8.3 POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRE S THEOREM

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "8.3 POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRE S THEOREM"

Transcription

1 SECTION 8. POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRE S THEOREM POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRE S THEOREM Figure 8.6 (a, b) b r a 0 θ Complex Number: a + bi Rectagular Form: (a, b) Polar Form: (r, θ) At this poit you ca add, subtract, multiply, divide complex umbers. However, there is still oe basic procedure that is missig from the algebra of complex umbers. To see this, ider the problem of fidig the square root of a complex umber such as i. Whe you use the four basic operatios (additio, subtractio, multiplicatio, divisio), there seems to be o reaso to guess that i i. That is, To work effectively with powers roots of complex umbers, it is helpful to use a polar represetatio for complex umbers, as show i Figure 8.6. Specifically, if a bi is a ozero complex umber, the let be the agle from the positive x- to the radial lie passig through the poit (a, b) let r be the modulus of a bi. So, a r, b r si, i i. r a b you have a bi r r si i from which the followig polar form of a complex umber is obtaied. Defiitio of Polar Form of a Complex Number The polar form of the ozero complex umber z a bi is give by z r i si where a r, b r si, r a b, ta ba. The umber r is the modulus of z is the argumet of z.

2 484 CHAPTER 8 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES REMARK: The polar form of z 0 is give by z 0 i si where is ay agle. Because there are ifiitely may choices for the argumet, the polar form of a complex umber is ot uique. Normally, the values of that lie betwee are used, though o occasio it is coveiet to use other values. The value of that satisfies the iequality < Pricipal argumet is called the pricipal argumet is deoted by Arg(z). Two ozero complex umbers i polar form are equal if oly if they have the same modulus the same pricipal argumet. EXAMPLE Fidig the Polar Form of a Complex Number Fid the polar form of each of the complex umbers. (Use the pricipal argumet.) (a) i (b) i (c) i Solutio (a) Because a b, the r, which implies that r. From a r b r si, So, a r 4 z 4 i si 4. (b) Because a b, the r, which implies that r. So, a si b r r it follows that So, the polar form is z arcta i si arcta 0.98 i si0.98. (c) Because a 0 b, it follows that r so z i si arcta.. si b r., The polar forms derived i parts (a), (b), (c) are depicted graphically i Figure 8.7.

3 SECTION 8. POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRE S THEOREM 485 Figure 8.7 (a) z = + i si 4 4 θ z = i [ ( ) ( )] 4 z = + i θ (b) z = [(0.98) + i si(0.98)] z = i θ ( ) (c) z = + i si EXAMPLE Covertig from Polar to Stard Form Express the complex umber i stard form. Solutio Because si, you ca obtai the stard form The polar form adapts icely to multiplicatio divisio of complex umbers. Suppose you are give two complex umbers i polar form z z r i si r i si. The the product of z is give by Usig the trigoometric idetities you have z 8 i si z 8 i si 8 z z z r r i si i si r r si si i si si. si si si si si z z r r i si. i 4 4i. This establishes the first part of the followig theorem. The proof of the secod part is left to you. (See Exercise 6.)

4 486 CHAPTER 8 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES Theorem 8.4 Product Quotiet of Two Complex Numbers Give two complex umbers i polar form z z r i si r i si the product quotiet of the umbers are as follows. z z r r i si Product z z r r i si, z 0 Quotiet This theorem says that to multiply two complex umbers i polar form, multiply moduli add argumets, to divide two complex umbers, divide moduli subtract argumets. (See Figure 8.8.) Figure 8.8 z z z z z θ + θ r r r r z θ θ r r r r z z θ θ θ θ To multiply z z : Multiply moduli add argumets. To divide z by z : Divide moduli add argumets. EXAMPLE Solutio Multiplyig Dividig i Polar Form Determie z z z z for the complex umbers z 5 i si 4 Because you are give the polar forms of z z,you ca apply Theorem 8.4 as follows. z z 5 multiply divide z 5 z 4 4 subtract 4 add 6 i si 6 i si z i si subtract add i si 6. i si

5 SECTION 8. POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRE S THEOREM 487 REMARK: Try performig the multiplicatio divisio i Example usig the stard forms z DeMoivre s Theorem The fial topic i this sectio ivolves procedures for fidig powers roots of complex umbers. Repeated use of multiplicatio i the polar form yields Similarly, 5 5 z 4 r 4 4 i si 4 z 5 r 5 5 i si 5. i z 6 6 i. z r i si z r i si r i si r i si z r i si r i si r i si. This patter leads to the followig importat theorem, amed after the Frech mathematicia Abraham DeMoivre ( ). You are asked to prove this theorem i Chapter Review Exercise 7. Theorem 8.5 DeMoivre s Theorem If z r i si is ay positive iteger, the z r i si. EXAMPLE 4 Solutio Raisig a Complex Number to a Iteger Power Fid i write the result i stard form. First covert to polar form. For i, r which implies that. By DeMoivre s Theorem, So, i i si. i i si ta () i si ()

6 488 CHAPTER 8 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES i si i0) Recall that a equece of the Fudametal Theorem of Algebra is that a polyomial of degree has zeros i the complex umber system. So, a polyomial like px x 6 has six zeros, i this case you ca fid the six zeros by factorig usig the quadratic formula. x 6 x x x x x x x x Cosequetly, the zeros are x ±, x ± i, x ± i. Each of these umbers is called a sixth root of. I geeral, the th root of a complex umber is defied as follows. Defiitio of th Root of a Complex Number The complex umber w a bi is a th root of the complex umber z if z w a bi. DeMoivre s Theorem is useful i determiig roots of complex umbers. To see how this is doe, let w be a th root of z, where w s i si z r i. The, by DeMoivre s Theorem you have w s i si, because w z, it follows that s i si r i si. Now, because the right left sides of this equatio represet equal complex umbers, you ca equate moduli to obtai s r which implies that s r equate pricipal argumets to coclude that must differ by a multiple of. Note that r is a positive real umber so s r is also a positive real umber. Cosequetly, for some iteger k, which implies that k k,. Fially, substitutig this value for ito the polar form of w produces the result stated i the followig theorem.

