Fig. 2 shows a simple step waveform in which switching time of power devices are not considered and assuming the switch is ideal.


 Moses Darcy Knight
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 CHAPTER 3: ANAYSIS OF THREEEE INERTER In this chapter an analysis of threelevel converter is presented by considering the output voltage waveform in order to determine the switching angle of power devices. As a result of this a fundamental voltage is achieved. Besides, the harmonic elimination technique has been presented with considering onoff switching time to analyse the output voltage waveform and harmonic content in different modes. Fig. 1 One phase leg of a threelevel inverter The fig.1 shows a schematic diagram of one phase leg of a threelevel inverter, in which the power semiconductors is represented for ideal switch with several position. In this circuit the dc bus voltage is split into three levels by connecting two series capacitors C 1 and C 2. The middle point of the two capacitors can be defined as a neutral point. As a result of this the threelevel converter generates an output voltage with three values: dc /2,, and  dc /2 corresponding to point 1, 2 and 3. Fig. 2 shows a simple step waveform in which switching time of power devices are not considered and assuming the switch is ideal. Fig. 2 Output voltage waveform of quasisquare waveform of threelevel inverter Page 1
2 3.1 Mathematical analysis of optimize harmonic elimination technique Fourier analysis for output voltage Any periodic waveform can be represented as composed of the superposition of dc component with a fundamental sinewave component, together with pure sinewaves known as harmonics at the frequencies which are the multiple of fundamental frequency (Sen, 1988). Mathematical expression of a nonsinusoid wave is as the following: ( t) cos( t ) cos(2 t )... cos( nt ) (3.1) n n Where: (t) is the instantaneous value at any time t is the value of dc component n is the value of n th harmonic components θ n is the relative angular reference It is welldocumented that: Acos( t ) Acos tcos Asin tsin ; Put a Acos b Asin Acos( t ) acos t bsin t Therefore, cos( nt ) a cos nt b sin nt (3.2) n n n n Alternatively, the equation (3.1) can be expressed as the following ( t) a cos nt b sin nt n n1 n1 n The general expression of Fourier series of quasisquare wave is given as: ( t) ( an cos nt bn sin nt ) (3.3) n1 Where: is the direct (or mean) value. a n, b n are called the Fourier coefficients. From the waveform of fig. 2, it is clear that = Page 2
3 The R.M.S voltage is calculated by T 1/2 1 2 ( rms) ( t) dt T 1/ dt ( ) dt /2 1/2 2 (3.4) To obtain a n T 1 an ( t)cos( nt ) d( t) T 2 1 cos( nt) d( t) cos( nt) d( t) 2 sin( nt) sin( nt) n sin( n n ) sin n sin(2 n n ) sin( n n ) n sin( n n ) sin( n n ) sin n sin 2n cos n cos 2n sin n ) n (2 sin cos ) sin sin n n n n n Due to sin n for all value of n (n=1,2,3 ) cos 2n 1 It can be concluded that there is no cosine term To obtain b n T 1 bn ( t)sin( nt ) d( t) T Page 3
4 2 1 sin( nt ) d( t) sin( nt ) d( t) cos( ) cos( ) n nt nt 2 cos( n n ) cos n cos(2 n n ) cos( n n ) n cos( n n ) cos( n n ) cos n cos 2 n cos n sin 2 n sin n n 2 cos n cos n 2 cos n n 2 cos 1 cos n n n (3.5) Here 1 cos n for n =2, 4, 6.even n 1 cos n 2 for n =1, 3, 5.odd n Therefore equation (3.5) is only valid with all odd n and it becomes: b 4 n n cosn (3.6) Hence the Fourier series of the output voltage will be 4 n1 n ; for n is odd value (3.7) ( t) cos n sin nt The R.M.S output voltage 2 2 rms ( t) cos n ; for n =1,3,5 (3.8) n1 n The output waveform characteristic:  Even harmonics are absent Page 4
