# Internal Combustion Engines (IC Engines)

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1 Internal Combustion Engines (IC Engines) he internal combustion engine (IC Engine) is a heat engine that converts heat energy (chemical energy of a fuel) into mechanical energy (usually made available on a rotating output shaft). Applications of IC Engines: Mainly used as prime movers, e.g. for be the propulsion of a vehicle i.e., car, bus, truc, locomotive, marine vessel, or airplane. Other applications include stationary saws, lawn mowers, bull-dozers, cranes, electric generators, etc. Classifications of IC Engines: IC engines can be classified according to:. Number of cylinders, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 to 6 cylinder engines. 2. Arrangement of cylinders Inline, V-type, Flat type, etc. 3. Arrangement of valves and valve trains In-bloc camshaft, OHC, DOHC, etc. 4. ype of cooling Air-cooled, Water-cooled, etc. 5. Number of stroes per cycle 2-stroe, 4-stroe engines. 6. ype of fuel burned Petrol, diesel, CNG, etc. 7. Method of ignition Spar Ignition (SI), Compression Ignition (CI). 8. Firing order , , etc. 9. Primary mechanical motion Reciprocating, rotary. Fig. : Major Components of a reciprocating single cylinder Petrol Engine. Page of 5

2 Problem-: A four cylinder car engine has bore x stroe = 79 mm x 77 mm. What is the capacity of the engine in cc? Solution: Capacity in cc = N.(π/4).B 2. S Here, N= number of cylinders B= bore diameter in cm S= stroe length in cm herefore, Engine Capacity in cc = 4 x (π/4) x (7.9) 2 x (7.7) = cc Ans. Fig. 2: Main Geometric parameters of a reciprocating IC Engine. Four-stroe Petrol Engine.: Fig. 3: Four-stroes of an IC (Petrol) Engine. A 4-stroe petrol engine operates on air standard Otto cycle. It completes the Otto cycle in 4 stroes (4 DC to BDC movements of the piston), namely, () Suction Stroe, (2) Compression Stroe, (3) Power Stroe, (4) Exhaust Stroe. Otto cycle shown below consists of four processes: 2 : Isentropic Compression Process 2 3 : Constant Volume Combustion 3 4 : Isentropic Expansion Process 4 : Constant Volume Blowdown Page 2 of 5

3 Fig. 4: Air standard Otto cycle for petrol engine. For a petrol engine woring on air standard Otto cycle, Compression ratio, r v + v v v v v v d c 4 = = = c 2 3 For an isentropic process, x y, = px = v x y y p y vx Otto cycle Efficiency = Wor Output / Heat Supplied = (Heat Supplied Heat Rejected) / Heat Supplied, Wout Q η = = Q in in Q Q in out mc( ) mc( ) η = = m c ( ) a v 3 2 a v 4 4 a v So, η = Now for isentropic compression process, 2: () v 2 = = 2 v r 2 = r (2) Page 3 of 5

4 Again, for isentropic expansion process, 3 4 Putting (2) and (3) into (), we get, η herefore, Otto v v 3 4 : = = ( r) = r (3) 3 η = r r = where, r 3 η = c r 3 r 3 r p = and =.4 for air. So we see, the efficiency of the petrol engine depends only on the compression ratio r. Diesel Engine woring on diesel cycle c v Diesel cycle shown above consists of four processes: 2 : Isentropic Compression Process 2 3 : Constant Pressure Combustion Process 3 4 : Isentropic Expansion Process 4 : Constant Volume Blowdown Fig. 5: Air standard Diesel Cycle for Diesel Engine For a diesel engine woring on air standard Diesel cycle, Compression ratio, r v + v v v v d c = = and Fuel cut-off ratio, c 2 ρ v + v v v v cut c = = c 3 2 Diesel cycle Efficiency = Wor Output / Heat Supplied = (Heat Supplied Heat Rejected) / Heat Supplied, Wout Q η = = Q in in Q Q in out Page 4 of 5

