Lab 3  Using the Agilent 54621A Digital Oscilloscope as a Spectrum Analyzer Electronics Fundamentals using the Agilent 54621A Oscilloscope


 Abigayle Webb
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Lab 3  Using the Agilent 54621A Digital Oscilloscope as a Spectrum Analyzer Electronics Fundamentals using the Agilent 54621A Oscilloscope By: Walter Banzhaf University of Hartford Ward College of Technology USA Introduction A spectrum analyzer is an instrument that creates a graph of amplitude versus frequency (contrasted with an oscilloscope, which produces a graph of amplitude versus time). Spectrum analyzers are used extensively in RF communications courses to see what frequencies are present in a signal containing information (e.g. an RF carrier with modulation, such as a signal from an AM or FM broadcast transmitter). Another application of a spectrum analyzer is to see the harmonics present in a waveform, such as a square wave or a pulse train. The Agilent 54621A digital oscilloscope can produce displays of amplitude versus frequency by performing a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on the data points in a display of amplitude versus time. While the FFT does not give all the information and options that a spectrum analyzer does, it is a very useful feature of this instrument. Equipment Required Agilent 54621A Digital Oscilloscope with two 10X attenuating probes Agilent 33250A or 33120A Function Generator Procedure A Measuring a Sine Wave in the Frequency Domain Using FFT: 1. Set the function generator to produce a 1 khz, 2.83 Vpp sinusoid (this is 1 Vrms), and connect the output of the generator to the oscilloscope. Use a 50 Ω termination on the generator output, and a 10X probe across the resistor to connect the oscilloscope. 2. Choose the Default setup of the oscilloscope using the Save/Recall hardkey and then the Default Setup softkey. Be sure to change the channel 1 Probe Factor (a softkey that says Probe) to 10:1. You can do this by pressing the oval button labeled 1, and then turning the control called the Entry Knob, located just to the right of the CRT, below the horizontal section, with an illuminated curved arrow above it.
2 3. Press the AutoScale hardkey; you should see two periods of a sine wave, centered on display, with a sweep speed of 200 µs per div and vertical sensitivity of 500 mv/div, as shown below: 4. Press the Math hardkey, and then press the FFT softkey. Then, press the Settings softkey to see the frequency span of the display and the center frequency of the display. As shown below, the display shows the sine wave in the time domain (upper trace) and in the frequency domain (lower trace). The frequency domain display is not too useful as shown; there s something big on the far left edge of the graticule, but it s hard to tell any specific information about it. time/div = 200 µs FFT sample rate = 1.00 MSa/s Span = 500 khz Center = 250 khz Note: the FFT sample rate = 1.00 MSample/second and sweep time = 200 us/div. The Agilent User s Guide tells us two key performance specifications of the FFT mode of operation that depend on the sweep time (time per division): 1) frequency resolution = /(time per division), and 2) maximum frequency = 102.4/(time per division) So, in our display above, the frequency resolution = /200 µs = Hz, and the maximum frequency = 102.4/200 µs = 512 khz. That creates a not very useful display; noise can be seen on the bottom, and there s something big on the far left edge of display, and we can t tell any specific frequency information from this display. 5. Now we re going to make the frequency domain display quite a bit more useful, as follows: Change the sweep speed (using the control in the Horizontal section), pausing to observe the display as each change is made, from 200 µs to 10.0 ms/div. Note: the new FFT sample rate = 20.0 ksa/s, freq. res. = /10 ms = Hz, max. freq. = 102.4/10 ms = Hz. This produces a very useful display. Press the Settings softkey to see Span = 10 khz and Center (freq.) = 5 khz (as shown below).
3 time/div = 10 ms FFT sample rate = 20 ksa/s Span = 10.0 khz Center = 5.00 khz There are two (2) graphs shown here: voltage vs. time (over a 100 ms interval) and voltage vs. frequency (in a window 10 khz wide). Notice that there is a lot of noise (at the bottom of the display), and one big frequency component (vertical line) located 1 division from the left side of the graticule. Since the center frequency is 5 khz, and the frequency span is 10 khz, the left edge of the display is 0 Hz, the right edge is 10 khz, each horizontal division is 1 khz, and the big voltage component is at 1 khz (the frequency of the sine wave). 6. Our next task is to measure the amplitude of the 2.83 Vpp 1 khz signal in the frequency domain. First, turn off the timedomain display by pressing the oval button labeled 1 in the Vertical section twice. You are now looking at just the voltage vs. frequency display. Now press the Quick Meas button, and the oscilloscope automatically tells us that Max(Math) = 1.5 db. All measurements using the FFT feature will be expressed in dbv (decibels referenced to 1 volt (RMS)). Since our input sine wave is 2.83 Vpp = 1.0 Vrms, the correct amplitude of our 1 khz sine wave, expressed in dbv, is 20*LOG(1V) = 0 dbv. What we are seeing here is a slight error, which brings up another thing to learn about FFT: the type of window that is used to generate the FFT is important. There are three types of windows available (the following is extracted from the Agilent 54621A User s Guide): Hanning window window for making accurate frequency measurements or for resolving two frequencies that are close together. Flat Top window window for making accurate amplitude measurements of frequency peaks. Rectangular window good frequency resolution and amplitude accuracy, but use only where there will be no leakage effects. Use on selfwindowing waveforms such as pseudorandom noise, impulses, sine bursts, and decaying sinusoids. To get better amplitude accuracy, change the Window type from Hanning to Flat Top as follows: Press the Math hardkey, then the Settings softkey, followed by the More FFT softkey. Press the Window softkey and step the check mark down to Flat Top. Then press Quick Meas hardkey, and notice that the Max(Math) = 0 db, as in the display below. It s really 0 dbv, and the V reference is understood.