5 4  With n =1 bn cos. This value is known as the amplitude of fundamental voltage and it can be controlled by varying the switching angle α. The harmonics can also be control by adjusting α. For example, if α=3 (or α=π/6), the value of third harmonic component of output will be zero, due tob n cos. To be more precise, all the multiple of third harmonics (n=3, 9, 15 ) are eliminated from the waveform The output current for R load The general output current wave form for R load is illustrates in fig.3 Fig. 3 The output current of R load Calculate the value of resistance and inductance of the load In this case it is assumed that the output current is limited 1A and the time constant τ=r/ (s) is ten times greater than the period of a cycle T. The input voltage dc =2 and fundamental frequency is 5Hz, so T =.2ms. The switching angle α is chosen to eliminate 3 th harmonic. Thus α = π/3 and then pulse width δ = 2π/3. R 1 Time constant 1T s R.2 Page 5
6 From the equation (3.8), the general expression of R.M.S value of output voltage is 2 2 rms ( t) cos n n1 n The fundamental voltage (first harmonic, n=1) ( rms) ( t) cos cos The total impedance of circuit Z R X (3.9) Due to X >> R, ignoring the resistance Therefore, the total reactance X 1(rms) (3.1) I 1 Substitute R=.2 and (3.1) to (3.9) Then R=.124Ω, =.25H Calculate the load current Since resistance is ignored, there is only inductive load. As a result of this, the output current wave form can be expressed as the following dc/2 I1 2π 3 i(t) π 6 5π 6 π 7π 6 11π 6 2π I1 dc/2 2π 3 t1 i1(t) i2(t) i3(t) i4(t) t2 t3 t4 t5 Fig. 4 Output voltage and output current of inductive load circuit Page 6
7 Consider the time from t 1 to t 2 ( = dc/2 =1) di (3.11) dt di dt Integrating, I1 t2 di dt I1 t1 I (t 2 t 1) (6.661 ) A (3.12) The current at time t (t 1 t t 2 ), t 1 = 1.67ms, t 2 = 8.33ms i1 (t) t di dt i1 (t) ( t t1) I1 I1 t1 (3.13) i 1 A (t) (t ) i (t) 4 t 2 A (1.67ms t 8.33ms) (3.14) 1 Consider the time from t 2 to t 3 ( = ) di dt It means that the current i 2 (t) is constant with 8.33ms t 11.67ms. Hence i 2 (t) = I 1 =133.2A. Consider the time from t 3 to t 4 ( =  dc/2 = 1) di (3.15) dt di dt The current at time t (t 3 t t 4 ), t 3 = 11.67ms, t 4 = 18.33ms i4 (t) t di dt i4 (t) ( t t3) I1 I1 t3 (3.16) i (t) (t1.671 ) A Page 7
8 i (t) 4 t 6 A (11.67ms t 18.33ms) (3.17) 3 Consider the time from t 4 to t 5 ( = ) (18.33ms t 21.67ms) di dt It means that the current i 4 (t) constant is constant with 18.33ms t 21.67ms. Hence i 4 (t) = I 1 = A. In summary, the output current of inductive load is the sum of all the current at each interval time from t 1 to t 5. It is expressed as the following i(t) = i 1 (t) + i 2 (t) + i 3 (t) + i 4 (t) Where i 1 (t) 4t 2A i (t) A 2 i (t) 4 t 6( A ) 3 i (t) A 4 The general expression of output voltage waveform 4 ( t) cos n sin nt() n1 n 6 (3.18) This function is valid for odd n, and all triplen harmonics are eliminated from the output voltage, (n = 1, 5, 7, 11 ). 2 2 rms ( t) cos n ( ) (3.19) n1 n 6 Current at 1 st harmonic I 1 1(rms) 2 2 n cos X n nx (A) 1.25 Page 8
9 Current at 5 th harmonic I cos 5(rms) 5 5X (A) (The negative sign is dropped for R.M.S value) The result of currents at n th harmonics are shown in the table 1 Table 1 Result of harmonic output current with δ = 12 Harmonic order 1 st 5 st 7 st 11 st 13 st 17 st 19 st R.M.S oltage () R.M.S Current (A) 99.3 (1%) 3.97 (4.1%) 2.3 (2.4%).82 (.83%).587 (.59%).343 (.35%).275 (.28%) The plot of the harmonic output current is shown in the fig Spectrum of square wave (δ= 12 ) Harmonic Current (A) harmonic order Fig. 5 Harmonic of spectrum current of threelevel inverter with δ=12 Page 9
10 3.3 Simulation result In this part the threelevel diodeclamped is taken into consideration to validate of the switching time control method. The threelevel diode clamped topology is shown in the fig.6. Instead of using tow capacitors, two dc sources are employed to generate the output value. The output voltage has threestate: dc /2, and  dc /2. For the level of dc /2, switches S1 and S 2 need to be turned on. For the zero level, switches S 2 and S 3 is turned on. For the dc /2, the switches S 3 and S 4 need to be turned on. The switching state of power devices is shown in the table 2, in which 1 denotes on state and denotes off state. S1 dc/2 D1 S2 D2 S3 R oad dc/2 S4 Fig. 6 One phase leg threelevel diode clamped topology Table 2 Switching state of threelevel diode clamped Output voltages S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 dc / dc /2 1 1 The switching pattern of four switches is illustrated in the fig.7. In this case, the delay switching angle for power device is chosen to eliminate the 3 th harmonic and triplen harmonics, so α is π/6 (or 3 ) and the pulse width is 2π/3 (or 12 ). The switching cycle is 2ms. Page 1