5 So, mc ( ) mc( ) c η = = = mc ( ) c 4 η = () a p 3 2 a v 4 v 4 4 a p 3 2 p Now for isentropic compression process, 2: 2 = r (2) For constant pressure combustion process, 2 3: v 2 = = 2 v r 2 v2 = = v ρ = 2ρ = ρ (3) r Again, for isentropic expansion process, 3 4: 3 v 4 r = = 4 v3 ρ since, v4 v4 v3 v r = = = v3 v2 v2 v2 ( v3 / v2) ρ = ρ r ρρ. ρ r = r = (4) 3 4 Putting (2) and (3) into (), we get, ρ η = r ρ r ( ρ ) η = r ( ρ ) η herefore, Diesel ρ = r ( ρ ) where, c p = and =.4 for air. c v So we see, the efficiency of the diesel engine depends not only on the compression ratio but also on the fuel cut-off ratio. Page 5 of 5

6 Comments: he fuel cut-off ratio ρ of the diesel engine is usually greater than and is.4 for air so the expression in square bracet is always greater than. So for the same compression ratio, petrol engine is more efficient than the diesel engine. But usually the compression ratio of diesel engine is much higher than that of petrol engine (from 8 to 2). herefore, the diesel engine is more efficient due to it higher compression ratio (from 5 to 23). Problem-2: Calculate the air standard cycle efficiencies of an Otto cycle engine and a Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 0:. ae ρ =.5 for the diesel engine. Solution: Otto cycle efficiency, η otto = r = = = = 60.9% Ans Diesel cycle efficiency, η diesel = = ρ ( ρ ) r.4.5 = = 56.54% Ans (.5 ) Problem-3: Calculate the air standard Diesel cycle efficiency of the engine with a compression ratio of :; if the fuel supply is cut-off at 6% of the stroe (or swept or displacement volume). Solution: v v cut Given, = 0.06 stroe Now from Fig.5, we can write, v3 v2 = 0.06 v4 v2 v3 v2 = 0.06 v v2 v2( v3 / v2 ) = 0.06 v ( v / v ) 2 2 ρ = 0.06 r ρ = 0.06 ρ =.6 Diesel cycle efficiency, ρ η diesel = ( ρ ) r.4.6 η = = (.6 ) η = % Ans. Page 6 of 5

7 Actual Indicator Diagram of a 4-stroe Petrol Engine Valve iming Diagram for a 4-stroe Petrol Engine Valve overlap: he duration (0 o + 0 o = 20 o ) when both the inlet and exhaust valves remain open is called valve overlap. Spar Advance: he ignition is initiated o before DC. his is called spar advance. Differences between Petrol and Diesel engines Page 7 of 5

8 drilling machines, etc. wo-stroe Engines: wo stroes engines (both petrol and diesel engines) completes the cycle (both Otto and Diesel cycle) in just two stroes of the piston. In moving from BDC to DC, both the suction and compression occur whereas, during DC to BDC movement, both power and exhaust occur thus completing the total cycle. In Brief: (a) and (b): Up-stroe of the piston : Suction and Compression. (c) and (d) : Down stroe of the piston : Expansion and Exhaust. Page 8 of 5

9 (a) Suction (b) Compression (c) Expansion (Power) (d) Exhaust Fig. 6: wo-stroe IC (Petrol) Engines. Scavenging in 2-Stroe Cycle Engine: At the end of the expansion stroe, the exhaust port opens and allows the exhaust gas to exit. As the piston starts moving down, air-pressure in the cran case increases and air, through the scavenging port, enters the cylinder (combustion chamber) and pushes out the burnt gas clear from the cylinder. his is referred to as scavenging. Differences between 2-stroe and 4-stroe engines 4-stroe Engine. he intae, compression, combustion and exhaust occur in two upward and two downward stroes of the piston. 2. Needs complicated valve train arrangement for intae and exhaust stroes. 3. Outputs power once in every two revolutions of the cranshaft. 4. he engine is heavier for the same power rating, i.e., low power to weight ratio. 5. More expensive than the 2-stroe engines. 6. It has limited orientation if oil is to be retained in the sump. 7. More fuel efficient, less noisy, less polluting and longer lifespan. 2-stroe Engine. All four events are accomplished in one downward stroe, and one upward stroe. 2. Intae and exhaust are both integrated into the compression and combustion movement of the piston, eliminating the need for valves. 3. he engine delivers power on every revolution. 4. Higher power-to-weight ratio because it is much lighter. 5. Less expensive because of its simpler design. 6. It can be operated in any orientation because it lacs the oil sump 7. Less fuel-efficient because of the simpler design, resulting in poorer mileage than a four stroe engine. 8. Less noisy. 8. wice as much noisy. 9. Less polluting. 9. Very much polluting. 0. Usually lasts longer. 0. Does not last very long. Page 9 of 5

