ITU Experience and Lab Support for the Marmaray Project. Prof.Dr. Mehmet Ali Taşdemir Assoc.Prof.Dr. Yılmaz Akkaya

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1 ITU Experience and Lab Support for the Marmaray Project Prof.Dr. Mehmet Ali Taşdemir Assoc.Prof.Dr. Yılmaz Akkaya

2 ITU Role in Marmaray General Directorate of Railways, Harbours and Airports Construction Employer reports to the Ministry of Transportation Avrasyaconsult Representative on the construction sites engineering and consulting services Taisei-Gama-Nurol Contractor design and construction of the structures ITU Marmaray Lab Independent testing agency Subcontractors supply of concrete and concrete making materials

3 ITU Experience Evaluation of the project specification Special tests required (TI-B, NT BUILD, ASTM..) New test set-ups Technical personnel ISO EN A new laboratory with the required infrastructure Purchase and calibration of new lab equipment Expert visits Training of engineers and technicians Handbook for quality, procedures, instructions and records/reports

4 Construction Materials Laboratory 2500 m 2 Fresh concrete lab Mechanical testing lab Curing rooms

5 ITU Marmaray Lab Seperate from student and routine testing laboratory February 2005 restoration of new labs April 2005 testing started ~500 m 2 Composed of dedicated testing rooms

6

7 Towards Accreditation Training and certification of technicians Calibration, maintanance and spares of equipment Proceures and Test instructions Traceability of test results Measurement uncertainty Audits, Corrective/preventive actions Coordination meetings

8 Starting with Aggregates!

9 Sample Preperation splitter quartering crushing drying Sampling and storage

10 Aggregate Testing Grading, Fine Materials Density, Water Absorbtion Drying Shrinkage Los Angeles Abrasion Frost Resistance (MgSO 4 ) sieves

11 Chemical Analysis Chloride, Sulphate, Alkali, ph Methylene Blue, Organic Impurities

12 Alkali Aggregate Reactions with mortar/concrete bars - Short TermTest ASTM C1260 Mortar Bar - 6 Month Test TI-B 51 Mortar Bar - Long Term Test CAN A A Concrete Bar

13 Measurement set-up 0,24 % 0,21 0,18 0,15 0,12 0,09 0,06 0,03 days 0,

14 Petrographic Analysis - Macro observations - Reactive Minerals fine aggregate macro dense chalcedony altered k-feldspar coarse aggregate macro chert porous

15

16 Concrete Testing Fresh Concrete Hardening Concrete Hardened Concrete

17 Slump, Flow U-Box / L-Box Air Content Density Temperature Bleeding Stiffening Time Fresh Concrete Tests

18 Design for Service Life and 1.Early age cracking Cracking Risk Cracking stress 0,9 x Tensile strength < 0,7 Simulation for crack risk 2. Durability Material quality Permeability Concrete Petrograpy

19 Hardening Concrete Tests Strength Evaluation 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28. days Compressive / Tensile Strength Modulus of Elasticity 100% moisture curing room

20 Hardening Concrete Tests Thermal Expansion Activation Energy Curing Temperature [ C] ,70 2,20 2,70 3,20 log time [hours] 30 C 25 C 15 C 5 C

21 Hardening Concrete Tests Adiabatic Heat Developement

22 Hardening Concrete Tests Shrinkage (TI-B 102) Concrete Temperature [ C] Time ,35 0,30 0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10 0,05 ε s [ ] Maturity [hours] 0, ,05

23 Hardening Concrete Tests Creep 25 σ 2 [MPa] Load History spec.2 (TI-B 102) Maturity [hours] ,6 ε c [ ] 1,2 Calculated Strain - Maturity spec.2 0,8 0,4 Creep Strain - Maturity spec.2 Maturity [hours] 0,

24 Design of a Test Report

25 Simulation for Cracking Risk Casting sequence 3 2 Slab Shear wall -Casting days and sequence -Removal day of formwork/ insulation -Environmental temperature and humidity -Specific heat capacity and heat conductivity of ground -Formwork/Insulation thickness ve heat conductivity -Structural boundary conditions -Fresh concrete temperature -Cooling/heating systems 1 Foundation Ground -E modulus and tensile strength development -Thermal expansion coefficient -Poisson s ratio -Early age shrinkage and creep -Adiabatic heat development -Specific heat capacity and heat conductivity

26 Temperature ( o C) Temperature ( o C) 1 2 Hours 3 T int = Difference between the average and surface temps. of member Temperature ( o C) 1 3 Formwork removal Hours Difference Hours Max (internal) ve min (surface) temperatures T out = Difference between the av. temps. of the new member and existing member

27 Crack risk = stress/strength 1 For water retaining structures: T max < 50 o C T iç < 15 o C T dış < 15 o C Risk < 0,7 Crack width max < 0 0,2 mm Hours

28 Hardened Concrete Tests Compressive Strength Density jet grout specimens rock specimen

29 Hardened Concrete Tests Rapid Chloride Test - Electrical Indication of Concrete s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration

30 Hardened Concrete Tests Chloride Diffusion

31 Hardened Concrete Tests DEF - Delayed Ettringite Formation Properties at 65 o C vs 50 o C

32 1 m 3 Trial Casting

33 Full-Scale Trial Casting

34 Pull-Out Repair Quality

35 Site Testing Crack Depth Investigation - impact echo

36 Concrete Petrography

37 Concrete Petrography plane section cup grinder thin section lapping machine air void petroplaner

38 Thin Section Analysis mineralogical examination cementitious materials fluoresence intensity capillary porosity(w/c ratio) paste homogeneity cracks - interface

39 Cementitous Materials alite belite fly ash

40 water/cement ratio light level [unit] w/c relationship between ligth level w/c ratio

41 Paste Homogeneity

42 Air Content and Distribution

43 Calcium Hydroxide, Carbonation, Ettringite

44 Crack Length-Width-Direction

45 Repair Materials - Concrete Interface

46 Plane Section Analysis Aggregate: shape, type, content, distribution Mortar: homogeneity, segregation Workmanship: entrapped air voids Cracks: content, direction, length, width Surface :bleeding, damage Rebar : size,interface, corosion Day Light UV-Light

47 Void System

48 Repair Material Concrete Interface

49 Epoxy Injection

50 Air Void Analysis ASTM C457 - Air Content - Specific Surface - Spacing Factor Rapid Air 457 Air Void Analyzer

51 Conclusion or Just the Beginning? A fully equipped laboratory with a quality system Infrastructure for development of new tests Experience and knowledge to be reflected upon undergraduate/graduate education An example of industry-academia collaboration Towards an advanced research center Collaborations with international contractors for the quality assurance on site lab of major construction projects

52 THANK YOU!

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