4 time/div = 10 ms FFT sample rate = 20 ksa/s Span = 10.0 khz Center = 5.00 khz Window = Flat Top Amplitude = 0 dbv The noise at the bottom of the display is about 50 db below the signal, as each vertical division = 10 db. time/div = 10 ms FFT sample rate = 20 ksa/s Span = 10.0 khz Center = 5.00 khz Window = Flat Top Amplitude = 0 dbv The QuickMeas softkey X at Max was used here to show the frequency = 1 khz at the cursor location. Procedure B Measuring a Square Wave Using FFT: 1. Assuming you have just completed Procedure A (measuring a sine wave using FFT), leave the oscilloscope set as it was (10.0 ms/div sweep speed), and FFT turned on. Change the function generator output to produce a 1 khz, 2.00 Vpp (bipolar) square wave (this is 1 Vrms). 2. The display should look like the one below: Frequency components can now be seen at 1 khz, 3 khz, 5 khz, 7 khz and 9 khz. That is characteristic of a square wave with a 50% duty cycle: only odd harmonics (integer multiples of the fundamental frequency) will be present in its frequency spectrum. Note that both X and Y cursors have been used. The two X cursors are placed on the 1 khz and 3 khz components, and the X = 2.00 khz is the difference between 3 khz and 1 khz. The two Y cursors show the amplitudes of the 1 khz and 3 khz components, and the Y of 9.69 db shows that the 3 rd harmonic amplitude is 9.69 db below the 1 st harmonic amplitude. 3. If we want to see the square wave that has the frequency spectrum shown above, all we have to do is press the oval button labeled 1 in the Vertical section. This turns on the Channel 1 timedomain display. In the left display below we can see that the square wave is not presented well; it s hard to see individual cycles. While we
5 may be tempted to change the sweep speed (time per division) so that individual cycles can be seen in the time domain, the result of doing this creates other problems in the frequency domain. In the right display below the sweep speed has been changed to 500 µs /div. Sweep speed = 10 ms/div Freq. Resolution = /10 ms = 9.8 Hz Each harmonic can be clearly seen. Sweep speed = 500 µs /div Freq. Resolution = /500 µs = 195 Hz Harmonics appear very broadened. 4. Another problem is shown in the display above (on the left): in the time domain the signal appears very noisy. This contributes to a very noisy display in the frequency domain: the noise floor is much higher than it should be. We can fix this problem using averaging. 5. Return the sweep speed to 10 ms/div, and press the Acquire hardkey, and press the Averaging softkey to reduce the noise in both timedomain and frequency domain displays. Notice that the noise has been reduced so much in the frequency domain display that the noise floor is now below the bottom of the display. This will be fixed in the next step. 6. Press Math hardkey, Settings softkey, More FFT softkey, Scale softkey, and change the vertical scale to 20 db/ (20 db per vertical division). You can do this by turning the control called the Entry Knob, located just to the right of the CRT, below the horizontal section, with an illuminated curved arrow above it.) Now we can see the noise floor at the bottom of the display. And, some new frequency components are now visible: the even harmonics at 2 khz, 4 khz, 6 khz and 8 khz. While the even harmonics are now visible, they are very small (about 60 db below the odd harmonic amplitudes).