10 Engine Knocing: Engine nocing (also called detonation) is a sudden blow on the piston just lie a hammering. Knocing occurs due to localized ignition inside the combustion chamber. his can be explained thus: at the end of the compression stroe the sparplug gives electric spar to initiate ignition of the air fuel charge. Ignition taes place and very quicly advances lie a heat wave to all corners of the combustion chamber. Consequently, localized ignition starts before the flame reaches it. herefore, nocing is a post ignition phenomenon. Detonation or nocing is harmful for the engine and causes the engine-running shay. Both high combustibility of fuel and the Fig. 7: Engine Knocing high compression ratio are responsible for nocing. o stop engine nocing generally a special fuel or a chemical (tetraethyl lead) is mixed with gasoline. Mixing of a small amount satisfactorily stops nocing. High Octane rating also prevents engine nocing. Octane Number he property that describes how well petrol will or will not self-ignite is called the octane number of petrol or just octane. he higher the octane number of petrol, the less liely it will self-ignite. Engines with low compression ratios can use petrol with lower octane numbers, but high-compression engines must use high-octane petrol to avoid self-ignition and noc. Common octane numbers (anti-noc index) for petrol used in cars range from 87 to 95, with higher values available for special high-performance and racing engines. A 93- octane petrol is more noc resistant than an 89-octane petrol. Reciprocating SI aircraft engines usually use low-lead fuels with octane numbers in the 85 to 00 range. Cetane Number In a compression ignition engine, self-ignition of the air-fuel mixture is a necessity. he correct fuel must be chosen which will self-ignite at the precise proper time in the engine cycle. It is therefore necessary to have nowledge and control of the ignition delay time of the fuel. he property that quantifies this is called the cetane number. he larger the cetane number, the shorter is the ID and the quicer the fuel will self-ignite in the combustion chamber environment. A low cetane number means the fuel will have a long ID. Normal cetane number range is about 40 to 60. Page 0 of 5

11 Engine Subsystem: he main engine subsystems are:. Fuel System ---- carburet Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI), etc. 2. Lubrication System ---- splashed lubrication, pump-forced lubrication, etc. 3. Cooling System ---- air-cooling system, water-cooling system. 4. Ignition System ----Spar Plug Ignition (SI), Compresion Ignition (CI). 5. Starting System ---- Battery/Starting mot manual craning, compressed air mot etc. Carburetor: Carburetor is a vital component of the fuel system of a conventional petrol engine. It composed of 4 main parts:(i) Air horn, (ii) Venturi, (iii) Fuel nozzle and (iv) hrottle valve Float bowl Petrol pumped from tan Fig. 8: Engine Carburetor he above figure shows how petrol is practically atomized while passing through the carburetor venture. At the venture, the passage is the smallest, resulting in high velocity of the air and high inetic energy as well. Since total energy must be unchanged, the rise in inetic energy is balanced by the fall in pressure (vacuum) at the venture. herefore, the air flowing through the venture creates a sort of vacuum (lower than atmospheric pressure) at the other end (downstream) of the narrow portion of the passage, which causes suction (air pushes the petrol) of the liquid petrol from the float bowl. Page of 5

12 Fuel Injection System A fuel injection system is used usually in diesel engines to inject diesel fuel at the end of compression stroe at a very high pressure. A fuel injection pump and its operation are shown below: Fig. 9: Fuel injection pump and its control unit he plunger is operated by a cam as shown. As the cam pushes, the plunger moves upward against a heavy spring and the fuel is delivered towards injection nozzle. he fuel then enters from the nozzle into the combustion chamber under high pressure. It will be seen that there is a spiral groove on the body of the plunger to control the amount of fuel injection. here is a hole (feed hole) on the body of the plunger connected to its central hole on top. he plunger can be rotated right way or left way (cloc wise or anti clocwise) with the help of a rac and pinion mechanism fitted with the body of the plunger. hus the actual amount of fuel per stroe as desired by the operator can be injected. he rac and pinion again is operated by the engine governor. Page 2 of 5

