in the detail and more interested in the whole shape of the article you are able to summarise its essence briefly. How to reference A good summary captures the essential information accurately is clearly referenced to the source uses your own words throughout. Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford 5

6 How to reference Quotation Quotation can be a powerful addition to your writing but should be used sparingly. A quotation implies that you have reproduced word-for-word a short extract a few words, or a few lines from a source which explains or draws attention to your point in a way not achieved by paraphrasing. A good use of quotation will connect coherently with your general argument and discussion provide emphasis, example, or clarification of what you are saying blend into the sentence structure so the quotation reads smoothly as a part of the paragraph be an appropriate length to convey your meaning and purpose. This could mean just a short phrase to convey an author s language; or a longer quotation where you have a significant comment to make about the source be used sparingly - not as an alternative to explaining a point in your own words and your own language. Always give the page reference in your text for each quotation (author/ year/ page) so your reader can find it easily. See the examples below. Short quotations Example 1 The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology report makes clear that the rise in child obesity is too rapid to be attributed to genetic factors, and must be caused by other factors, such as eating habits or lack of exercise. (Parliamentary Office 2003: 2). The quotation has been chosen because it derives from a key source it conveys a key point which you are going to develop later in your paper it does so briefly and succinctly you have embedded the quotation within your own sentence, so it reads fluently and smoothly. The short quotation is punctuated and referenced as follows the author s words are in quotation marks the full reference is provided in the reference list. 6 Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

7 Long quotations Long quotations are useful when the words are important and you need the authority of the original text. They are also useful where it would be difficult to summarise the information without actually using the same words as the author. Example 2 Ofsted (2005) stressed the importance of leadership in schools in taking action: The schools that contributed most effectively to pupils health and well-being had leadership teams which recognised the link between physical well-being and the readiness to learn and achieve. The most successful ones were those where theory was reflected in practice. (Ofsted 2005: 1) The point about theory and practice is also... Quotations used in this way should be no longer than about 5 lines. The long quotation is useful when the points are important and a key aspect of your discussion you have not included too many quotations of this length so that your discussion is not a patchwork of different sources the quotation is clearly there for a purpose and is part of your evolving argument. The long quotation is punctuated and referenced as follows it has been separated our from the main text, indented and with a narrower line spacing, in order to make it stand out from your own writing it does not need to have quotation marks where words or phrases are missed out, this is represented with 3 dots words that need to be changed or added to make it read grammatically, are placed in square [ ] brackets the quotation is followed by author, date and page reference the full reference is provided in the reference list. How to reference Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford 7

8 How to reference How to place references within your text In our extracts in Section 1, we have included sources written by one author (Parliamentary Office 2003) two authors (Baylis and Morris 2007) three or more authors (Jotangia et al 2006). You don t need to list all the authors every time you refer to their work. Where there are three or more authors you can put et al (Latin for and others ) in your text. But ALL the authors should be listed in full in your list of references at the end. Where do I put the reference within my text? Exactly where each reference (or citation ) goes in your text depends on the emphasis you want to give your writing, as the following examples demonstrate. Example 1 Focus on the ideas Here we focus on the ideas and research findings, adding the author and date so you can follow up from the reference list and find out more if you want to. The well-being of children is the responsibility of all professionals working with children (Every Child Matters 2007), although an emphasis on well-being runs the risk of turning teaching into therapy (Ecclestone 2007). Example 2 Focus on the source Here we give you (the reader) a quick overview of the key point from each source. The author s name occurs naturally in the sentence, and we add the year so you can pinpoint the source from the reference list. Every Child Matters (2007) emphasises well-being as the responsibility of all professionals working with children, although Ecclestone (2007) argues that well-being as a concept runs the risk of turning teaching into therapy. You will find both styles in your reading, and you can use both in your writing. 8 Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