6 Procedure C What s All This Harmonic Stuff Anyhow? Nearly 200 years ago, a French fellow named Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier was doing some very important theoretical work in science and mathematics. Among his quotes is Mathematics compares the most diverse phenomena and discovers the secret analogies that unite them. His name is among the 72 famous French scientists and mathematicians immortalized on a plaque at the base of the Eiffel tower in Paris. He feared having his head removed during the French revolution; fortunately for us, he was spared the guillotine. Fourier determined that any periodic, nonsinusoidal waveform can be reproduced by adding up an infinite number of harmonics of the waveform s fundamental frequency. The fundamental frequency is 1/T, where T is the period of the waveform. For our purposes, one can say that a square wave voltage contains an infinite number of harmonics, which can be seen on a spectrum analyzer. While a more complete coverage of Fourier series can be found in many sources, here the basics of Fourier series for a square wave will be presented. If a square wave is bipolar (positive level and negative level are equal in magnitude and opposite in polarity), we can find out the amplitude of each harmonic (a n ) using the following formula: a n = 4A/(nπ), where n = number of the odd harmonic (for n = even numbers, a n = 0), and A is the peak amplitude of the square wave (A = 1 2 of the peakpeak value). So, using our 1 khz, 2 Vpp square wave as an example, we will calculate the amplitudes of its first seven harmonics. A 2 Vpp square wave has a peak amplitude of 1 V, so A = 1V. First Harmonic Amplitude: 4(1V)/(1π) = Vpeak, frequency = 1(1 khz) = 1 khz Second Harmonic Amplitude: 0 (because it s an even harmonic) Third Harmonic Amplitude: 4(1V)/(3π) = Vpeak, frequency = 3(1 khz) = 3 khz Fourth Harmonic Amplitude: 0 (because it s an even harmonic) Fifth Harmonic Amplitude: 4(1V)/(5π) = Vpeak, frequency = 5(1 khz) = 5 khz Sixth Harmonic Amplitude: 0 (because it s an even harmonic) Seventh Harmonic Amplitude: 4(1V)/(7π) = Vpeak, frequency = 7(1 khz) = 7 khz etc. However, our oscilloscope, and spectrum analzyers, always display amplitudes of frequency components based on their RMS values, and often in dbv. The table below shows us the values of the first seven harmonics, expressed in Vpeak, Vrms, and dbv: Harmonic Number Frequency Amplitude in volts peak Amplitude in volts RMS Amplitude in dbv 1 1 khz Vp V dbv 2 2 khz 0 Vp 0 V * 3 3 khz Vp V dbv 4 4 khz 0 Vp 0 V * 5 5 khz Vp V dbv 6 6 khz 0 Vp 0 V * 7 7 khz Vp V dbv *Theoretically even harmonic amplitudes are 0 V. Expressed in dbv, 0 V = 20 LOG(0V) =  dbv. Since noise amplitude is larger than 0 V, or  dbv, we see noise, or very small even harmonics, instead of  dbv. 1) Return to the display of the 2 Vpp, 1 khz square wave in step 5 of Procedure B, on page 5. 2) Use the Cursor function, and measure the amplitude of each of the odd harmonics, and record them in the table below: Harmonic Number Frequency Amplitude in dbv (calculated) 1 1 khz dbv Amplitude in dbv (measured)
7 3 3 khz dbv 5 5 khz dbv 7 7 khz dbv Procedure D Exploring Amplitude Modulation in the Frequency Domain Amplitude Modulation (commonly called AM) is a way to put intelligence (although if you listen to many AM radio stations the term intelligence may seem inappropriate) on a radiofrequency (RF) carrier by varying the amplitude of the RF carrier. First, let s take a look at an RF carrier in the time domain, with and without modulation. The two displays below have no amplitude modulation (called 0% modulation): 50 khz RF Carrier, 0% Modulation 10 µs/division Individual cycles of carrier easily visible 50 khz RF Carrier, 0% Modulation 100 µs/division Individual cycles of carrier hard to see The two displays below both show amplitude modulation in the time domain: 50 khz RF Carrier, 2 khz 50% Modulation Carrier peakpeak amplitude increased (and decreased) by 50% (2.25 Vpp at modulation peaks), with a period of 500 µs. Modulating freq. = 1/T = 1/(500 µs) = 2 khz 50 khz RF Carrier, 2 khz 100% Modulation Carrier peakpeak amplitude increased (and decreased) by 100% (3.00 Vpp at modulation peaks), with a period of 500 µs. Modulating freq. = 1/T = 1/(500 µs) = 2 khz
8 On the next page, we will see the RF carrier with amplitude modulation, shown in both the time domain and the frequency domain. AM creates side frequencies, which will be seen in the frequency domain. As we saw earlier in this introduction to using the oscilloscope as a spectrum analyzer, sometimes we have take control and change the Time/Div, Frequency Span, Center Frequency, turn on Averaging, etc. to make the display show what we want to see. You should be able to duplicate the displays below, to become familiar with frequency domain displays of AM signals. 50 khz RF Carrier, 0% Modulation Time Domain: Sweep speed = 500 µs/division Frequency Domain: Span Freq. = 100 khz, Center Freq. = 50 khz 20 db/div 50 khz RF Carrier, 50% Modulation Modulating freq. 5 khz Sweep speed = 500 µs/division Span Freq. = 100 khz, Center Freq. = 50 khz 20 db/div 50 khz RF Carrier, 100% Modulation Modulating freq. 5 khz Sweep speed = 500 µs/division Span Freq. = 100 khz, Center Freq. = 50 khz 20 db/div
9 This expanded view of the display above shows the two side frequencies that were created when a 50 khz carrier is amplitude modulated by a 5 khz sine wave. 50 khz RF Carrier 50% Modulation Modulating freq. 5 khz Sweep speed = 500 µs/div 1000 khz RF Carrier 100% Modulation Modulating freq. 10 khz Sweep speed = 50 µs/division Span Freq. = 50 khz Center Freq. = 1.00 MHz 20 db/div You can see one significant problem with the display above: the Frequency Resolution is too large, resulting in the individual frequency components (lower side frequency, carrier and upper side frequency) looking much broader than they really are.
