What is meant by Vital Signs? Py_lWGY80zqMv8e&index=1

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1 Vital Signs

2 What is meant by Vital Signs? Py_lWGY80zqMv8e&index=1

3

4 Vital Signs Measurements of the body s most basic functions 4 main vital signs routinely monitored by healthcare providers Temperature Pulse rate Respiration Blood Pressure

5 Oral Mouth Axillary Armpit Rectal Rectum Tympanic Ear Temporal artery Forehead scan Temperature

6 Oral Normal range 96 F F Most common for adults and older children Thermometer is placed under tongue Wait minutes after eating or drinking Patient must keep mouth closed the entire time

7 Axillary Normal range (usually 1 degree less than oral) 95 F - 99 F Least accurate way to measure temperature Thermometer is placed in armpit

8 Rectal Normal range (usually 1 degree higher than oral) 97 F F Most accurate way to measure temperature Thermometer is placed in rectum

9 Tympanic Quickest way to take temperature Also called aural Thermometer is placed in ear

10 Temporal Artery Uses infrared light to measure temperature of skin over an artery located in the temple Thermometer is swiped across the forehead toward the top of the ear

11 Temperature Activity? Infections? Stimulants? Depressants?

12 Reading a Mercury Thermometer Each long line = one degree Each short line = two-tenths of a degree (0.2)

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14 How do you feel? What is the temperature of #1? 97.4 F What is the temperature of #2? 101 F What is the temperature of #3? F What is the temperature of #4? 98.4 F

15 How do you feel? What should #5 look like?

16 Temperature Activity? Infections? Stimulants? Depressants?

17 Pulse Measures how fast the heart is beating Always measured in beats per minute (bpm) Measured while patient is at rest unless otherwise ordered by doctor

18 Pulse Sites Radial Thumb side of wrist Brachial Used for infants / blood pressure Apical For use with stethoscope Carotid Sides of neck (used for CPR) Popliteal Behind the knee Temporal Forehead Femoral Deep inside the upper thigh Pedal pulses Foot, used to assess circulation in lower extremities

19 What is a normal pulse rate? Resting Pulse Rates Age or Fitness Level Beats per Minute (bpm) babies to age 1: children ages 1-10: children older 11-17: adults: well-conditioned athletes: 40-60

20 Pulse Tachycardia Rapid heart rate, over 100 bpm Bradycardia Slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm Rhythm Time interval between each beat (should be regular) Force Relates to pulse strength

21 Taking a Radial Pulse The radial pulse is used for routine vital signs It is felt by placing the first two fingers of one hand against radial artery (do NOT use thumb) Count the pulse for one minute

22 Taking an Apical Pulse Use the stethoscope Place on left side of chest (just below the nipple) The heart beat normally sounds as a lub-dub Each lub-dub is one beat Count the apical pulse for one minute

23 Respirations Inhalation Breathing air in Exhalation Breathing air out

24 Normal Respiratory Rates Adult = per minute Children = per minute Infants = per minute Count respirations when the patient is at rest 1. Patient should NOT know you are counting 2. Watch chest rise and fall 3. Counted right after taking a pulse

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26 Respiratory Vocabulary Apnea Period without breathing Dyspnea Difficult breathing Orthopnea Difficulty breathing unless sitting or standing Tachypnea Fast breathing above 24 / min. Bradypnea Slow breathing less than 10 / min. Cheyne-Stokes Periods of apnea followed by gradually increasing respiration

27 Blood Pressure Measures the amount of force exerted against the walls of the artery by the blood Measured in millimeter of mercury (mm/hg) Blood pressure is written as a fraction 120/80

28 Blood Pressure Systolic Heart is contracting Pressure in the arteries is highest Top number of b/p reading Normal range = (adult) Diastolic Heart is relaxed Pressure in arteries is lowest Bottom number of b/p reading Normal range = (adult)

29 Blood Pressure Infants and children have lower blood pressures than adults Newborns = 70/55 mmhg 1 year old = 90/55 mmhg Blood pressure continues to increase as child grow Adult bp levels reached between years old

30 Blood Pressure What equipment will you need? Stethoscope Sphygmomanometer

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