11 Fig. 7 Switching pattern of power devices (S 1, S 2, S 3, S 4 ) of threelevel diode clamped The circuit of one leg single phase threelevel diode clamped converter is shown in the fig.8 Fig. 8 One leg single phase threelevel diodeclamped converter in Matlap/simulation Page 11
12 1 5 voltage () time (ms) Fig. 9 Output voltage waveform current () time (ms) Fig. 1 Output current waveform 1 voltage and current times (ms) Fig. 11 Output current and output voltage waveform Page 12
13 As can be seen from the fig.9, the output voltage is exactly three levels, corresponding to dc /2 = 1,, dc /2 = 1. Another thing that should be taken into consideration is a minor change of voltage at the end of the cycle at which the voltage is in zero level. This is due to the fact that when all switches are in offstate the inductor starts discharging. The effect of this inductor voltage can be limited by choosing the value of inductance is much greater than that of resistance so that the time constant is much longer than offtime of switches. Fig.12 shows the Fourier analysis of output current. As can be seen from the FFT analysis result, there is no even harmonic, 3 th harmonic and all triplen harmonics. This result is as same as the mathematical analysis in part 1. Elimination 3 th harmonic by controlling delay angle is achieved. Selected signal: 5 cycles. FFT window (in red): 2 cycles Time (s) 1 Fundamental (5Hz) = 14.3, THD= 4.65% Mag (% of Fundamental) Harmonic order Fig. 12 Fourier analysis of output current in Matlap/simulink Page 13
14 Fig. 13 Fourier anaysis of output current The statistics in fig.13 indicate that the result of simulation is exactly the same the result of calculation with  R.M.S fundamental current I rms = 99.2A  The average current is 133.2A  The harmonic current is as same as the table 1 (the result of calculation). Page 14
CHAPTER THREE DIODE RECTIFIERS
CHATE THEE DODE ECTFES 3. Singlehase Half Wave ectifier: Single phase halfwave rectifier is the simplest circuit, this circuit is not used in precise practical applications due to high voltage ripples,
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4  ALTERNATING CURRENT
EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4  ALTERNATING CURRENT 4 Understand singlephase alternating current (ac) theory Single phase AC
More informationPOWER SYSTEM HARMONICS. A Reference Guide to Causes, Effects and Corrective Measures AN ALLENBRADLEY SERIES OF ISSUES AND ANSWERS
A Reference Guide to Causes, Effects and Corrective Measures AN ALLENBRADLEY SERIES OF ISSUES AND ANSWERS By: Robert G. Ellis, P. Eng., Rockwell Automation Medium Voltage Business CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...
More informationNZQA registered unit standard 20431 version 2 Page 1 of 7. Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians
NZQA registered unit standard 0431 version Page 1 of 7 Title Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians Level 3 Credits 7 Purpose This unit standard covers
More informationPower Electronics. Prof. K. Gopakumar. Centre for Electronics Design and Technology. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
Power Electronics Prof. K. Gopakumar Centre for Electronics Design and Technology Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture  1 Electric Drive Today, we will start with the topic on industrial drive
More informationRectifier: It is a circuit which employs one or more diodes to convert ac voltage into pulsating dc voltage. We will consider the following circuits:
Rectifier: It is a circuit which employs one or more diodes to convert ac voltage into pulsating dc voltage. We will consider the following circuits: (i) Half wave rectifier. (ii) Full wave rectifier.