9 Citing secondary sources When you are set an assignment, your tutors want you to read widely, looking at a variety of different books, articles and materials so you gain depth, detailed knowledge and an awareness of the different perspectives within the discipline. A textbook with all the sources in is a good place to start to give you an overview, but then you need to go and find the actual texts, and read them in their original form (primary sources) because this enables you to consider their original context. This is why tutors do not encourage the use of secondary sources. However, when the original is not easy to locate (because it is out of print, or the library doesn t have it, for example) and you decide to refer to the book in a book, you should cite it like this Example: Using a secondary source in your text Deutsch (1973) cited in Morrow and Malin (2004: 165) describes power as a relational concept. Deutsch (1973) is an old source (and the book was published in Australia!), but his ideas are still relevant to the discussion of power today. You found the quotation by Deutsch in a more recent article by Morrow and Malin, so this is the article you reference. However, before doing so, it is important to make sure that Morrow and Malin are not distorting or misrepresenting the quotation you are not in a position to check it out! You don t have to quote of course you can paraphrase or summarise. In your reference list You list the source in which YOU found it. Morrow G and Malin N (2004) Parents and professionals working together: turning the rhetoric into reality. Early Years. 24 (2), How to reference Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford 9

10 How to reference 2 How to present your reference list General principles The list of references at the end of your work gives your reader the full details of all the sources you have referred to in your work, so your reader can go and find them. So ensure that every source listed in your reference list can be found in the form of (author/date) in your text and every reference in your text (author/date) is listed in full in your reference list. Markers may cross check your references, so it is worth checking that you have stuck to these two simple rules before you hand your work in! List them in alphabetical order by the first author s surname, or the name of the organisation. References or bibliography? What s the difference? The reference list is a list of all the sources you have referred to in your writing. This is what most tutors require. A bibliography is a list of everything you have read on the subject, including background reading whether you refer to it in your work or not. You may occasionally be asked for a bibliography. If you are, divide it into two sections 1 References (for sources you cite in your text) 2 Other sources consulted (for materials you have read but chose not to cite) Tutors sometimes use the term Bibliography to mean Reading list or Suggested reading. Here is the reference list for the sources we have referred to in the guide so far. References Baylis N and Morris I (2006) The skills of well-being. Tonbridge Wells: Wellington College. Bieke F, Landeghem G, Jan D and Onghena P (2005) An analysis of wellbeing in secondary school with multilevel growth curve models and multilevel multivariate models. Quality and Quantity. 29 (3), DCSF (2007) Every child matters: healthy schools. Available at [Accessed 6th May 2008] Ecclestone K (2007) Resisting images of the diminished self: the implications of emotional well-being and emotional engagement in educational policy. Journal of Education Policy 22 (4), Furedi F (2003) Therapy culture: creating vulnerability in an uncertain age. London: Routledge. Jotangia D, Moody A, Stamakis E and Wardie H (2006) Obesity among children under 11. London: Joint Health Surveys Unit for the Department of Health. Morrow G and Malin N (2004) Parents and professionals working together: turning the rhetoric into reality. Early Years 24 (2), OfSTED (2005) Healthy minds: promoting emotional health and wellbeing in schools. Available at [Accessed January 12th 2007]. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003) Childhood obesity. Postnote. Sep 2003 No 205, 1-4. Available at [Accessed Jan 24th 2008]. 10 Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

11 How to reference a journal article The six points of a journal reference 1 The author(s) in the order they are given in the article. Family name (surname) first, followed by their initial(s) 2 The year the article was published (in brackets) 3 The full title of the article 4 The title of the journal in italics 5 The volume and issue number (where given) 6 The pages of the article Title of journal Page numbers Volume and issue number Title of article Reference for this article The reference for this article (as listed in our references section) looks like this. 1 Author Ecclestone K (2007) Resisting images of the diminished self : the implications of emotional well-being and emotional engagement in educational policy. Journal of Educational Policy. 22 (4), Url or not? Where did you actually find it? If you found it on the shelf, then put the reference as above. If you found it online add the online details. Note online location and date accessed Ecclestone K (2007) Resisting images of the diminished self : the implications of emotional well-being and emotional engagement in educational policy. Journal of Educational Policy. 22 (4), Available at [Accessed 21 July 2008] 2 Year of publication See sections 4 and 5 for more examples of references for journal articles. Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford 11