7 SECTION 8. POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRE S THEOREM 489 Theorem 8.6 th Roots of a Complex Number Figure 8.9 r th Roots of a Complex Number For ay positive iteger, the complex umber z r i si has exactly distict roots. These roots are give by r k i si where k 0,,,...,. REMARK: Note that whe k exceeds, the roots begi to repeat. For istace, if k, the agle is k which yields the same value for the sie ie as k 0. The formula for the th roots of a complex umber has a ice geometric iterpretatio, as show i Figure 8.9. Note that because the th roots all have the same modulus (legth) r, they will lie o a circle of radius r with ceter at the origi. Furthermore, the roots are equally spaced alog the circle, because successive th roots have argumets that differ by. You have already foud the sixth roots of by factorig the quadratic formula. Try solvig the same problem usig Theorem 8.6 to see if you get the roots show i Figure 8.0. Whe Theorem 8.6 is applied to the real umber, the th roots are give a special ame the th roots of uity. Figure i + i i i 6th Roots of Uity

8 490 CHAPTER 8 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES EXAMPLE 5 Fidig the th Roots of a Complex Number Determie the fourth roots of i. Solutio I polar form, you ca write i as i i si so that r,. The, by applyig Theorem 8.6, you have i 4 4 k 4 4 i si k 4 4 k 8 Settig k 0,,, you obtai the four roots z i si z 5 5 i si z 9 9 i si z 4 i si as show i Figure 8.. i si 8 k. REMARK: I Figure 8. ote that whe each of the four agles, 8, 58, 98, 8 is multiplied by 4, the result is of the form k. Figure i si 5 + i si 9 + i si 9 + i si

9 SECTION 8. EXERCISES 49 SECTION 8. EXERCISES I Exercises 4, express the complex umber i polar form I Exercises 5 6, represet the complex umber graphically, give the polar form of the umber. (Use the priciple argumet.) 5. i 6. i 7. i 5 8. i 9. 6i i. 6i 4. i 5. i 6. 4 i I Exercises 7 6, represet the complex umber graphically, give the stard form of the umber. 7. i si i si 0. i 4 5 i si i i si. 8 i si i si i si i i si i si i si I Exercises 7 4, perform the idicated operatio leave the result i polar form I Exercises 5 44, use DeMoivre s Theorem to fid the idicated powers of the give complex umber. Express the result i stard form. 5. i 4 6. i 6 7. i 0 8. i7 9. i 40. i si i si i si [() i si()] 4[(9) i si(9)] (5) i si(5) i si [() i si()] [(6) i si(6)] 9[(4) i si(4)] 5[(4) i si(4)] 4. i si i si 0.5 i si 8 I Exercises 45 56, (a) use DeMoivre s Theorem to fid the idicated roots, (b) represet each of the roots graphically, (c) express each of the roots i stard form. 45. Square roots: 6 i si i si i si i si 6 4 i si 6 4 i si 9 9 i si i si 4

10 49 CHAPTER 8 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES 46. Square roots: 47. Fourth roots: 48. Fifth roots: 9 i si i si 5 5 i si Square roots: 5i 50. Fourth roots: 65i 5. Cube roots: 5 i 5. Cube roots: 4 i 5. Cube roots: Fourth roots: i 55. Fourth roots: 56. Cube roots: 000 I Exercises 57 6, fid all the solutios to the equatio represet your solutios graphically. 57. x 4 i x x x x 64i 0 6. x 4 i 0 6. Give two complex umbers z r i si z r i si with z 0 prove that z z r r i si. 64. Show that the complex cojugate of z r i si is z r i si. 65. Use the polar form of z z i Exercise 64 to fid each of the followig. (a) zz (b) zz, z Show that the egative of z r i si is z r i si. 67. Writig (a) Let z r i si Sketch z, 6 i si 6. iz, zi i the complex plae. (b) What is the geometric effect of multiplyig a complex umber z by i? What is the geometric effect of dividig z by i? 68. Calculus Recall that the Maclauri series for e x, si x, x are e x x x si x x x!! x! x 4 4!... x5 5! x 7 7!... x x! x 4 x6 4! 6!.... (a) Substitute x i ito the series for e x show that e i i si. (b) Show that ay complex umber z a bi ca be expressed i polar form as z re i. (c) Prove that if z re i, the z re i. (d) Prove the amazig formula e i.

Trigonometric Form of a Complex Number. The Complex Plane. axis. ( 2, 1) or 2 i FIGURE 6.44. The absolute value of the complex number z a bi is

Trigonometric Form of a Complex Number. The Complex Plane. axis. ( 2, 1) or 2 i FIGURE 6.44. The absolute value of the complex number z a bi is 0_0605.qxd /5/05 0:45 AM Page 470 470 Chapter 6 Additioal Topics i Trigoometry 6.5 Trigoometric Form of a Complex Number What you should lear Plot complex umbers i the complex plae ad fid absolute values

More information

Section 8.3 : De Moivre s Theorem and Applications

Section 8.3 : De Moivre s Theorem and Applications The Sectio 8 : De Moivre s Theorem ad Applicatios Let z 1 ad z be complex umbers, where z 1 = r 1, z = r, arg(z 1 ) = θ 1, arg(z ) = θ z 1 = r 1 (cos θ 1 + i si θ 1 ) z = r (cos θ + i si θ ) ad z 1 z =

More information

Section 6.1 Radicals and Rational Exponents

Section 6.1 Radicals and Rational Exponents Sectio 6.1 Radicals ad Ratioal Expoets Defiitio of Square Root The umber b is a square root of a if b The priciple square root of a positive umber is its positive square root ad we deote this root by usig