More informationTransformerless UPS systems and the 9900 By: John Steele, EIT Engineering Manager
Transformerless UPS systems and the 9900 By: John Steele, EIT Engineering Manager Introduction There is a growing trend in the UPS industry to create a highly efficient, more lightweight and smaller UPS
More informationSINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER (AC REGULATOR)
Deceber 9, INGE PHAE FU WAE AC OTAGE CONTROER (AC REGUATOR ingle phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using two CRs or a single triac is generally used in ost of the ac control applications. The
More informationSurvey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems
Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems Leon M. Tolbert, Member, IEEE Oak Ridge National Laboratory* P.O. Box 28, Bldg Oak Ridge, TN 37836334 Alexandria, VA 22353862 Phone:
More informationLecture  4 Diode Rectifier Circuits
Basic Electronics (Module 1 Semiconductor Diodes) Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Lecture  4 Diode Rectifier Circuits
More informationThe full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure
The FullWave Rectifier The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure The transformer has a centretapped secondary winding. This secondary winding has a lead attached
More informationHarmonic Design Considerations
Harmonic Design Considerations Michael Leporace Specification Engineer, GE Consumer & Industrial ABSTRACT Power quality can be defined as the comparison of voltage and current waveforms to their fundamental
More informationRLC Circuits. OBJECTIVES To observe free and driven oscillations of an RLC circuit.
ircuits It doesn t matter how beautiful your theory is, it doesn t matter how smart you are. If it doesn t agree with experiment, it s wrong. ichard Feynman (19181988) OBJETIVES To observe free and driven
More informationAlternating Current RL Circuits
Alternating Current RL Circuits Objectives. To understand the voltage/current phase behavior of RL circuits under applied alternating current voltages, and. To understand the current amplitude behavior
More informationFunctions, variations and application areas of magnetic components
Westring 18 3314 Büren Germany T +49 951 60 01 0 F +49 951 60 01 3 www.schaffner.com energy efficiency and reliability 1.1 Transformers The transformer is one of the traditional components of electrical
More informationPulse Width Modulation
Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique in which a series of digital pulses is used to control an analog circuit. The length and frequency of these pulses determines the total
More informationWave Shaping Of Current Using PWM Rectifiers
International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) Wave Shaping Of Current Using PWM Rectifiers Mahasweta Bhattacharya, Ashish Srivastava Abstract The paper presents the modeling and analysis
More informationProperties of electrical signals
DC Voltage Component (Average voltage) Properties of electrical signals v(t) = V DC + v ac (t) V DC is the voltage value displayed on a DC voltmeter Triangular waveform DC component Halfwave rectifier
More informationAlternatingCurrent Circuits
hapter 1 Alternatingurrent ircuits 1.1 A Sources... 11. Simple A circuits... 13 1..1 Purely esistive load... 13 1.. Purely Inductive oad... 15 1..3 Purely apacitive oad... 17 1.3 The Series ircuit...
More informationLab #4 Capacitors and Inductors. Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response
Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response Capacitor Theory Like resistors, capacitors are also basic circuit elements. Capacitors come in a seemingly endless variety of shapes and sizes, and they can all
More informationSwitch Mode Power Supply Topologies
Switch Mode Power Supply Topologies The Buck Converter 2008 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. WebSeminar Title Slide 1 Welcome to this Web seminar on Switch Mode Power Supply Topologies.