12 How to reference a book The six points of a book reference Title of book Edition No edition is given here. It is the first edition. Author(s) or editor(s) of book Publisher The name(s) of the author(s) / editors(s) in the order they are given on the title page: family name (surname) first, followed by their initial(s). 2 The year the book was published: if more than one edition has been published, give the date of the edition you are using. 3 The title of the book in italics. 4 The edition of the book in brackets (if shown). 5 The city in which the book was published, followed by a colon. 6 The name of the publisher. Reference for this book The reference for this book (as listed in our references section) looks like this. City/ town of publication 5 Weinberger J, Pickstone C and Hannon P (eds) (2005) Learning from Sure Start: working with young children and their families. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Year of publication 2 Note: This book is a first edition, so the edition number is not shown. See sections 4 and 5 for more examples of references of books, including a chapter from a book. 12 Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

13 How to reference an internet source 4 URL, the internet address of the webpage 3 Title of webpage 2 Date webpage was written or updated 1 Author or organisation 5 Your access date (you can find the date at the bottom of the page when you print it) The five points of an internet reference 1 The author(s) of the website (organisation or person). 2 The year the website was written or updated, if known. 3 The full title of the webpage or website. 4 The full internet address of the web page or website. 5 The date on which you accessed the webpage or website. Reference for this web source The reference for this web source (as listed in our references section) looks like this. DCSF (2007) Every child matters: healthy schools. Available at healthyschools/ [Accessed 6th May 2008] See sections 4 and 5 for more examples of references Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford 13

14 How to reference 3 Essential sources and examples This section gives examples of references from the most frequently used sources. Use them as models. Journal article references One author Ecclestone K (2007) Learning or therapy? The demoralisation of education. British Journal of Educational Studies. 52 (2), Two authors Morrow G and Malin N (2004) Parents and professionals working together: turning the rhetoric into reality. Early Years. 24 (2), Three or more authors Bieke F, Landeghem G, Jan D and Onghena P (2005) An analysis of wellbeing in secondary school with multilevel growth curve models and multilevel multivariate models. Quality and Quantity. 29 (3), Book references One author Brink-Budgen R van den (1999) Critical thinking for students (2nd edition). Oxford: How to books. Two authors Gard M and Wright J (2005) The obesity epidemic: science, morality and ideology. Abingdon: Routledge. Three or more authors Weinberger J, Pickstone C and Hannon P (2005) Learning from Sure Start: working with young children and their families. Maidenhead: Open University Press. A chapter in an edited book Here you need to give the details of both the chapter (as for an article) and the book from which it is taken, including the page numbers. Marsh J (2005) Media, popular culture and young children. In Weinberger J, Pickstone C and Hannon P (eds) Learning from Sure Start: working with young children and their families. Maidenhead: Open University Press, Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

15 When the same author has several publications in the same year When you want to refer to several articles by the same author, all published in the same year, you need to be able to show your reader which is which. You may need to do this, for example, when referring to an author who writes regularly in a newspaper or professional journal, or in official government documents. To distinguish between the documents in your written text, add a lower-case letter (a, b, c, d etc) after the year inside the brackets. Example In your text you might write Ecclestone (2007b) has recently argued that despite (and elsewhere in your essay you discuss two other articles by Ecclestone, all published in 2007) In your reference list You list each one in full in date order, the most recent first: Ecclestone K (2007a) Learning or therapy? The demoralisation of education. British Journal of Educational Studies. 52 (2), Ecclestone K (2007b) An identity crisis? Using concepts of identity, agency and structure in the education of adults. Studies in the Education of Adults. 39 (2), Ecclestone K (2007c) Resisting images of the diminished self: the implications of emotional well-being and emotional engagement in education policy. Journal of Education Policy. 22 (4), How to reference Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford 15