More information

1. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

1. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 1. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION EXAMPLE 1: Prove that for ay iteger 1. Proof: 1 + 2 + 3 +... + ( + 1 2 (1.1 STEP 1: For 1 (1.1 is true, sice 1 1(1 + 1. 2 STEP 2: Suppose (1.1 is true for some k 1, that is 1

More information

FIBONACCI NUMBERS: AN APPLICATION OF LINEAR ALGEBRA. 1. Powers of a matrix

FIBONACCI NUMBERS: AN APPLICATION OF LINEAR ALGEBRA. 1. Powers of a matrix FIBONACCI NUMBERS: AN APPLICATION OF LINEAR ALGEBRA. Powers of a matrix We begi with a propositio which illustrates the usefuless of the diagoalizatio. Recall that a square matrix A is diogaalizable if

More information

Sequences and Series

Sequences and Series CHAPTER 9 Sequeces ad Series 9.. Covergece: Defiitio ad Examples Sequeces The purpose of this chapter is to itroduce a particular way of geeratig algorithms for fidig the values of fuctios defied by their

More information

THE ARITHMETIC OF INTEGERS. - multiplication, exponentiation, division, addition, and subtraction

THE ARITHMETIC OF INTEGERS. - multiplication, exponentiation, division, addition, and subtraction THE ARITHMETIC OF INTEGERS - multiplicatio, expoetiatio, divisio, additio, ad subtractio What to do ad what ot to do. THE INTEGERS Recall that a iteger is oe of the whole umbers, which may be either positive,

More information

Literal Equations and Formulas

Literal Equations and Formulas . Literal Equatios ad Formulas. OBJECTIVE 1. Solve a literal equatio for a specified variable May problems i algebra require the use of formulas for their solutio. Formulas are simply equatios that express

More information

Convexity, Inequalities, and Norms

Convexity, Inequalities, and Norms Covexity, Iequalities, ad Norms Covex Fuctios You are probably familiar with the otio of cocavity of fuctios. Give a twicedifferetiable fuctio ϕ: R R, We say that ϕ is covex (or cocave up) if ϕ (x) 0 for

More information

Example 2 Find the square root of 0. The only square root of 0 is 0 (since 0 is not positive or negative, so those choices don t exist here).

Example 2 Find the square root of 0. The only square root of 0 is 0 (since 0 is not positive or negative, so those choices don t exist here). BEGINNING ALGEBRA Roots ad Radicals (revised summer, 00 Olso) Packet to Supplemet the Curret Textbook - Part Review of Square Roots & Irratioals (This portio ca be ay time before Part ad should mostly

More information

Soving Recurrence Relations

Soving Recurrence Relations Sovig Recurrece Relatios Part 1. Homogeeous liear 2d degree relatios with costat coefficiets. Cosider the recurrece relatio ( ) T () + at ( 1) + bt ( 2) = 0 This is called a homogeeous liear 2d degree

More information

3. Greatest Common Divisor - Least Common Multiple

3. Greatest Common Divisor - Least Common Multiple 3 Greatest Commo Divisor - Least Commo Multiple Defiitio 31: The greatest commo divisor of two atural umbers a ad b is the largest atural umber c which divides both a ad b We deote the greatest commo gcd

More information

4.1 Sigma Notation and Riemann Sums

4.1 Sigma Notation and Riemann Sums 0 the itegral. Sigma Notatio ad Riema Sums Oe strategy for calculatig the area of a regio is to cut the regio ito simple shapes, calculate the area of each simple shape, ad the add these smaller areas

More information

GCE Further Mathematics (6360) Further Pure Unit 2 (MFP2) Textbook. Version: 1.4

GCE Further Mathematics (6360) Further Pure Unit 2 (MFP2) Textbook. Version: 1.4 GCE Further Mathematics (660) Further Pure Uit (MFP) Tetbook Versio: 4 MFP Tetbook A-level Further Mathematics 660 Further Pure : Cotets Chapter : Comple umbers 4 Itroductio 5 The geeral comple umber 5

More information

DEFINITION OF INVERSE MATRIX

DEFINITION OF INVERSE MATRIX Lecture. Iverse matrix. To be read to the music of Back To You by Brya dams DEFINITION OF INVERSE TRIX Defiitio. Let is a square matrix. Some matrix B if it exists) is said to be iverse to if B B I where

More information

2-3 The Remainder and Factor Theorems

2-3 The Remainder and Factor Theorems - The Remaider ad Factor Theorems Factor each polyomial completely usig the give factor ad log divisio 1 x + x x 60; x + So, x + x x 60 = (x + )(x x 15) Factorig the quadratic expressio yields x + x x

More information

Chapter 5: Inner Product Spaces

Chapter 5: Inner Product Spaces Chapter 5: Ier Product Spaces Chapter 5: Ier Product Spaces SECION A Itroductio to Ier Product Spaces By the ed of this sectio you will be able to uderstad what is meat by a ier product space give examples

More information

8.1 Arithmetic Sequences

8.1 Arithmetic Sequences MCR3U Uit 8: Sequeces & Series Page 1 of 1 8.1 Arithmetic Sequeces Defiitio: A sequece is a comma separated list of ordered terms that follow a patter. Examples: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 : a sequece of the first

More information

Module 4: Mathematical Induction

Module 4: Mathematical Induction Module 4: Mathematical Iductio Theme 1: Priciple of Mathematical Iductio Mathematical iductio is used to prove statemets about atural umbers. As studets may remember, we ca write such a statemet as a predicate

More information

Math 114- Intermediate Algebra Integral Exponents & Fractional Exponents (10 )

Math 114- Intermediate Algebra Integral Exponents & Fractional Exponents (10 ) Math 4 Math 4- Itermediate Algebra Itegral Epoets & Fractioal Epoets (0 ) Epoetial Fuctios Epoetial Fuctios ad Graphs I. Epoetial Fuctios The fuctio f ( ) a, where is a real umber, a 0, ad a, is called

More information

1.3 Binomial Coefficients

1.3 Binomial Coefficients 18 CHAPTER 1. COUNTING 1. Biomial Coefficiets I this sectio, we will explore various properties of biomial coefficiets. Pascal s Triagle Table 1 cotais the values of the biomial coefficiets ( ) for 0to

More information

Divide and Conquer. Maximum/minimum. Integer Multiplication. CS125 Lecture 4 Fall 2015

Divide and Conquer. Maximum/minimum. Integer Multiplication. CS125 Lecture 4 Fall 2015 CS125 Lecture 4 Fall 2015 Divide ad Coquer We have see oe geeral paradigm for fidig algorithms: the greedy approach. We ow cosider aother geeral paradigm, kow as divide ad coquer. We have already see a

More information

Here are a couple of warnings to my students who may be here to get a copy of what happened on a day that you missed.