More informationMODELING AND SIMULATION OF A THREEPHASE INVERTER WITH RECTIFIERTYPE NONLINEAR LOADS
, pp. 71 MODELING AND SIMULAION OF A HREEPHASE INERER WIH RECIFIERYPE NONLINEAR LOADS Jawad Faiz 1 and Ghazanfar Shahgholian 2 1 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
More informationChapter 11. Capacitors Charging, Discharging, Simple Waveshaping Circuits
Chapter 11 Capacitors Charging, Discharging, Simple Waveshaping Circuits Source: Circuit Analysis: Theory and Practice Delmar Cengage Learning Introduction When switch is closed at, capacitor charging
More informationCharge and Discharge of a Capacitor
Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage
More informationANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
ANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EEM 102 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT 9: DIODES AND DC POWER SUPPLY OBJECTIVE: To observe how a diode functions
More informationThe Synchronous Machine
Experiment No. 5 The Synchronous Machine Synchronous ac machines find application as motors in constant speed applications and, when interfaced to the power source with a variablefrequency converter system,
More informationAnalog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals
1 Analog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals Required reading: Garcia 3.1, 3.2 CSE 3213, Fall 2010 Instructor: N. Vlajic 2 Data vs. Signal Analog vs. Digital Analog Signals
More informationEE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #5. Clipping and Clamping Circuits. Angsuman Roy
EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #5 Clipping and Clamping Circuits By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective: The purpose
More informationExtra Questions  1. 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A
Extra Questions  1 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A 2. A current of 500mA flows in a resistance of 12Ω. What power is dissipated
More informationAPPLICATION NOTE  017
APPLICATION NOTE  017 PWM Motor Drives Theory and Measurement Considerations Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power electronic techniques represent a large and increasing proportion of modern power electronics.
More informationApplication Guide. Power Factor Correction (PFC) Basics
Power Factor Correction (PFC) Basics Introduction Power Factor, in simple terms, is a number between zero and one that represents the ratio of the real power to apparent power. Real power (P), measured
More informationOverview: The purpose of this experiment is to introduce diode rectifier circuits used in DC power supplies.
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 3 Diodes and Bridge Rectifiers Overview: The purpose of this experiment is to introduce diode
More informationR f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response
ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response
More informationFILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.
FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in
More informationBASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS. December 2011
AM 5202 BASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS December 2011 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for Pubic Release. Distribution is unlimited. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY AUXILIARY RADIO SYSTEM FORT
More informationFrequency response of a general purpose singlesided OpAmp amplifier
Frequency response of a general purpose singlesided OpAmp amplifier One configuration for a general purpose amplifier using an operational amplifier is the following. The circuit is characterized by:
More informationPower System Harmonics
Pacific Gas and Electric Company Power System Harmonics What are power system harmonics? Ideally, voltage and current waveforms are perfect sinusoids. However, because of the increased popularity of electronic
More informationε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied
Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and
More informationInductors in AC Circuits
Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum
More informationThe Flyback Converter
The Flyback Converter Lecture notes ECEN4517! Derivation of the flyback converter: a transformerisolated version of the buckboost converter! Typical waveforms, and derivation of M(D) = V/! Flyback transformer
More informationDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEE QUESTION BANK EE 6503 POWER ELECTRONICS. III Yr/ V SEM UNITI POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES PART A
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEE ING QUESTION BANK EE 6503 POWER ELECTRONICS III Yr/ V SEM UNITI POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES PART A 1. Define Holding and Latching current in SCR BTL 1
More informationFundamentals of Signature Analysis
Fundamentals of Signature Analysis An Indepth Overview of Poweroff Testing Using Analog Signature Analysis www.huntron.com 1 www.huntron.com 2 Table of Contents SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION... 7 PURPOSE...
More informationHalfWave Rectifiers
HalfWave Rectifiers Important Points of This Lecture Calculation of output voltage using appropriate piecewise models for diode for simple (unfiltered) halfwave rectifier Differences between calculations
More informationL and C connected together. To be able: To analyse some basic circuits.
circuits: Sinusoidal Voltages and urrents Aims: To appreciate: Similarities between oscillation in circuit and mechanical pendulum. Role of energy loss mechanisms in damping. Why we study sinusoidal signals
More informationStep response of an RLC series circuit
School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 5 Step response of an RLC series circuit 1 Introduction Objectives
More informationDesign and Development of Speed Control of Induction motor drive using PulseWidth Modulation
Design and Development of Speed Control of Induction motor drive using PulseWidth Modulation Jigar Vaidya 1, Vatsal Shukla 2, Darshan Kale 3 1 UG Student, Electrical Department,jdv27993@gmail.com, +919662532919
More informationCircuits with inductors and alternating currents. Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49
Circuits with inductors and alternating currents Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49 RL circuits Ch. 20 (last section) Symbol for inductor looks like a spring. An inductor is a circuit element that has a large
More informationEE362L, Power Electronics Triac Light Dimmer
1 EE362L, Power Electronics Triac Light Dimmer Rochelle Stortz and Brian Taraba, Team 277 2/2/05 Abstract  This document presents the construction of a light dimmer circuit that utilizes the currentregulating
More informationHARMONICS  Understanding the Facts  Part 3 Richard P. Bingham
HARMONICS  Understanding the Facts  Part 3 Richard P. Bingham Abstract Understanding what is important to know about harmonics can be challenging for those without extensive electrical engineering backgrounds.