16 How to reference 4 Other sources you might want to use Oxford Brookes University Library produces useful guides on referencing a whole range of sources, including electronic. Below is a list of additional sources you may want to use in your work at WIE. Brochures and leaflets Tassoni P (no date) Childcare for learning. London: British Association for Early Childhood Education. Conference proceedings Crabtree H (2003) Improving student learning using an enquiry based approach. Paper presented at BEST 2003: Creativity and Innovation in Academic Practice, Brighton, 9-11th April. Available at Feb_08.html! [Accessed 21 July 2008] Corporate documentation Training and Development Agency for Schools (2007) Annual report and accounts : developing people, improving young lives. London: The Stationery Office. E-books Kenworthy C (2005) Digital video production cookbook. Safari Books Online. Available at [Accessed 15 July 2008]. Films, videos and broadcasts Secrets and lies (1996) Directed by Mike Leigh [Video] London: CIBY 2000 in association with Channel Four Films. Government or organisations as authors Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003) Childhood obesity Postnote Sept. (205), 1-4 Available at [Accessed 24 Jan 2008] Lecture notes Spiro J (2007) Analysing learner needs Module P70118 Session materials Week 7, Semester 1. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University. Newspaper article Curtis P (2008) Early-years writing lessons do no good. The Guardian. July 14:11. Online discussions Moritz, C (2008) Online discussion notes: Learner language in Module P70118 Oxford: Oxford Brookes University. Available at [Accessed July 4th 2008] Personal communication Field J (2008) to Stephen Wass. 15 July Theses and dissertations Edwards R (2003) Action research involving secondary school pupils teaching drama to a group of their peers with special needs. MA Education. Oxford Brookes University. Blogs Nick (2008) Early Years: Nick. 3 March. Available at net/2008/03/03/trainee-student/ [Accessed 22 April 2008] 16 Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

17 5 Avoiding plagiarism Plagiarism is presenting another person s work as if it was your own (Carroll 2002). This includes using another person s ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source. You can avoid this if you include references in your work. If someone sets out to cheat because that s what plagiarism is then they will be subject to the University s disciplinary procedures. But we are more concerned about students who worry that they may have plagiarised by accident, or worry that their referencing or written style is not good enough to avoid the accusation of plagiarism. If you follow our guidelines, you will not find yourself plagiarising by accident and will be well on the way to developing a good academic style. You would be plagiarising if you submit a piece of work that has been written by someone else as if it was your own work take ideas, sentences and/or paragraphs or even a key phrase from various people s work and paste them into an essay without saying where the ideas have come from omit quotation marks and page number(s) if making a direct reference to another person s work do not place the in-text reference close to where you are discussing material from your reading. The reader needs to see what is your account (or summary) of what you have read (in-text reference goes here), and what is your own comment. How to avoid plagiarism To avoid the accusation of plagiarism you must clearly acknowledge the source of information when you use another person s ideas and/or words use any facts, statistics, graphs or pictures prepared by another author quote another person s actual words (whether spoken or written) paraphrase another person s spoken or written words. Reference Carroll J (2002) A handbook for deterring plagiarism in higher education. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development. How to reference Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford 17