10 Frequency Resolution = /(time per division) = /(50 µs) = 1.95 khz. While we might be tempted to increase the time per division (perhaps from 50 µs to 100 µs) in order to make the frequency resolution smaller, there s another FFT parameter that is affected by time per division: the Maximum Frequency. Maximum Frequency = 102.4/(time per division), so at 50 µs/div the max. freq. = 102.4/50 µs = 2.05 MHz. This is fine for a 1 MHz carrier frequency. But, if we change the time per division to 100 µs, the maximum frequency is just above 1.0 MHz, which prevents the display from showing the upper side frequency. The display above shows what happens when the time/division is changed to 100 µs: no frequencies above 1 MHz are displayed.
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS
1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides
More informationLab 1: The Digital Oscilloscope
PHYSICS 220 Physical Electronics Lab 1: The Digital Oscilloscope Object: To become familiar with the oscilloscope, a ubiquitous instrument for observing and measuring electronic signals. Apparatus: Tektronix
More informationSAMPLE: EXPERIMENT 10 Bandpass Filter / Fourier Analysis
SAMPLE: EXPERIMENT 10 Bandpass Filter / Fourier Analysis  This experiment is an excerpt from: Electric
More informationFermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The Measurements and Analysis of Electromagnetic Interference Arising from the Booster GMPS
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory BeamsDoc2584 Version 1.0 The Measurements and Analysis of Electromagnetic Interference Arising from the Booster GMPS Phil S. Yoon 1,2, Weiren Chou 1, Howard Pfeffer
More informationThe RC Circuit. Prelab questions. Introduction. The RC Circuit
The RC Circuit Prelab questions 1. What is the meaning of the time constant, RC? 2. Show that RC has units of time. 3. Why isn t the time constant defined to be the time it takes the capacitor to become
More informationLab 1. The Fourier Transform
Lab 1. The Fourier Transform Introduction In the Communication Labs you will be given the opportunity to apply the theory learned in Communication Systems. Since this is your first time to work in the
More informationBeginners Guide to the TDS 210 and TDS 220 Oscilloscopes
Beginners Guide to the TDS 210 and TDS 220 Oscilloscopes By David S. Lay P. Eng Foreword This guide contains information to help you become familiar with using digital oscilloscopes. You should work through
More informationU1602A Handheld Oscilloscopes, 20 MHz
Products & Services Technical Support Buy Industries About Agilent United States Home >... > Oscilloscopes > U1600A Series handheld oscilloscopes (2 models) > U1602A Handheld Oscilloscopes, 20 MHz Product
More informationPart 2: Receiver and Demodulator
University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System MiniProject Part : Receiver
More informationRF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer
RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer Modern modular digitizers, like the Spectrum M4i series PCIe digitizers, offer greater bandwidth and higher resolution at any given bandwidth than ever before.
More informationPhysics 2306 Experiment 7: Timedependent Circuits, Part 1
Name ID number Date Lab CRN Lab partner Lab instructor Objectives Physics 2306 Experiment 7: Timedependent Circuits, Part 1 To study the time dependent behavior of the voltage and current in circuits
More informationThe Oscilloscope, the Signal Generator and Your Filter s Test Setup SGM 5/29/2013
The Oscilloscope, the Signal Generator and Your Filter s Test Setup SGM 5/29/2013 1. Oscilloscope A multimeter is an appropriate device to measure DC voltages, however, when a signal alternates at relatively
More informationAC Measurements Using the Oscilloscope and Multimeter by Mr. David Fritz
AC Measurements Using the Oscilloscope and Multimeter by Mr. David Fritz 1 Sine wave with a DC offset f = frequency in Hz A = DC offset voltage (average voltage) B = Sine amplitude Vpp = 2B Vmax = A +
More informationThe Oscilloscope and the Function Generator:
The Oscilloscope and the Function Generator: Some introductory exercises for students in the advanced labs Introduction So many of the experiments in the advanced labs make use of oscilloscopes and function
More informationUNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5  GainBandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore
More informationOscilloscope, Function Generator, and Voltage Division
1. Introduction Oscilloscope, Function Generator, and Voltage Division In this lab the student will learn to use the oscilloscope and function generator. The student will also verify the concept of voltage
More informationAnalog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals
1 Analog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals Required reading: Garcia 3.1, 3.2 CSE 3213, Fall 2010 Instructor: N. Vlajic 2 Data vs. Signal Analog vs. Digital Analog Signals
More informationT = 1 f. Phase. Measure of relative position in time within a single period of a signal For a periodic signal f(t), phase is fractional part t p
Data Transmission Concepts and terminology Transmission terminology Transmission from transmitter to receiver goes over some transmission medium using electromagnetic waves Guided media. Waves are guided
More informationSpectral Analysis Using a DeepMemory Oscilloscope Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
Spectral Analysis Using a DeepMemory Oscilloscope Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) For Use with Infiniium 54830B Series DeepMemory Oscilloscopes Application Note 13831 Table of Contents Introduction........................