More informationA Simplified Synchronous PulseWidth Modulation Method for Threelevel Inverter of Highspeed Train
, pp. 199214 http://dx.doi.org/1.14257/ijsh.215.9.12.21 A Simplified Synchronous PulseWidth Modulation Method for Threelevel Inverter of Highspeed Train Fei Lin 1, Qiaona Lian 1, Jialiang Yuan 1, Zhongping
More informationTransistor Tuned Amplifiers
5 Transistor Tuned Amplifiers 389 Transistor Tuned Amplifiers 5. Tuned Amplifiers 5. Distinction between Tuned Amplifiers and other Amplifiers 5.3 Analysis of Parallel Tuned Circuit 5.4 Characteristics
More informationDirect versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure
Phil Sherrod W4PHS Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC) Voltage Voltage (peak, RMS) Current Current (peak, effective) Power True power, Apparent
More informationModified Cascaded Five Level Multilevel Inverter Using Hybrid Pulse Width Modulation
International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access Research Paper Volume4, Special Issue2, April 2016 EISSN: 23472693 Modified Cascaded Five Level Multilevel Inverter Using Hybrid
More informationProduct Data Bulletin
Product Data Bulletin Power System Harmonics Causes and Effects of Variable Frequency Drives Relative to the IEEE 5191992 Standard Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION This document describes power system
More informationRectifier circuits & DC power supplies
Rectifier circuits & DC power supplies Goal: Generate the DC voltages needed for most electronics starting with the AC power that comes through the power line? 120 V RMS f = 60 Hz T = 1667 ms) = )sin How
More informationThe D.C Power Supply
The D.C Power Supply Voltage Step Down Electrical Isolation Converts Bipolar signal to Unipolar Half or Full wave Smoothes the voltage variation Still has some ripples Reduce ripples Stabilize the output
More informationCHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS
CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS 161 THE OSCILLATOR  are electronic circuits that generate an output signal without the necessity of an input signal.  It produces a periodic waveform on its output with only the
More informationRectiverter Wiki. Loss of mains AC voltage source seamless switch over to DC source
Rectiverter Wiki The RECTIVERTER is a technology created by Eltek. The Rectiverter is a three port module with an AC input port, an AC output port, and a bidirectional DC port. It is intended for the use
More informationCapacitor Ripple Current Improvements
Capacitor Ripple Current Improvements The multiphase buck regulator topology allows a reduction in the size of the input and put capacitors versus singlephase designs. By quantifying the input and put
More informationRC & RL Transient Response
EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 1. Introduction R & R Transient Response The student will analyze series R and R circuits. A step input will excite these respective circuits, producing a transient
More informationES250: Electrical Science. HW7: Energy Storage Elements
ES250: Electrical Science HW7: Energy Storage Elements Introduction This chapter introduces two more circuit elements, the capacitor and the inductor whose elements laws involve integration or differentiation;
More informationDIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b
DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,
More informationELEC 435 ELECTRONICS I. Rectifier Circuits
ELEC 435 ELECTRONICS I Rectifier Circuits Common types of Transformers The Rectifier Rectification is the conversion of an alternating current to a pulsating direct current. Rectification occurs in both
More informationBasic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture  33 3 phase System 4
Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture  33 3 phase System 4 Hello everybody. So, in the last class we have been
More informationHarmonic Mitigation, Power Factor Correction & Energy Saving with Proper Transformer & Phase Shifting Techniques
Harmonic Mitigation, Power Factor Correction & Energy Saving with Proper Transformer & Phase Shifting Techniques Abstract Harmonics in electrical distribution systems are created from a number of sources
More informationCurrent and Temperature Ratings
Document 3611 Current and Temperature Ratings Introduction This application note describes: How to interpret Coilcraft inductor current and temperature ratings Our current ratings measurement method and
More informationModeling and Analysis of DC Link Bus Capacitor and Inductor Heating Effect on AC Drives (Part I)
