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1 210 CHAPTER EIGHT 8. Complex Numbers When we solve x 2 + 2x + 2 = 0 and use the Quadratic Formula we get Since we know that solution to the equation x 2 + 2x + 2 = 0. is not a real number it follows that there is no REAL However, mathematicians like to investigate conjectures I wonder what would happen if we define. Consequently we define to be a number which we will call i (not to be confused with. Note i 2 = - 1. It turns out that defining like this does not lead to contradictions in later mathematics study and in fact is extremely helpful. Numbers containing i in some form are called COMPLEX NUMBERS Theorem i is not a real number. This theorem may seem self-evident but it should be remembered that there are some curious numbers out there and the fact that i is not real is not as obvious as it first seems.

2 211 For example a) Is real? b) Is real? c) Is (-2) 3.1 real? d) Is real? e) Is log(-8) real? f) Is real? It all depends upon one s perspective. For example (-2) = = = = = + 2 (a contradiction) My own opinion is that is not equal to 2 because is not defined properly but many mathematicians would argue otherwise. Back to Theorem (i is not real.) We will use a contra-positive argument. Assume i is real Then i is zero or positive or negative. Case 1 i = 0 contradiction since i 2 = -1 by definition. Case 2 i is positive (preserving the inequality under the assumption that i is POSITIVE) contradiction.

3 212 Case 3 i is negative (reversing the inequality since i is assumed negative here) Since all three cases fail it follows that the original assumption is false and hence i is not real. Powers of i Since i 2 = - 1 then i 4 = +1 and i 3 = - i. It follows that powers of i can be easily obtained by considering the remainder when the power is divided by 4. e.g. a) i 43 = i 40 i 3 = (i 4 ) 10 i 3 = b) i 37 = i 36 i 1 = c) i 46 = i 44 i 2 = 1(-1) = -1. Note that for example Furthermore note that when solving x 2 + 2x + 2 = 0 earlier we found that i.e. i.e. or or -1 i In general mathematical operations for complex numbers are as for real numbers. e.g. (1 + 2i) + (3 + 4i) = 4 + 6i (7 2i) (5 + 4i) = 2 6i (2 +3i)(3 + 4i) = i + 12i 2 = i In fact as we shall see later the set of real numbers is a subset of the set of complex numbers.

4 213 Exercise Express in terms of i a) b) c) d) 2. Write in form of a + bi a) (2 + 3i) + (4 + 5i) b) (1 + 2i)(1 + 3i) c) (1 + i) 2 d) (1 + i)(1 i) 3. Simplify a) i 14 b)i 55 c) i Solve for z where z is a complex number z 2 + 8z + 20 = 0 5. Solve for z. 3z 2 + z + 1 = 0 6. Simplify (1 + i) 6 7. Solve for z. z 3 z 2 + z 1 = 0 8. Solve for z. z 3 z 2 + 4z = 4 Exercise 8.1 Answers 1. a) 5i b) 4i c) 5i d) a) 6 + 8i b) i c) 2i d) 2 3. a) -1 b) i c) i, -4 2i i 7. 1, i, -i 8. 1, 2i, -2i

5 214 Standard Form of a Complex Number When a complex number is written in the form a + bi this is called STANDARD FORM and it helps to represent the complex number on a diagram called an ARGAND DIAGRAM as shown below. a + bi is represented by a dot at the position (a,b) as we understand from elementary co-ordinate geometry 4i i part 3i 2i i real part Note how (say) the number 2 can be thought of as 2 + 0i and represented by a dot at (2,0) establishing the fact that the set of real numbers is a subset of the set of Complex Numbers. To write in standard form. i.e. can be presented by a dot at. Note that a bi is called the CONJUGATE of a + bi e.g i and 2 3i are conjugates of each other. Complex numbers are often represented by the letter z. The conjugate of z is written. From the Quadratic Formula it is clear that for (say) x 2 4x + 13 = 0

6 215 From this it is easy to deduce for a quadratic equation with real co-efficients that if a complex number is a root then so is its conjugate. In fact this is true for any polynomial equation with real co-efficients. Example Given 1 + i is a root of x 3 26x x 24 = 0, find its three roots. Solution: Since 1 + i is a root then 1 i is a root. i.e. [x (1 + i)] [x (1 - i)] [x other root] = x 3 26x x 24 By equating constant terms on both sides of the equation we can see that (1 + i)(1 i)(other root) = 24 i.e. other root = 12 roots are 1 + i, 1 i and 12. Note also that a polynomial equation with real co-efficients whose maximum power is ODD must always have a REAL root since complex roots of such an equation always occur in pairs of conjugates. Note how this last concepts is confirmed by the fact for example that a cubic equation can be essentially presented by a graph such as that shown below which must have an x-intercept. Furthermore two complex numbers can only be equal if their real parts and their i parts are equal separately. For example if a + 3i = 5 ci Then a = 5 and c = - 3.

