MEMORANDUM OF ASSESSMENT Module 1: The Earth s Structure. 1. The diagram below shows a section of the earth s structure:

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1 1. The diagram below shows a section of the earth s structure: a. According to the sketch above give the name of each of the layers, which we have described. 1. The Crust 2. The mantle 3. The outer core 4. The inner core b. Explain how and why plates move. The plates move because of heat in convection currents in the mantle. They can move away from each other in upward or lateral movement, or towards each other causing oceanic plates to descend and be destroyed. 2. Describe the process involved in the formation of a a. fold mountain such as the Himalayas and Fold mountains occur when two plates collide. Huge quantities of rock are ground up into sediments. Further compression causes sediments to be uplifted and squeezed into faults. b. Oceanic Trench like the Marianas Trench. When an oceanic plate subducts beneath a continental plate, the seabed forms a trench along the subduction zone. The Institute of Information Technology, 2006 Page 1 of 5

2 3. a. Explain the process which causes volcanic eruptions. A volcanic eruption usually occurs at a destructive plate boundary where plates move towards each other. When the continental plate rises over the heavier oceanic plate, subduction at the subduction zone causes the oceanic crust to be partly melted in the depth. As a result of superheated gases and pressure building up, magma rises to the surface. b. Draw a labeled diagram of a composite volcano. c. Why do people still live in areas where volcanic eruption is likely to occur? Good fertile soil is available for agriculture, fishing resources and mining resources exist. Volcanic sites are good tourist attractions which bring income. There may be hot springs and geysers that provide alternative energy and also tourist attraction. Many people can not afford to move to safer places and rely on volcanic eruption predictions and reinforced buildings to keep them safe. The Institute of Information Technology, 2006 Page 2 of 5

3 4. Label the diagram below with arrows and labels to show following intrusive landforms a. dyke b. batholith c. sill d. lopolith e. laccolith The Institute of Information Technology, 2006 Page 3 of 5

4 5. Name at least two strategies each to manage the effects of a. a volcano Keep detailed information on the history of volcanoes to help to predict future eruptions. Record changes in temperature and pressure within the volcano. Make sure emergency services are available and are adequate. Keep people informed on emergency procedures. b. an earthquake Buildings in earthquake zones should have deep solid foundations. Gas water and electricity pipes should be placed in reinforced ducts. Avoid building on clay or in areas vulnerable to landslides. Make sure emergency services are available and are adequate. Keep people informed of emergency procedures. 6. Give a step by step explanation of how a. a Mid-oceanic ridge and A mid oceanic ridge is formed when hot magma rises from the mantle through a plate boundary to the surface. Volcanoes are formed, some with peaks above and some below sea level. These volcanoes form a wide band of new land called the mid- Atlantic ridge. As more magma rises to the surface the mid atlantic ridge becomes wider and forces the continents of South America and Africa apart and North America and Europe apart. b. a Rift Valley is formed. Faulting occurs as a result of built up tension and compression forces in the earth s crust. A rift valley results from a series of major faults that have caused a section of crust to fall between parallel faults. There are usually block mountains on the sides which are section that were uplifted due to the faulting. 7. Give at least three benefits of the East African Rift Valley to its local communities. The soil is rich due to volcanic eruption and fertile for farming. Crater lakes and lakes on the floor of the Rift Valley have plenty of fish. Salt deposits can be mined where crater lakes have dried up. Steam vents left by volcanoes can be used to generate electricity. The beautiful scenery and abundant wildlife attracts tourists. 8. Define: a. Convergent Plate Boundaries Convergent (plates colliding with each other) have destructive boundaries as one plate may be moving in underneath the other or may crumple together, depending which type of plates are colliding. The Institute of Information Technology, 2006 Page 4 of 5

5 b. Divergent Plate Boundaries MEMORANDUM OF ASSESSMENT Divergent plates (moving apart) have constructive boundaries which creates new crust in between. c. Shields A stable part of the earth s crust, usually fairly flat d. Basins. A stable area of the Earth s crust surrounded by higher land plateau uplifted flat part of the earth s crust. The Institute of Information Technology, 2006 Page 5 of 5

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