0000//$0.00 (c) IEEE IEEE Industry Application Society Annual Meeting New Orleans, Louisiana, October , Modeling and Analysis of DC Link Bus Capacitor and Inductor Heating Effect on AC Drives (Part
More informationCIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3. AC Circuit Analysis
CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3 AC Circuit Analysis 3.1 Introduction The steadystate behavior of circuits energized by sinusoidal sources is an important area of study for several reasons. First, the
More informationFundamentals of Power Electronics. Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder
Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder 1 1.1. Introduction to power processing 1.2. Some applications of power electronics 1.3. Elements of power electronics Summary of the course 2 1.1 Introduction
More informationInduction Generator Power Conversion and Control
Steven Englebretson, Dr. James L. Kirtley, Jr. Induction Generator Power Conversion and Control ABSTRACT High speed induction generators could operate as an effective primary or reserve source of electric
More informationChapter 4 AC to AC Converters ( AC Controllers and Frequency Converters )
Chapter 4 AC to AC Converters ( AC Controllers and Frequency Converters ) Classification of AC to AC converters Same frequency variable magnitude AC power AC controllers AC power Frequency converters (Cycloconverters)
More informationChapter 12 Driven RLC Circuits
hapter Driven ircuits. A Sources... . A ircuits with a Source and One ircuit Element... 3.. Purely esistive oad... 3.. Purely Inductive oad... 6..3 Purely apacitive oad... 8.3 The Series ircuit...
More information# # % &# # # ( ) # # +,. / 0! 1 # 2,. 31 % 4 & ) 7 # ( + ,)7( ) 7 # ( +. 3#! # : # ;,5 ) 1 <& < ) 7 # ( +,)7(+1.
! # #% &# # #()# #+,. / 0! 1 #2,.31%4 & 5 657 5 )7 #( +,)7(+1.357 )7 #( +.3#!8. 9.3#: #;,5 ) 1
More informationVectors and Phasors. A supplement for students taking BTEC National, Unit 5, Electrical and Electronic Principles. Owen Bishop
Vectors and phasors Vectors and Phasors A supplement for students taking BTEC National, Unit 5, Electrical and Electronic Principles Owen Bishop Copyrught 2007, Owen Bishop 1 page 1 Electronics Circuits
More informationBasic Op Amp Circuits
Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of
More informationFrequency Response of Filters
School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To
More informationRLC Resonant Circuits
C esonant Circuits Andrew McHutchon April 20, 203 Capacitors and Inductors There is a lot of inconsistency when it comes to dealing with reactances of complex components. The format followed in this document
More informationANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENGINEERS
UNIT 1: Unit code: QCF Level: 4 Credit value: 15 ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENGINEERS A/601/1401 OUTCOME  TRIGONOMETRIC METHODS TUTORIAL 1 SINUSOIDAL FUNCTION Be able to analyse and model engineering situations
More informationAnalog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH218
Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH18 Lec 3: Rectifier and Clipper circuits Course nstructors: Dr. A. P. VAJPEY Department of Physics, ndian nstitute of Technology Guwahati, ndia 1 Rectifier Circuits:
More informationUNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES
UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES WHITE PAPER: TW0062 36 Newburgh Road Hackettstown, NJ 07840 Feb 2009 Alan Gobbi About the Author Alan Gobbi Alan Gobbi
More informationENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters
ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequencydependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence
More informationNetwork Theory Question Bank
Network Theory Question Bank UnitI JNTU SYLLABUS: Three Phase Circuits Three phase circuits: Phase sequence Star and delta connection Relation between line and phase voltages and currents in balanced
More information98% Efficient SingleStage AC/DC Converter Topologies
16 POWER CONVERTERS www.teslaco.com 98% Efficient SingleStage AC/DC Converter Topologies A new Hybrid Switching Method is introduced in this article which for the first time makes possible AC/DC power
More informationAPPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS
APPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS Selection and use of Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducers The purpose of this application note is to aid the user in the selection and application of the Ultrasonic
More informationPractice Problems  Chapter 33 Alternating Current Circuits