7 216 Exercise Show that x 2 + 2x + 3 = 0 has no solutions in real numbers. 2. Solve x 2 + x + 1 = 0 where x can be a complex number. 3. Evaluate a) b) c) d) i 4 e) i 8 f) i Simplify (1 + i)(1 i) 5. Simplify (1 + i) 8 6. Write in the form a + bi 7. Simplify (2 + 3i) + (3 4i) 8. Express as a complex number 9. Evaluate and write its value in the form a + bi 10. Find all four roots of the equation x 4 = Is it true that equals for all numbers a and b? Does it make any difference if a and/or b is a negative number? 12. Solve z 2 2z + 2 = 0 where z is a complex number. 13. Solve z 3 9z z 24 = 0 where z is a complex number. 14. If (a + bi) 2 = i find a and b. 15. Simplify a) b) c) i is a root of the equation z 3 26z z = 48 (fact). Find the real roots of this equation. 17. Given that 2 + i is a root of z 4 6z = 0 solve the equation completely. 18. If z is a complex number and (z + 1)(2 i) = 3 4i find z in standard form. 19. Solve for x and y: (x + y)i = 2x 5y + 5i i is a root of z 3 126z z 248 = 0 (Fact). Find the real root. 21. Show that x i is a factor of x 3 + hx 2 + x + h regardless of the value of h.

8 217 Exercise 8.2 Answers a) 3i b) 4i c) -12 d) 1 e) 1 f) i 8. 18i 9. i 10. 2, -2i, 2i, No. 12. z = 1 + i or 1 i 13. 2, 3, a = 2, b = -3 or a = -2, b = a) i b) 2 c) z = 2 + i or 2 i or -2 + i or -2 - i i 19. x = 3, y = Other root is +124

9 218 Argand Diagram As has been proven, complex numbers cannot be represented on a number line and are often represented on an Argand Diagram as shown below. i Part b a + bi a Real number Part z is the magnitude or modulus of z and means the distance of z from the origin on the Argand Diagram. It therefore follows that z is a real number since it represents a distance. For example 2 + 3i = The set represented by the following {z : z = 5} is therefore a circle since the set contains those complex numbers on the Argand Digram which are 5 units from the origin. For example 4 + 3i is in the set. i Part 5i 4 + 3i -5 5 Real Part -5i

10 219 Exercise 8.3 Argand Diagram 1. Solve z 4 = 1 where z is a complex number. Graph the four roots on an Argand Diagram. 2. What is the distance between 2 + 3i and 5 + 7i on the Argand Diagram? 3. Solve z 3 = 1 where z is a complex number. Graph the three roots on a Argand Diagram. 4. Using questions 1 and 3 as hints try to guess the roots of z 8 = 1. Check by multiplication to see if your guesses are correct. 5. Find a) 4 3i b) 4 + 3i c) 3 4i d) 3 + 4i e) 1+i f) 1 i 6. Try to find a complex number z, other than 13 such that z = Graph on an Argand Diagram the set {z C, z = 5} 8. Graph on an Argand Diagram the set {z C, z = 4} 9. Graph on an Argand Diagram the set {z C, z 1 = 4} 10. Graph on an Argand Diagram the set {z C, z i = 4} 11. Graph on an Argand Diagram the set {z C, z 1 = z + 3} 12. If z = and the real part of z is 2 write down z in the form of a + bi. 13. Convince yourself that if a + bi = 3 + 4i then a = 3 and b = 4 is the only possible solution. Use this fact to express in the form a + bi. Hint let be a + bi and square both sides of the equation. 14. {z : z i = 2} represents the same circle as {z : z + 3i = m z } Find the values of m. Exercise 8.3 Answers 1. 1, -1, i, -i , 4. 1, -1, i, -i, 5. a) 5 b) 5 c) 5 d) 5 e) f) i i i 14. m = 2

11 220 Polar Form of a Complex Number A complex number may be represented on the Argand Diagram not only in the standard form of a + bi but also as r(cos + isin ) where r represents the distance of the complex number from the origin and is the angle which the line from the origin to the complex number makes with the positive real axis. is sometimes called the argument. Argand Diagram θ r r(cos + isin ) r(cos + isin ) is often abbreviated to rcis (especially in North America but less so elsewhere). Note that r is always positive and is the angle in standard position. When two complex numbers are multiplied the result yields a complex number whose magnitude is the PRODUCT of the MAGNITUDES of the two original complex numbers and whose angle made with the positive real axis is the ADDITION of the two angles of the original complex numbers. i.e r(cos + isin ) times s(cos + isin ) = rs(cos( + ) + isin( + ))