Here are a couple of warnings to my students who may be here to get a copy of what happened on a day that you missed. This documet was writte ad copyrighted by Paul Dawkis. Use of this documet ad its olie versio is govered by the Terms ad Coditios of Use located at http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.asp. The olie versio

More information

x(x 1)(x 2)... (x k + 1) = [x] k n+m 1

x(x 1)(x 2)... (x k + 1) = [x] k n+m 1 1 Coutig mappigs For every real x ad positive iteger k, let [x] k deote the fallig factorial ad x(x 1)(x 2)... (x k + 1) ( ) x = [x] k k k!, ( ) k = 1. 0 I the sequel, X = {x 1,..., x m }, Y = {y 1,...,

More information

FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS AND PRE-CALCULUS GRADE 10

FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS AND PRE-CALCULUS GRADE 10 FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS AND PRE-CALCULUS GRADE 10 [C] Commuicatio Measuremet A1. Solve problems that ivolve liear measuremet, usig: SI ad imperial uits of measure estimatio strategies measuremet strategies.

More information

The Euler Totient, the Möbius and the Divisor Functions

The Euler Totient, the Möbius and the Divisor Functions The Euler Totiet, the Möbius ad the Divisor Fuctios Rosica Dieva July 29, 2005 Mout Holyoke College South Hadley, MA 01075 1 Ackowledgemets This work was supported by the Mout Holyoke College fellowship

More information

In nite Sequences. Dr. Philippe B. Laval Kennesaw State University. October 9, 2008

In nite Sequences. Dr. Philippe B. Laval Kennesaw State University. October 9, 2008 I ite Sequeces Dr. Philippe B. Laval Keesaw State Uiversity October 9, 2008 Abstract This had out is a itroductio to i ite sequeces. mai de itios ad presets some elemetary results. It gives the I ite Sequeces

More information

The second difference is the sequence of differences of the first difference sequence, 2

The second difference is the sequence of differences of the first difference sequence, 2 Differece Equatios I differetial equatios, you look for a fuctio that satisfies ad equatio ivolvig derivatives. I differece equatios, istead of a fuctio of a cotiuous variable (such as time), we look for

More information

WHEN IS THE (CO)SINE OF A RATIONAL ANGLE EQUAL TO A RATIONAL NUMBER?

WHEN IS THE (CO)SINE OF A RATIONAL ANGLE EQUAL TO A RATIONAL NUMBER? WHEN IS THE (CO)SINE OF A RATIONAL ANGLE EQUAL TO A RATIONAL NUMBER? JÖRG JAHNEL 1. My Motivatio Some Sort of a Itroductio Last term I tought Topological Groups at the Göttige Georg August Uiversity. This

More information

.04. This means $1000 is multiplied by 1.02 five times, once for each of the remaining sixmonth

.04. This means $1000 is multiplied by 1.02 five times, once for each of the remaining sixmonth Questio 1: What is a ordiary auity? Let s look at a ordiary auity that is certai ad simple. By this, we mea a auity over a fixed term whose paymet period matches the iterest coversio period. Additioally,

More information

7.1 Finding Rational Solutions of Polynomial Equations

7.1 Finding Rational Solutions of Polynomial Equations 4 Locker LESSON 7. Fidig Ratioal Solutios of Polyomial Equatios Name Class Date 7. Fidig Ratioal Solutios of Polyomial Equatios Essetial Questio: How do you fid the ratioal roots of a polyomial equatio?

More information

SEQUENCES AND SERIES

SEQUENCES AND SERIES Chapter 9 SEQUENCES AND SERIES Natural umbers are the product of huma spirit. DEDEKIND 9.1 Itroductio I mathematics, the word, sequece is used i much the same way as it is i ordiary Eglish. Whe we say

More information

Basic Elements of Arithmetic Sequences and Series

Basic Elements of Arithmetic Sequences and Series MA40S PRE-CALCULUS UNIT G GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES CLASS NOTES (COMPLETED NO NEED TO COPY NOTES FROM OVERHEAD) Basic Elemets of Arithmetic Sequeces ad Series Objective: To establish basic elemets of arithmetic

More information

Solving Divide-and-Conquer Recurrences

Solving Divide-and-Conquer Recurrences Solvig Divide-ad-Coquer Recurreces Victor Adamchik A divide-ad-coquer algorithm cosists of three steps: dividig a problem ito smaller subproblems solvig (recursively) each subproblem the combiig solutios

More information

CS103X: Discrete Structures Homework 4 Solutions

CS103X: Discrete Structures Homework 4 Solutions CS103X: Discrete Structures Homewor 4 Solutios Due February 22, 2008 Exercise 1 10 poits. Silico Valley questios: a How may possible six-figure salaries i whole dollar amouts are there that cotai at least

More information

Arithmetic Sequences and Partial Sums. Arithmetic Sequences. Definition of Arithmetic Sequence. Example 1. 7, 11, 15, 19,..., 4n 3,...

Arithmetic Sequences and Partial Sums. Arithmetic Sequences. Definition of Arithmetic Sequence. Example 1. 7, 11, 15, 19,..., 4n 3,... 3330_090.qxd 1/5/05 11:9 AM Page 653 Sectio 9. Arithmetic Sequeces ad Partial Sums 653 9. Arithmetic Sequeces ad Partial Sums What you should lear Recogize,write, ad fid the th terms of arithmetic sequeces.