Multiple Choice Practice Problems  Chapter 33 Alternating Current Circuits 4. A highvoltage powerline operates at 500 000 Vrms and carries an rms current of 500 A. If the resistance of the cable is
More informationName: Lab Partner: Section:
Chapter 6 Capacitors and RC Circuits Name: Lab Partner: Section: 6.1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the physics of capacitors in circuits. The charging and discharging of a capacitor
More informationChapter 20 QuasiResonant Converters
Chapter 0 QuasiResonant Converters Introduction 0.1 The zerocurrentswitching quasiresonant switch cell 0.1.1 Waveforms of the halfwave ZCS quasiresonant switch cell 0.1. The average terminal waveforms
More informationDesigning a Low Power Flyback Power Supply
APPLICATION NOTE INTRODUCTION Bourns is a wellknown supplier of standard offtheshelf high power inductors for power supplies in consumer, medical and automotive applications. Bourns also has a strong
More informationLet s examine the response of the circuit shown on Figure 1. The form of the source voltage Vs is shown on Figure 2. R. Figure 1.
Examples of Transient and RL Circuits. The Series RLC Circuit Impulse response of Circuit. Let s examine the response of the circuit shown on Figure 1. The form of the source voltage Vs is shown on Figure.
More informationGeneration of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators
Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators A square waveform can be generated by arranging for a bistable multivibrator to switch states periodically. his can be done by
More informationAPPLICATION OF SLIDING CONTROL METHOD TO AN ARC WELDING MACHINE AND COMPARING ITS PERFORMANCE WITH THAT OF CONVENTIONAL PI METHOD
APPLICATION OF SLIDING CONTROL METHOD TO AN ARC WELDING MACHINE AND COMPARING ITS PERFORMANCE WITH THAT OF CONVENTIONAL PI METHOD *Ahmet KARAARSLAN **Đres ĐSKENDER email: akaraarslan@gazi.edu.tr email:
More informationLab #4 examines inductors and capacitors and their influence on DC circuits.
Transient DC Circuits 1 Lab #4 examines inductors and capacitors and their influence on DC circuits. As R is the symbol for a resistor, C and L are the symbols for capacitors and inductors. Capacitors
More informationII. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ARC FURNACES
Electric Arc Furnace Flicker Mitigation in a Steel Plant Using a Statcom P.M.Sarma, Dr.S.V.Jayaram Kumar Professor in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering
More informationPHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDSON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER  BPA
PHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDSON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER  BPA What are phasors??? In normal practice, the phasor represents the rms maximum value of the positive half cycle of the sinusoid
More informationDesigning a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator  Theory
EE100 Lab:  Theory 1. Objective The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce nonlinear circuit measurement and analysis. Your measurements will focus mainly on limiters and clamping amplifiers. During
More information7.1 POWER IN AC CIRCUITS
C H A P T E R 7 AC POWER he aim of this chapter is to introduce the student to simple AC power calculations and to the generation and distribution of electric power. The chapter builds on the material
More informationLecture 24. Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works)
Lecture 24 Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works) Copyright 2014 by Mark Horowitz 1 Roadmap: How Does This Work? 2 Processor Board 3 More Detailed Roadmap
More informationBharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 Active Filters
Bharathwaj Muthuswamy EE100 mbharat@cory.eecs.berkeley.edu 1. Introduction Active Filters In this chapter, we will deal with active filter circuits. Why even bother with active filters? Answer: Audio.
More informationPerformance Analysis of Different Control Strategies in a Zsource Inverter
EASR  Engineering, echnology & Applied Science Research Vol. 3, o., 013, 391395 391 Performance Analysis of Different Control Strategies in a Zsource Inverter Byamakesh Nayak School of Electrical Engineering
More informationModelling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of A Variable Frequency Drive in Speed Control Of Induction Motor
International Journal of Engineering Inventions eissn: 787461, pissn: 3196491 Volume 3, Issue 5 (December 013) PP: 3641 Modelling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of A Variable Frequency Drive
More information