More informationCHARGING and DISCHARGING CAPACITORS
Lab 4 Oscilloscopes, Electrocardiograms, Discharging Capacitors LAB 4a LAB 4b Lab 4c THE OSCILLOSCOPE ELECTROCARDIOGRAMS (ECG or EKG) CHARGING and DISCHARGING CAPACITORS EXPERIMENTAL QUESTION In this lab,
More informationFREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER
2014 Amplifier  1 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER The objectives of this experiment are: To understand the concept of HIFI audio equipment To generate a frequency response curve for an audio
More informationElectrical Resonance
Electrical Resonance (RLC series circuit) APPARATUS 1. RLC Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION
More informationNEW PRODUCT ANNOUCEMENT
URRllEN TECHNOLOGY NEW PRODUCT ANNOUCEMENT ADS1000CL+ / CML DSO Series 25MHz ~ 200MHz We are glad to introduce to our global customers our new series of Digital Storage Oscilloscope under ADS1000 CL+ &
More informationDIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b
DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,
More informationSIGNAL GENERATORS and OSCILLOSCOPE CALIBRATION
1 SIGNAL GENERATORS and OSCILLOSCOPE CALIBRATION By Lannes S. Purnell FLUKE CORPORATION 2 This paper shows how standard signal generators can be used as leveled sine wave sources for calibrating oscilloscopes.
More informationANALYZER BASICS WHAT IS AN FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER? 21
WHAT IS AN FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER? ANALYZER BASICS The SR760 FFT Spectrum Analyzer takes a time varying input signal, like you would see on an oscilloscope trace, and computes its frequency spectrum. Fourier's
More informationINTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES
2011 Interference  1 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES The objectives of this experiment are: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves. To observe interference phenomena
More informationAN1200.04. Application Note: FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: 902928 MHz. FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: 902928 MHz
AN1200.04 Application Note: FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: Copyright Semtech 2006 1 of 15 www.semtech.com 1 Table of Contents 1 Table of Contents...2 1.1 Index of Figures...2 1.2 Index of Tables...2
More informationε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied
Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and
More informationDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering BenGurion University of the Negev. LAB 1  Introduction to USRP
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering BenGurion University of the Negev LAB 1  Introduction to USRP  11 Introduction In this lab you will use software reconfigurable RF hardware from National
More informationMATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES
200 WOOD AVENUE, MIDDLESEX, NJ 08846 PHONE (732) 4699510 FAX (732) 4690418 MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES MTN107 TEST SETUP FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF XMOD, CTB, AND CSO USING A MEAN SQUARE CIRCUIT AS A DETECTOR
More informationFast Fourier Transforms and Power Spectra in LabVIEW
Application Note 4 Introduction Fast Fourier Transforms and Power Spectra in LabVIEW K. Fahy, E. Pérez Ph.D. The Fourier transform is one of the most powerful signal analysis tools, applicable to a wide
More informationEXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENTVOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP
1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENTVOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP Purpose: To demonstrate the relationship between the voltage and current of a capacitor. Theory: A capacitor is a linear circuit element whose
More informationFilter Comparison. Match #1: Analog vs. Digital Filters
CHAPTER 21 Filter Comparison Decisions, decisions, decisions! With all these filters to choose from, how do you know which to use? This chapter is a headtohead competition between filters; we'll select
More informationENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters
ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequencydependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence
More informationThe RC series circuit
School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 4 The C series circuit 1 Introduction Objectives To study the
More informationSilicon Laboratories, Inc. Rev 1.0 1
Clock Division with Jitter and Phase Noise Measurements Introduction As clock speeds and communication channels run at ever higher frequencies, accurate jitter and phase noise measurements become more
More informationExperiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor)
Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Concept: circuits Time: 30 m SW Interface: 750 Windows file: RLC.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage
More informationLab Exercise 1: Acoustic Waves
Lab Exercise 1: Acoustic Waves Contents 11 PRELAB ASSIGNMENT................. 2 13.1 Spreading Factor: Spherical Waves........ 2 13.2 Interference In 3D................. 3 14 EQUIPMENT........................