More information

Infinite Sequences and Series

Infinite Sequences and Series CHAPTER 4 Ifiite Sequeces ad Series 4.1. Sequeces A sequece is a ifiite ordered list of umbers, for example the sequece of odd positive itegers: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29...

More information

Equation of a line. Line in coordinate geometry. Slope-intercept form ( 斜 截 式 ) Intercept form ( 截 距 式 ) Point-slope form ( 點 斜 式 )

Equation of a line. Line in coordinate geometry. Slope-intercept form ( 斜 截 式 ) Intercept form ( 截 距 式 ) Point-slope form ( 點 斜 式 ) Chapter : Liear Equatios Chapter Liear Equatios Lie i coordiate geometr I Cartesia coordiate sstems ( 卡 笛 兒 坐 標 系 統 ), a lie ca be represeted b a liear equatio, i.e., a polomial with degree. But before

More information

S. Tanny MAT 344 Spring 1999. be the minimum number of moves required.

S. Tanny MAT 344 Spring 1999. be the minimum number of moves required. S. Tay MAT 344 Sprig 999 Recurrece Relatios Tower of Haoi Let T be the miimum umber of moves required. T 0 = 0, T = 7 Iitial Coditios * T = T + $ T is a sequece (f. o itegers). Solve for T? * is a recurrece,

More information

SAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR FINAL EXAM. (1) (2) (3) (4) Find the following using the definition of the Riemann integral: (2x + 1)dx

SAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR FINAL EXAM. (1) (2) (3) (4) Find the following using the definition of the Riemann integral: (2x + 1)dx SAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR FINAL EXAM REAL ANALYSIS I FALL 006 3 4 Fid the followig usig the defiitio of the Riema itegral: a 0 x + dx 3 Cosider the partitio P x 0 3, x 3 +, x 3 +,......, x 3 3 + 3 of the iterval

More information

Definition. A variable X that takes on values X 1, X 2, X 3,...X k with respective frequencies f 1, f 2, f 3,...f k has mean

Definition. A variable X that takes on values X 1, X 2, X 3,...X k with respective frequencies f 1, f 2, f 3,...f k has mean 1 Social Studies 201 October 13, 2004 Note: The examples i these otes may be differet tha used i class. However, the examples are similar ad the methods used are idetical to what was preseted i class.

More information

CS103A Handout 23 Winter 2002 February 22, 2002 Solving Recurrence Relations

CS103A Handout 23 Winter 2002 February 22, 2002 Solving Recurrence Relations CS3A Hadout 3 Witer 00 February, 00 Solvig Recurrece Relatios Itroductio A wide variety of recurrece problems occur i models. Some of these recurrece relatios ca be solved usig iteratio or some other ad

More information

Mathematical goals. Starting points. Materials required. Time needed

Mathematical goals. Starting points. Materials required. Time needed Level A1 of challege: C A1 Mathematical goals Startig poits Materials required Time eeded Iterpretig algebraic expressios To help learers to: traslate betwee words, symbols, tables, ad area represetatios

More information

Engineering 323 Beautiful Homework Set 3 1 of 7 Kuszmar Problem 2.51

Engineering 323 Beautiful Homework Set 3 1 of 7 Kuszmar Problem 2.51 Egieerig 33 eautiful Homewor et 3 of 7 Kuszmar roblem.5.5 large departmet store sells sport shirts i three sizes small, medium, ad large, three patters plaid, prit, ad stripe, ad two sleeve legths log

More information

Algebra Vocabulary List (Definitions for Middle School Teachers)

Algebra Vocabulary List (Definitions for Middle School Teachers) Algebra Vocabulary List (Defiitios for Middle School Teachers) A Absolute Value Fuctio The absolute value of a real umber x, x is xifx 0 x = xifx < 0 http://www.math.tamu.edu/~stecher/171/f02/absolutevaluefuctio.pdf

More information

4 n. n 1. You shold think of the Ratio Test as a generalization of the Geometric Series Test. For example, if a n ar n is a geometric sequence then

4 n. n 1. You shold think of the Ratio Test as a generalization of the Geometric Series Test. For example, if a n ar n is a geometric sequence then SECTION 2.6 THE RATIO TEST 79 2.6. THE RATIO TEST We ow kow how to hadle series which we ca itegrate (the Itegral Test), ad series which are similar to geometric or p-series (the Compariso Test), but of

More information

Asymptotic Growth of Functions

Asymptotic Growth of Functions CMPS Itroductio to Aalysis of Algorithms Fall 3 Asymptotic Growth of Fuctios We itroduce several types of asymptotic otatio which are used to compare the performace ad efficiecy of algorithms As we ll

More information

Theorems About Power Series

Theorems About Power Series Physics 6A Witer 20 Theorems About Power Series Cosider a power series, f(x) = a x, () where the a are real coefficiets ad x is a real variable. There exists a real o-egative umber R, called the radius

More information

REVISION SHEET FP2 (AQA) CALCULUS. x x π π. Standard Calculus of Inverse Trig and Hyperbolic Trig Functions = + arcsin x = + ar sinh x

REVISION SHEET FP2 (AQA) CALCULUS. x x π π. Standard Calculus of Inverse Trig and Hyperbolic Trig Functions = + arcsin x = + ar sinh x the Further Mathematics etwork www.fmetwork.org.uk V 07 REVISION SHEET FP (AQA) CALCULUS The mai ideas are: Calculus usig iverse trig fuctios & hperbolic trig fuctios ad their iverses. Calculatig arc legths.