18 How to reference 6 Frequently asked questions How many references should a good essay have? There is no ideal number. Your writing should show that you have read about your subject and have a balanced, knowledgeable view; but you should not move from one source to another so much that your reader cannot clearly see what YOU have contributed to your piece of work. It is important that your work is your own, and not a patchwork of other writers. A good assignment will include up-to-date references, and a balance of types of sources: books, journals and good quality websites. Where should references be placed in my text? Look at the examples in this guide. You ll see that the in-text reference is placed alongside the description of the work being discussed either just before (see example p5: Murray (2006), or just after (Parliamentary Office 2003, p6). If you are discussing someone s work for several lines, you may need to add a reminder to your reader about whose work you are discussing eg She concludes that (p5). The golden rule is never to leave your reader in any doubt about whose thoughts, findings or information they are reading. Where should my references list be placed? These should come straight after your conclusion and before any appendices or supplementary material. What should I do about books I haven t actually referred to in my assignment? These should go in the bibliography (see p10) but you might also ask yourself the question: if I have read the book and it has influenced my thinking, why have I not mentioned it anywhere in my assignment? Should I include page numbers of quotations in my reference list? No. Page numbers for quotations belong in the text of your assignment. The only page numbers needed in the reference list are for articles within journals, or chapters within edited books. I ve been told I am referencing incorrectly. What should I do? check if you have followed the Harvard conventions as explained in this guide check if your referencing has been consistent all through. Don t switch between fonts, sizes etc, and whatever style you use, stick to it throughout check your module handbook to see what style your tutor prefers and use it! Minor details like full stops, italics are not right or wrong they are usually a matter of preference there are other referencing styles used by some subject disciplines. Check that the Harvard system is the one your module leader wishes you to use. The library will have a guidance sheet on these other styles. AND if you are still worried after all this checking, ASK for advice from your Module Leader, your Subject Librarians, or Upgrade. 18 Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

19 And finally... If you need to refer to these guidelines in anything you write, you are, of course welcome to do so. Just remember to cite us correctly in your text! To list the publication in your references section; write: Williams K, Spiro J and Swarbrick N (2008) How to reference: Harvard referencing for Westminster Institute students. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University. More seriously! We would really value your feedback. Is this booklet useful? What is especially useful? Or not? Is it clear? What else would you like to see included? Or left out? We welcome your feedback. Please your comments to An electronic version of this guide is available via the Upgrade website. Scroll down to Referencing: how to reference Referencing Working Group members Hazel Rothera, Senior Subject Librarian Education (Westminster Institute) Nick Swarbrick, Senior Lecturer, Early Years Jane Spiro, Learning and Teaching Development Coordinator Kate Williams, Learning Development Manager, Upgrade Study Advice Service Acknowledgements and thanks The Working Group would like to thank The School of Health and Social Care Referencing Group: Angela Harper Jackie Hunt Kate Williams Mary Woolliams who wrote the original guide - and their colleagues and students who came up with the idea for guidelines that all staff in the School find acceptable BSLES (Brookes Student Learning Experience Strategy) for supporting the development and publication of this guide Jude Carroll, OCSLD, for advice on avoiding plagiarism the many students who have contributed ideas, suggestions and feedback to these guidelines. How to reference We hope you enjoy your studies. Edition 1 September 2008 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford 19

20 Upgrade Study Advice Service Upgrade is the University s study advice service for anyone who wants advice on study skills planning and writing essays, assignments and dissertations statistics and maths to book a tutorial (30 minutes): We may be able to see you if you drop in (especially at Harcourt Hill, Wheatley and Marston Road), but it s best to make an appointment. In semester time Headington Library Monday to Friday lunchtimes and weekly sessions at Harcourt Hill, Wheatley, and Marston Road See the Upgrade website for times and details, and for our A/Z for both maths and study skills: Contact us (in or out of semester): The Education Subject Librarians for Westminster Institute of Education can be contacted by phone: ( from outside the UK) by This document has been designed by Media Workshop. The contents of How to Reference: Harvard referencing for Westminster Institute students has been developed from the guide How to Reference for Health and Social Care students at Oxford Brookes University. We have tried to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the content and the information contained in the Guide but we do not warrant that it is accurate, complete or up to date and we accept no liability for any use made of the Guide. This Guide is intended only for general and informational purposes. Permission is granted to reproduce the Handbook for personal or educational use only. Commercial copying, hiring or lending is prohibited. Copyright 2008 Oxford Brookes University

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