13 Engine Performance Efficiency: Mechanical Efficiency = Brae Power (bhp)/ Engine Power (hp) hermal Efficiency = Engine Power (hp) / Fuel Power (hp) Overall Efficiency = Mechancal x hermal Brae Specific Fuel Consumption (bsfc): Fuel consumed per unit power generation per unit time. Unit g/w-hr. Bsfc = brae power/ fuel consumed per unit time An Engine is not 00% efficient (typical efficiency is about 30%). Because it has some losses. Heat balance is as follows: Heat loss to cooling water 30% Heat loss to exhaust gases 30% Heat loss to lubricating oil 5% Heat loss due to friction of mechanical components 5% Useful brae power available from engine 30% otal Heat Input to the engine 00% Mean effective pressure Generally, the mean effective pressure is the ratio of the net wor done to the displacement volume of the piston. It is a valuable measure of an engine's capacity to do wor that is independent of engine displacement. It is defined as, Here, p mep = mean effective pressure, Pa = torque, N-m V d = displacement volume, m 3 n c = number of revolutions per cycle (for a 4-stroe engine n c = 2, for a 2-stroe engine n c = ) Page 3 of 5

14 his is useful for comparing engines of different displacements (a specific torque of sorts, i.e. torque per unit displacement). Mean effective pressure is also useful for initial design calculations; that is, given a torque, we can use standard mep values to estimate the required engine displacement. Brae Mean Effective Pressure (bmep) is, calculated by putting the measured dynamometer torque into the above equation. For spar-ignition engines : maximum values are in the range 8.5 to 0.5 bar (850 to 050 Pa; 25 to 50 psi), at the engine speed where maximum torque is obtained. At rated power, bmep values are typically 0 to 5% lower. For four-stroe diesels: the maximum bmep is in the 7 to 9 bar range (700 to 900 Pa; 00 to 30 psi). Problem-4: A four-stroe engine producing 60 N m from 2 litres of displacement. What will be it brae mean effective pressure (bmep)? Solution: bmep is given by, So, bmep = (60 N m) (4π)/(0.002 m³) =,005,000 N/m 2 =005 Pa (0.05 bar). Here, = 60 N-m V d = 2 liters = 2 x 0-3 m 3 n c = 2 for a 4-stroe engine Problem-5: If the same engine (i.e., four-stroe, 2 liters) as above produces 76 W at 5400 rpm (90 Hz), Find its bmep. We have, Power, P = ω =P/ ω=(76 x 0 3 )/565.5=34.4 N.m Now, Here, P = 76 x 0 3 W ω=2πn/60=2π(5400)/60 =565.5 rad/s Where, V d = 2 liters = 2 x 0-3 m 3 n c = 2 for a 4-stroe engine So, bmep = (34.4 N m) (4π)/(0.002 m³) = N/m 2 =844.5 Pa (8.34 bar). Page 4 of 5

15 Problem-6: A 4-Cylinder, 2-stroe IC engine has the following particulars: engine speed = 3000 rpm, bore = 20 mm, cran radius = 60 mm, mechanical efficiency = 90% and the engine develops 75 bhp. Calculate the swept volume and mean effective pressure (MEP). Mechanical efficiency, η = BraePower( bhp) EnginePower( ihp) Or, 0.9 = P 75, i.e., P = hp Now, Engine Power, P = ω Here, P = hp = x 746 W = W ω=2πn/60=2π(3000)/60 =34.6 rad/s =P/ ω=( )/34.6=97.88 N.m We get, Mean Effective Pressure (MEP or P mep ) as follows: where, V d = N.(π/4).B 2. S Here Stroe, S = 2 x cran radius = 2 x 0.06 m = 0.2 m V d = 4.(π/4).(0.2) 2 (0.2) = 5.43 x 0-3 m 3 = 5.43 liter n c = for a 2-stroe engine herefore, MEP = (97.88 N m) (2π)/( m³) = N/m 2 = Pa Page 5 of 5

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