More information

CME 302: NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA FALL 2005/06 LECTURE 8

CME 302: NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA FALL 2005/06 LECTURE 8 CME 30: NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA FALL 005/06 LECTURE 8 GENE H GOLUB 1 Positive Defiite Matrices A matrix A is positive defiite if x Ax > 0 for all ozero x A positive defiite matrix has real ad positive

More information

Cooley-Tukey. Tukey FFT Algorithms. FFT Algorithms. Cooley

Cooley-Tukey. Tukey FFT Algorithms. FFT Algorithms. Cooley Cooley Cooley-Tuey Tuey FFT Algorithms FFT Algorithms Cosider a legth- sequece x[ with a -poit DFT X[ where Represet the idices ad as +, +, Cooley Cooley-Tuey Tuey FFT Algorithms FFT Algorithms Usig these

More information

INFINITE SERIES KEITH CONRAD

INFINITE SERIES KEITH CONRAD INFINITE SERIES KEITH CONRAD. Itroductio The two basic cocepts of calculus, differetiatio ad itegratio, are defied i terms of limits (Newto quotiets ad Riema sums). I additio to these is a third fudametal

More information

Sequences II. Chapter 3. 3.1 Convergent Sequences

Sequences II. Chapter 3. 3.1 Convergent Sequences Chapter 3 Sequeces II 3. Coverget Sequeces Plot a graph of the sequece a ) = 2, 3 2, 4 3, 5 + 4,...,,... To what limit do you thik this sequece teds? What ca you say about the sequece a )? For ǫ = 0.,

More information

Linear Algebra II. 4 Determinants. Notes 4 1st November Definition of determinant

Linear Algebra II. 4 Determinants. Notes 4 1st November Definition of determinant MTH6140 Liear Algebra II Notes 4 1st November 2010 4 Determiats The determiat is a fuctio defied o square matrices; its value is a scalar. It has some very importat properties: perhaps most importat is

More information

{{1}, {2, 4}, {3}} {{1, 3, 4}, {2}} {{1}, {2}, {3, 4}} 5.4 Stirling Numbers

{{1}, {2, 4}, {3}} {{1, 3, 4}, {2}} {{1}, {2}, {3, 4}} 5.4 Stirling Numbers . Stirlig Numbers Whe coutig various types of fuctios from., we quicly discovered that eumeratig the umber of oto fuctios was a difficult problem. For a domai of five elemets ad a rage of four elemets,

More information

1 Computing the Standard Deviation of Sample Means

1 Computing the Standard Deviation of Sample Means Computig the Stadard Deviatio of Sample Meas Quality cotrol charts are based o sample meas ot o idividual values withi a sample. A sample is a group of items, which are cosidered all together for our aalysis.

More information

Our aim is to show that under reasonable assumptions a given 2π-periodic function f can be represented as convergent series

Our aim is to show that under reasonable assumptions a given 2π-periodic function f can be represented as convergent series 8 Fourier Series Our aim is to show that uder reasoable assumptios a give -periodic fuctio f ca be represeted as coverget series f(x) = a + (a cos x + b si x). (8.) By defiitio, the covergece of the series

More information

MATH 083 Final Exam Review

MATH 083 Final Exam Review MATH 08 Fial Eam Review Completig the problems i this review will greatly prepare you for the fial eam Calculator use is ot required, but you are permitted to use a calculator durig the fial eam period

More information

Lecture 5: Span, linear independence, bases, and dimension

Lecture 5: Span, linear independence, bases, and dimension Lecture 5: Spa, liear idepedece, bases, ad dimesio Travis Schedler Thurs, Sep 23, 2010 (versio: 9/21 9:55 PM) 1 Motivatio Motivatio To uderstad what it meas that R has dimesio oe, R 2 dimesio 2, etc.;

More information

NOTES ON INEQUALITIES FELIX LAZEBNIK

NOTES ON INEQUALITIES FELIX LAZEBNIK NOTES ON INEQUALITIES FELIX LAZEBNIK Order ad iequalities are fudametal otios of moder mathematics. Calculus ad Aalysis deped heavily o them, ad properties of iequalities provide the mai tool for developig

More information

SECTION 1.5 : SUMMATION NOTATION + WORK WITH SEQUENCES

SECTION 1.5 : SUMMATION NOTATION + WORK WITH SEQUENCES SECTION 1.5 : SUMMATION NOTATION + WORK WITH SEQUENCES Read Sectio 1.5 (pages 5 9) Overview I Sectio 1.5 we lear to work with summatio otatio ad formulas. We will also itroduce a brief overview of sequeces,

More information

Lecture 4: Cheeger s Inequality

Lecture 4: Cheeger s Inequality Spectral Graph Theory ad Applicatios WS 0/0 Lecture 4: Cheeger s Iequality Lecturer: Thomas Sauerwald & He Su Statemet of Cheeger s Iequality I this lecture we assume for simplicity that G is a d-regular

More information

Laws of Exponents Learning Strategies

Laws of Exponents Learning Strategies Laws of Epoets Learig Strategies What should studets be able to do withi this iteractive? Studets should be able to uderstad ad use of the laws of epoets. Studets should be able to simplify epressios that

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY

CHAPTER 3 THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY CHAPTER 3 THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY OVERVIEW A dollar i the had today is worth more tha a dollar to be received i the future because, if you had it ow, you could ivest that dollar ad ear iterest. Of all

More information

Factoring x n 1: cyclotomic and Aurifeuillian polynomials Paul Garrett

Factoring x n 1: cyclotomic and Aurifeuillian polynomials Paul Garrett <garrett@math.umn.edu> (March 16, 004) Factorig x 1: cyclotomic ad Aurifeuillia polyomials Paul Garrett Polyomials of the form x 1, x 3 1, x 4 1 have at least oe systematic factorizatio x 1 = (x 1)(x 1

More information

Measures of Spread and Boxplots Discrete Math, Section 9.4

Measures of Spread and Boxplots Discrete Math, Section 9.4 Measures of Spread ad Boxplots Discrete Math, Sectio 9.4 We start with a example: Example 1: Comparig Mea ad Media Compute the mea ad media of each data set: S 1 = {4, 6, 8, 10, 1, 14, 16} S = {4, 7, 9,