More informationSR2000 FREQUENCY MONITOR
SR2000 FREQUENCY MONITOR THE FFT SEARCH FUNCTION IN DETAILS FFT Search is a signal search using FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) technology. The FFT search function first appeared with the SR2000 Frequency
More informationCharge and Discharge of a Capacitor
Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage
More informationReading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189212, 222 224)
6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and
More informationSpectrum Analyzer. Software Instruction Manual
Spectrum Analyzer Software Instruction Manual 700 Chestnut Ridge Road Chestnut Ridge, NY, 109776499 Tel: (845) 4254000 Fax: (845) 578 5985 teledynelecroy.com Spectrum Analyzer Software Instruction Manual
More informationSignaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital
3.1 Analog vs. Digital Signaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital 1 3.1 Analog vs. Digital 2 WCB/McGrawHill The McGrawHill Companies, Inc., 1998
More informationTESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin
TESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin (Updated 7/19/08 to delete sine wave output) I constructed the 1 MHz square wave generator shown in the Appendix. This
More informationAgilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy
Agilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy Application Note RF & Microwave Spectrum Analyzers Table of Contents 3 3 4 4 5 7 8 8 13 13 14 16 16 Introduction Absolute versus relative
More informationApplication Note #4 Measuring Transmitter Power with the Oscilloscope Roger Stenbock W1RMS 4/19/2012
Application Note #4 Measuring Transmitter Power with the Oscilloscope Roger Stenbock W1RMS 4/19/2012 HF Amplifier Power Measurements: Power is often defined as peak power, carrier power, average power,
More informationCapacitors. We charge a capacitor by connecting the two plates to a potential difference, such as a battery:
RC Circuits PHYS 1112L Capacitors A capacitor is an electrical component that stores charge. The simplest capacitor is just two charged metal plates separated by a nonconducting material: In the diagram
More informationChapter 6. Single Sideband Transmitter Tests and Measurements
Chapter 6 Single Sideband Transmitter Tests and Measurements This chapter deals with the basic tests and measurements that can be used to evaluate the performance of single sideband suppressed carrier
More informationL and C connected together. To be able: To analyse some basic circuits.
circuits: Sinusoidal Voltages and urrents Aims: To appreciate: Similarities between oscillation in circuit and mechanical pendulum. Role of energy loss mechanisms in damping. Why we study sinusoidal signals
More informationClass #12: Experiment The Exponential Function in Circuits, Pt 1
Class #12: Experiment The Exponential Function in Circuits, Pt 1 Purpose: The objective of this experiment is to begin to become familiar with the properties and uses of the exponential function in circuits
More informationLab #9: AC Steady State Analysis
Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.
More informationCS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks
CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 2: RF Basics and Signal Encoding September 22, 2005 2005 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Basics of wireless communications
More informationName Date Day/Time of Lab Partner(s) Lab TA
Name Date Day/Time of Lab Partner(s) Lab TA Objectives LAB 7: AC CIRCUITS To understand the behavior of resistors, capacitors, and inductors in AC Circuits To understand the physical basis of frequencydependent
More informationThe Phase Modulator In NBFM Voice Communication Systems
The Phase Modulator In NBFM Voice Communication Systems Virgil Leenerts 8 March 5 The phase modulator has been a point of discussion as to why it is used and not a frequency modulator in what are called
More informationEXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS
EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES To understand the theory of operation of the clipping and clamping diode circuits. To design wave shapes that meet different circuits needs.
More informationR f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response
ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response
More informationPHYS 2426 Engineering Physics II (Revised July 7, 2011) AC CIRCUITS: RLC SERIES CIRCUIT
PHYS 2426 Engineering Physics II (Revised July 7, 2011) AC CIRCUITS: RLC SERIES CIRCUIT INTRODUCTION The objective of this experiment is to study the behavior of an RLC series circuit subject to an AC
More informationNumerical Parameters Analysis of Boonton 4540 Peak Power Meter
Application Note Numerical Parameters Analysis of Boonton 4540 Peak Power Meter Mazumder Alam Product Marketing Manager, Boonton Electronics Introduction The Boonton 4540 series RF peak power meters consisting
More informationFigure 1: Multiple unsynchronized snapshots of the same sinusoidal signal.
1 Oscilloscope Guide Introduction An oscilloscope is a device used to observe and measure timedependent electronic signals. It is essentially an enhanced voltmeter which displays a graph of potential
More informationUsing GNU Radio Companion: Tutorial 3. Receiving AM Signals
Using GNU Radio Companion: Tutorial 3. Receiving AM Signals This tutorial is a guide to receiving AM signals. It uses a data file that contains several seconds of recorded signals from the AM broadcast
More informationThe unique waveform control section starts with simple familiar waves and curves them into waves you haven't heard before.