12 221 Example 2(cos30 + isin30 ) times 3(cos60 + isin60 ) = 6(cos30 cos60 + cos30 isin60 + isin30 cos60 + i 2 sin30sin60 ) = 6(cos30 cos60 sin30 sin60 + i(sin60 cos30 + cos60 sin30 )) = 6(cos( ) + isin( )) = 6(0 + i) = 6i As an example 2(cos20 + isin20 ) times 5(cos70 + isin70 ) = 10(cos90 + isin90 ) = 10i It follow as a natural consequence that when dividing complex numbers we divide the magnitudes and subtract the angles. Example de Moivre s Theorem A most important theorem in complex numbers is de Moivre s Theorem which states that [r(cos + isin )] n = r n (cos(n ) + isin(n )) Let s see a simple example. [2(cos30 + isin30 )] 3 = 8(cos90 + isin90 ) = 8i It is left as an exercise for the student to see that = 8i by multiplication. In fact de Moivre s Theorem is true for ANY value of n (positive, negative, fraction or otherwise). e.g. = 2(cos30 + isin30 )

13 222 Example Roots of Unity To solve z 6 = 1 Let z = cos + isin = cis Then z 6 = cos6 + isin6 = cis6 cos6 + isin6 = 1 = cis0 or cis 360 or cis = 0 or 360 or 720 or 1080 or 1440 or = 0, 60, 120, or 300 z = cis0 or cis60 or cis120 or cis180 or cis240 or cis300 z = 1 or or or 1, or or Exercise Express 1 + i in polar form 2. Express 2(cos60 + isin60 ) in standard form. 3. Express the following in polar form. a) b) 2 + 2i c) 4. Express the following in standard form. a) 4(cos30 + isin30 ) b) 6cis120 c)2cis90 d) cis Express in simple form. 6. Write in polar form. 7. Express (1 + i) 2 in polar form. 8. Express (1 + i) 4 in polar form. 9. Express (1 + i) 20 in polar form. 10. If z = 2cis70 what is a) z b) c)? 11. Evaluate in your head.

14 223 Exercise 8.4 (cont d) 12. Evaluate in your head 13. Write in standard form. 14. Multiplying a complex number by i in the complex plane is equivalent to a rotation of. State the value of. 15. Using polar form methods, write in standard form. 16. Express (1 i) 7 in standard form 17. Solve z 4 = expressing the roots in the form a + bi 18. Express in polar form 19. Solve z 5 = 1 using polar form methods i.e. de Moivre s Theorem. Write the roots in polar form. 20. Solve z 3 = i. Write the three roots in standard form. 21. Simplify a) b) Exercise 8.4 Answers a) cis30 b) cis45 c) cis a) b) c) 2i d) i 5. i cis cis cis a) 2 b) 2cis(-70 ) c) i i cis or cis72 or cis144 or cis216 or cis or or -i 21. a) 4cis60 b) 6cis60

15 224 Exercise Graph on an Argand Diagram the set {z C, 1 z 2} 2. Graph on an Argand Diagram the set {z C, z + = 2} 3. Solve z 3 (3 + i)z i = 0 4. Solve for x and y (3 2i)(x + yi) = 2(x 2yi) + 2i 1 5. Find a complex number z such that z = ( ) 2 6. Evaluate 7. Simplify 8. Solve for z. z 4 = Evaluate i Solve completely z 3 2z = 4 where z Complex Numbers. 11. Does a quintic polynomial equation with real co-efficients always have a real root? 12. Solve completely z 4 3z 3 6z z + 20 = 0 where z Complex Numbers 13. a) Draw the set {z : z 1 + z 5 = 8} on an Argand Diagram 14. b) Draw the set {z : z 1 = z i } on an Argand Diagram 15. Solve the following equation where z is a complex number. z 3 = 2 2i 16. Using de Moivre s Theorem prove that cos3 4cos 3 3cos 17. Name the minimum positive integer n so that is a real number.

16 225 Exercise 8.5 Answers 3. 1, 2 + i 4. x = -1, y = 0 5. cis i i, 1 i, -1 + i, -1 i , -1 + i, -1 i 11. Yes , -2, 3 + i, 3 i 13. a) y -1 7 x b) y x n = 4

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