More information

Solving equations. Pre-test. Warm-up

Solving equations. Pre-test. Warm-up Solvig equatios 8 Pre-test Warm-up We ca thik of a algebraic equatio as beig like a set of scales. The two sides of the equatio are equal, so the scales are balaced. If we add somethig to oe side of the

More information

NUMBERS COMMON TO TWO POLYGONAL SEQUENCES

NUMBERS COMMON TO TWO POLYGONAL SEQUENCES NUMBERS COMMON TO TWO POLYGONAL SEQUENCES DIANNE SMITH LUCAS Chia Lake, Califoria a iteger, The polygoal sequece (or sequeces of polygoal umbers) of order r (where r is r > 3) may be defied recursively

More information

Tangent circles in the ratio 2 : 1. Hiroshi Okumura and Masayuki Watanabe. In this article we consider the following old Japanese geometry problem

Tangent circles in the ratio 2 : 1. Hiroshi Okumura and Masayuki Watanabe. In this article we consider the following old Japanese geometry problem 116 Taget circles i the ratio 2 : 1 Hiroshi Okumura ad Masayuki Wataabe I this article we cosider the followig old Japaese geometry problem (see Figure 1), whose statemet i [1, p. 39] is missig the coditio

More information

Section 1.6: Proof by Mathematical Induction

Section 1.6: Proof by Mathematical Induction Sectio.6 Proof by Iductio Sectio.6: Proof by Mathematical Iductio Purpose of Sectio: To itroduce the Priciple of Mathematical Iductio, both weak ad the strog versios, ad show how certai types of theorems

More information

Lecture 4: Cauchy sequences, Bolzano-Weierstrass, and the Squeeze theorem

Lecture 4: Cauchy sequences, Bolzano-Weierstrass, and the Squeeze theorem Lecture 4: Cauchy sequeces, Bolzao-Weierstrass, ad the Squeeze theorem The purpose of this lecture is more modest tha the previous oes. It is to state certai coditios uder which we are guarateed that limits

More information

Complex Numbers. where x represents a root of Equation 1. Note that the ± sign tells us that quadratic equations will have

Complex Numbers. where x represents a root of Equation 1. Note that the ± sign tells us that quadratic equations will have Comple Numbers I spite of Calvi s discomfiture, imagiar umbers (a subset of the set of comple umbers) eist ad are ivaluable i mathematics, egieerig, ad sciece. I fact, i certai fields, such as electrical

More information

Section 11.3: The Integral Test

Section 11.3: The Integral Test Sectio.3: The Itegral Test Most of the series we have looked at have either diverged or have coverged ad we have bee able to fid what they coverge to. I geeral however, the problem is much more difficult

More information

Class Meeting # 16: The Fourier Transform on R n

Class Meeting # 16: The Fourier Transform on R n MATH 18.152 COUSE NOTES - CLASS MEETING # 16 18.152 Itroductio to PDEs, Fall 2011 Professor: Jared Speck Class Meetig # 16: The Fourier Trasform o 1. Itroductio to the Fourier Trasform Earlier i the course,

More information

Approximating Area under a curve with rectangles. To find the area under a curve we approximate the area using rectangles and then use limits to find

Approximating Area under a curve with rectangles. To find the area under a curve we approximate the area using rectangles and then use limits to find 1.8 Approximatig Area uder a curve with rectagles 1.6 To fid the area uder a curve we approximate the area usig rectagles ad the use limits to fid 1.4 the area. Example 1 Suppose we wat to estimate 1.

More information

Properties of MLE: consistency, asymptotic normality. Fisher information.

Properties of MLE: consistency, asymptotic normality. Fisher information. Lecture 3 Properties of MLE: cosistecy, asymptotic ormality. Fisher iformatio. I this sectio we will try to uderstad why MLEs are good. Let us recall two facts from probability that we be used ofte throughout

More information

NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE GRADE 12

NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE GRADE 12 NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE GRADE MATHEMATICS P EXEMPLAR 04 MARKS: 50 TIME: 3 hours This questio paper cosists of 8 pages ad iformatio sheet. Please tur over Mathematics/P DBE/04 NSC Grade Eemplar INSTRUCTIONS

More information

A function f whose domain is the set of positive integers is called a sequence. The values

A function f whose domain is the set of positive integers is called a sequence. The values EQUENCE: A fuctio f whose domi is the set of positive itegers is clled sequece The vlues f ( ), f (), f (),, f (), re clled the terms of the sequece; f() is the first term, f() is the secod term, f() is

More information

5.4 Amortization. Question 1: How do you find the present value of an annuity? Question 2: How is a loan amortized?

5.4 Amortization. Question 1: How do you find the present value of an annuity? Question 2: How is a loan amortized? 5.4 Amortizatio Questio 1: How do you fid the preset value of a auity? Questio 2: How is a loa amortized? Questio 3: How do you make a amortizatio table? Oe of the most commo fiacial istrumets a perso

More information

Figure 40.1. Figure 40.2

Figure 40.1. Figure 40.2 40 Regular Polygos Covex ad Cocave Shapes A plae figure is said to be covex if every lie segmet draw betwee ay two poits iside the figure lies etirely iside the figure. A figure that is ot covex is called

More information

AP Calculus BC 2003 Scoring Guidelines Form B

AP Calculus BC 2003 Scoring Guidelines Form B AP Calculus BC Scorig Guidelies Form B The materials icluded i these files are iteded for use by AP teachers for course ad exam preparatio; permissio for ay other use must be sought from the Advaced Placemet

More information

Recursion and Recurrences

Recursion and Recurrences Chapter 5 Recursio ad Recurreces 5.1 Growth Rates of Solutios to Recurreces Divide ad Coquer Algorithms Oe of the most basic ad powerful algorithmic techiques is divide ad coquer. Cosider, for example,

More information

7. Sample Covariance and Correlation

7. Sample Covariance and Correlation 1 of 8 7/16/2009 6:06 AM Virtual Laboratories > 6. Radom Samples > 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. Sample Covariace ad Correlatio The Bivariate Model Suppose agai that we have a basic radom experimet, ad that X ad Y

More information

Solutions to Selected Problems In: Pattern Classification by Duda, Hart, Stork

Solutions to Selected Problems In: Pattern Classification by Duda, Hart, Stork Solutios to Selected Problems I: Patter Classificatio by Duda, Hart, Stork Joh L. Weatherwax February 4, 008 Problem Solutios Chapter Bayesia Decisio Theory Problem radomized rules Part a: Let Rx be the

More information

Fast Fourier Transform

Fast Fourier Transform 18.310 lecture otes November 18, 2013 Fast Fourier Trasform Lecturer: Michel Goemas I these otes we defie the Discrete Fourier Trasform, ad give a method for computig it fast: the Fast Fourier Trasform.