The Q167 LFO++ is a Low Frequency Oscillator and universal modulator with a wide range of interesting features. This functionallydense module creates complex modulation with a variety of common and unusual
More informationExperiment 2 Diode Applications: Rectifiers
ECE 3550  Practicum Fall 2007 Experiment 2 Diode Applications: Rectifiers Objectives 1. To investigate the characteristics of halfwave and fullwave rectifier circuits. 2. To recognize the usefulness
More informationUser Manual. SDS1000DL/CNL/CML Series. Digital Storage Oscilloscope. Version No.: V 1.0. SIGLENT TECHNOLOGIES Co,.LTD
User Manual SDS1000DL/CNL/CML Series Digital Storage Oscilloscope Version No.: V 1.0 SIGLENT TECHNOLOGIES Co,.LTD Declaration Copyright by Siglent Technologies Co,.Ltd. All rights reserved. Contents in
More informationLABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Bridge Rectifier
LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER Fullwave Rectification: Bridge Rectifier For many electronic circuits, DC supply voltages are required but only AC voltages are available.
More informationPropScope USB Oscilloscope
USB Oscilloscope v1.0 December 2009 Manual by Hanno Sander 3 Table of Contents ForeWord... Part I Welcome... 4 Part II Getting... Started 6 2.1 Installation... 7 2.2 8 Connect...
More informationDigital Storage Oscilloscopes Models 2540B, 2542B, 2540BGEN, 2542BGEN
Data Sheet Digital Storage Oscilloscopes Models 2540B, 2542B, 2540BGEN, 2542BGEN The 2540B, 2542B, 2540BGEN, and 2542BGEN dual channel 60 MHz and 100 MHz digital storage oscilloscopes deliver performance
More informationAmplitude Modulation Fundamentals
3 chapter Amplitude Modulation Fundamentals In the modulation process, the baseband voice, video, or digital signal modifies another, higherfrequency signal called the carrier, which is usually a sine
More informationExperiment 3: Double Sideband Modulation (DSB)
Experiment 3: Double Sideband Modulation (DSB) This experiment examines the characteristics of the doublesideband (DSB) linear modulation process. The demodulation is performed coherently and its strict
More informationJeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics
Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Learning Objectives Name the major measurement strengths of a swepttuned spectrum analyzer Explain the importance of frequency
More informationDSO1062D/DSO1102D/DSO1202D different bandwidths. Digital Oscilloscope User Manual
DSO1062D/DSO1102D/DSO1202D different bandwidths Digital Oscilloscope User Manual Contents Contents Contents... i Copyright Declaration... iv Chapter 1 Safety Tips... 1 1.1 General Safety Summary...
More informationMicrowave signal generators
Course on Microwave Measurements Microwave signal generators Prof. Luca Perregrini Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering University of Pavia email: luca.perregrini@unipv.it web: microwave.unipv.it
More informationMODEL INDEX ADS1152CA ADS1102CA ADS1062CA ADS1022C
ADS1000C & CA Series DIGITAL STORAGE OSCILLOSCOPE 25MHz / 60MHz / 100MHz / 150MHz FEATURES 500MSa/s & 1GSa/s Sampling Rate 2 Channels 5.7in LCD Color USB Host/Device: Support USB Printer and USB Flash
More informationFOURIER TRANSFORM BASED SIMPLE CHORD ANALYSIS. UIUC Physics 193 POM
FOURIER TRANSFORM BASED SIMPLE CHORD ANALYSIS Fanbo Xiang UIUC Physics 193 POM Professor Steven M. Errede Fall 2014 1 Introduction Chords, an essential part of music, have long been analyzed. Different
More informationQ1. The graph below shows how a sinusoidal alternating voltage varies with time when connected across a resistor, R.
Q1. The graph below shows how a sinusoidal alternating voltage varies with time when connected across a resistor, R. (a) (i) State the peaktopeak voltage. peaktopeak voltage...v (1) (ii) State the
More informationDSO8000E SERIES HANDHELD OSCILLOSCOPE
DSO8000E SERIES HANDHELD OSCILLOSCOPE USER S MANUAL 8072E/8102E/8152E/8202E (V1.0.1) Contents Contents Contents... i Copyright Declaration... iii Chapter 1 Safety Tips... 1 1.1 General Safety Summary...
More informationA Guide to Calibrating Your Spectrum Analyzer
A Guide to Calibrating Your Application Note Introduction As a technician or engineer who works with electronics, you rely on your spectrum analyzer to verify that the devices you design, manufacture,
More informationSampling Theorem Notes. Recall: That a time sampled signal is like taking a snap shot or picture of signal periodically.
Sampling Theorem We will show that a band limited signal can be reconstructed exactly from its discrete time samples. Recall: That a time sampled signal is like taking a snap shot or picture of signal
More informationMultisim Electronics Workbench Tutorial
Multisim Electronics Workbench Tutorial Multisim Electronics Workbench is available in several different versions including a professional version, a demo version, a student version, and a textbook version.