More information

I. Chi-squared Distributions

I. Chi-squared Distributions 1 M 358K Supplemet to Chapter 23: CHI-SQUARED DISTRIBUTIONS, T-DISTRIBUTIONS, AND DEGREES OF FREEDOM To uderstad t-distributios, we first eed to look at aother family of distributios, the chi-squared distributios.

More information

The Field Q of Rational Numbers

The Field Q of Rational Numbers Chapter 3 The Field Q of Ratioal Numbers I this chapter we are goig to costruct the ratioal umber from the itegers. Historically, the positive ratioal umbers came first: the Babyloias, Egyptias ad Grees

More information

Lecture 13. Lecturer: Jonathan Kelner Scribe: Jonathan Pines (2009)

Lecture 13. Lecturer: Jonathan Kelner Scribe: Jonathan Pines (2009) 18.409 A Algorithmist s Toolkit October 27, 2009 Lecture 13 Lecturer: Joatha Keler Scribe: Joatha Pies (2009) 1 Outlie Last time, we proved the Bru-Mikowski iequality for boxes. Today we ll go over the

More information

Partial Di erential Equations

Partial Di erential Equations Partial Di eretial Equatios Partial Di eretial Equatios Much of moder sciece, egieerig, ad mathematics is based o the study of partial di eretial equatios, where a partial di eretial equatio is a equatio

More information

AQA STATISTICS 1 REVISION NOTES

AQA STATISTICS 1 REVISION NOTES AQA STATISTICS 1 REVISION NOTES AVERAGES AND MEASURES OF SPREAD www.mathsbox.org.uk Mode : the most commo or most popular data value the oly average that ca be used for qualitative data ot suitable if

More information

Chapter 9: Correlation and Regression: Solutions

Chapter 9: Correlation and Regression: Solutions Chapter 9: Correlatio ad Regressio: Solutios 9.1 Correlatio I this sectio, we aim to aswer the questio: Is there a relatioship betwee A ad B? Is there a relatioship betwee the umber of emploee traiig hours

More information

TAYLOR SERIES, POWER SERIES

TAYLOR SERIES, POWER SERIES TAYLOR SERIES, POWER SERIES The followig represets a (icomplete) collectio of thigs that we covered o the subject of Taylor series ad power series. Warig. Be prepared to prove ay of these thigs durig the

More information

where: T = number of years of cash flow in investment's life n = the year in which the cash flow X n i = IRR = the internal rate of return

where: T = number of years of cash flow in investment's life n = the year in which the cash flow X n i = IRR = the internal rate of return EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROGRAMS By Ke D. Duft, Extesio Ecoomist I the March 98 issue of this publicatio we reviewed the procedure by which a capital ivestmet project was assessed. The

More information

Question 2: How is a loan amortized?

Question 2: How is a loan amortized? Questio 2: How is a loa amortized? Decreasig auities may be used i auto or home loas. I these types of loas, some amout of moey is borrowed. Fixed paymets are made to pay off the loa as well as ay accrued

More information

BINOMIAL EXPANSIONS 12.5. In this section. Some Examples. Obtaining the Coefficients

BINOMIAL EXPANSIONS 12.5. In this section. Some Examples. Obtaining the Coefficients 652 (12-26) Chapter 12 Sequeces ad Series 12.5 BINOMIAL EXPANSIONS I this sectio Some Examples Otaiig the Coefficiets The Biomial Theorem I Chapter 5 you leared how to square a iomial. I this sectio you

More information

arxiv:1012.1336v2 [cs.cc] 8 Dec 2010

arxiv:1012.1336v2 [cs.cc] 8 Dec 2010 Uary Subset-Sum is i Logspace arxiv:1012.1336v2 [cs.cc] 8 Dec 2010 1 Itroductio Daiel M. Kae December 9, 2010 I this paper we cosider the Uary Subset-Sum problem which is defied as follows: Give itegers

More information

Modified Line Search Method for Global Optimization

Modified Line Search Method for Global Optimization Modified Lie Search Method for Global Optimizatio Cria Grosa ad Ajith Abraham Ceter of Excellece for Quatifiable Quality of Service Norwegia Uiversity of Sciece ad Techology Trodheim, Norway {cria, ajith}@q2s.tu.o

More information

5.3. Generalized Permutations and Combinations

5.3. Generalized Permutations and Combinations 53 GENERALIZED PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 73 53 Geeralized Permutatios ad Combiatios 53 Permutatios with Repeated Elemets Assume that we have a alphabet with letters ad we wat to write all possible

More information

Department of Computer Science, University of Otago

Department of Computer Science, University of Otago Departmet of Computer Sciece, Uiversity of Otago Techical Report OUCS-2006-09 Permutatios Cotaiig May Patters Authors: M.H. Albert Departmet of Computer Sciece, Uiversity of Otago Micah Colema, Rya Fly

More information

Incremental calculation of weighted mean and variance

Incremental calculation of weighted mean and variance Icremetal calculatio of weighted mea ad variace Toy Fich faf@cam.ac.uk dot@dotat.at Uiversity of Cambridge Computig Service February 009 Abstract I these otes I eplai how to derive formulae for umerically

More information