More information1. Oscilloscope is basically a graphdisplaying deviceit draws a graph of an electrical signal.
CHAPTER 3: OSCILLOSCOPE AND SIGNAL GENERATOR 3.1 Introduction to oscilloscope 1. Oscilloscope is basically a graphdisplaying deviceit draws a graph of an electrical signal. 2. The graph show signal change
More informationThe Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper
The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper Products: R&S RTO1012 R&S RTO1014 R&S RTO1022 R&S RTO1024 This technical paper provides an introduction to the signal
More informationInductors in AC Circuits
Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum
More informationAgilent Spectrum Analysis Basics. Application Note 150
Agilent Spectrum Analysis Basics Application Note 150 Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction.......................................................4 Frequency domain versus time domain.......................................4
More informationThe Sonometer The Resonant String and Timbre Change after plucking
The Sonometer The Resonant String and Timbre Change after plucking EQUIPMENT Pasco sonometers (pick up 5 from teaching lab) and 5 kits to go with them BK Precision function generators and Tenma oscilloscopes
More informationElectronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT)
Page 1 Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) ECC RECOMMENDATION (06)01 Bandwidth measurements using FFT techniques
More informationMoving Average Filters
CHAPTER 15 Moving Average Filters The moving average is the most common filter in DSP, mainly because it is the easiest digital filter to understand and use. In spite of its simplicity, the moving average
More informationLab 3: Introduction to Data Acquisition Cards
Lab 3: Introduction to Data Acquisition Cards INTRODUCTION: In this lab, you will be building a VI to display the input measured on a channel. However, within your own VI you will use LabVIEW supplied
More informationEmbest DSO2300 USB Oscilloscope
Embest DSO2300 USB Oscilloscope  8bit, 100Ms/s, 50MHz, 2channel USB1.1/2.0 Compatible Digital Storage Oscilloscope  Multifunctions Including Logic Analyzer, Spectrum Analyzer (FFT), Record & Playback
More informationDCM555  Data Communications Lab 8 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Part 1  T1/DS1 Signals
DCM555  Data Communications Lab 8 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Part 1  T1/DS1 Signals Name: St. #: Section: (Note: Show all of your calculations, express your answer to the appropriate number of
More informationEE 186 LAB 2 FALL 2004. Network Analyzer Fundamentals and Two Tone Linearity
Network Analyzer Fundamentals and Two Tone Linearity Name: Name: Name: Objective: To become familiar with the basic operation of a network analyzer To use the network analyzer to characterize the inband
More informationAgilent 8990B Peak Power Analyzer
Agilent 8990B Peak Power Analyzer Pulse Radar Power Measurement Demo Guide Table of Contents Introduction 2 Demonstration Preparation 3 Demo 1: 14Pulse Characterization Measurement Demonstrate the capability
More informationThe Calculation of G rms
The Calculation of G rms QualMark Corp. Neill Doertenbach The metric of G rms is typically used to specify and compare the energy in repetitive shock vibration systems. However, the method of arriving
More informationRC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X
Objective RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X In this series of experiments, the time constant of an RC circuit will be measured experimentally and compared with the theoretical expression for
More informationTechnical Datasheet Scalar Network Analyzer Model 800310 MHz to 40 GHz
Technical Datasheet Scalar Network Analyzer Model 800310 MHz to 40 GHz The Gigatronics Model 8003 Precision Scalar Network Analyzer combines a 90 db wide dynamic range with the accuracy and linearity
More informationPhysics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors  Ohmic region
Physics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors  Ohmic region The FET can be used in two extreme ways. One is as a voltage controlled resistance, in the so called "Ohmic" region, for which V DS < V GS  V
More informationRIGOL. User s Guide. DSA800 Options and Accessories. Jan. 2012. RIGOL Technologies, Inc.
User s Guide Jan. 2012 RIGOL Technologies, Inc. Guaranty and Declaration Copyright 2012 RIGOL Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Trademark Information RIGOL is a registered trademark of RIGOL Technologies,
More informationAC 20123923: MEASUREMENT OF OPAMP PARAMETERS USING VEC TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY
AC 2123923: MEASUREMENT OF OPAMP PARAMETERS USING VEC TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY Dr. Tooran Emami, U.S. Coast Guard Academy Tooran Emami received her M.S. and Ph.D.
More informationMaking Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers
Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers Application Note Products: R&S ZVA R&S ZVB R&S ZVT R&S ZNB This application note describes how to configure a Rohde & Schwarz Network
More informationMaking Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz
Author: Don LaFontaine Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz Abstract Making accurate voltage and current noise measurements on op amps in
More informationAgilent ESAE Series Spectrum Analyzer. Bluetooth Measurement Option SelfGuided Demo Application Note
Agilent ESAE Series Spectrum Analyzer Bluetooth Measurement Option SelfGuided Demo Application Note Table of Contents What is Bluetooth.................................................... 3 The Bluetooth
More information