Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust Continental crust made of sial rocks containing silicon and aluminum e.g., granite Oceanic crust made of sima rocks

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1 Plate Tectonics and the Earth s Interior Chapter 5 Earth s Internal Structure Crust Mantle Core Thin ocean basins ~ 3 miles Crust mountain ranges ~ 30 miles Deepest hole drilled About 7 miles Russia Crust Constitutes less than 1% of Earth s total mass Average density 2.8 g/cm 3 Crust floats on mantle Crust Continents stand higher thick and less dense Oceanic crust thin and more dense

2 Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust Continental crust made of sial rocks containing silicon and aluminum e.g., granite Oceanic crust made of sima rocks containing silicon and magnesium e.g., basalt Mohorovicic Discontinuity Boundary between the crust and the mantle 1 to 2 km thick seismic P-waves increase in velocity Mantle 1800 miles thick Density 4.5 g/cm 3 80% Earth s volume Mostly solid Mantle Denser silicates rich in Mg and Fe olivine Lithosphere ~ 100 miles thick (Gk. stone shell) Crust + Upper mantle Asthenosphere (Gk. weak shell) Part of upper mantle Plastic layer Completely liquid in places (magma) miles thick

3 Mesosphere (Gk. middle shell) Solid dense mantle below asthenosphere ~ 2000 miles thick Core Density 11.0 g/cm 3 Half the radius and one-third mass of Earth Liquid Outer Core molten iron, nickel, cobalt, sulfur, or silicon origin of Earth s magnetic field Inner Core Solid (near melting point or partly molten) Iron 8000 F 3 million atm Plate Tectonics Have the continents drifted? Have the continents drifted? Antonio Snider (1859) proposed the continents drifted Creationist Based his idea on Genesis 1:9-10 Genesis 1:9-10

4 9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so 10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. Evidence? The fit of the continents (taking into account the continental shelves). Correlation of fossil types across ocean basins. A zebra-striped pattern of magnetic reversals parallel to mid-ocean floor rifts, in the volcanic rock formed along the rifts, implying seafloor spreading along the rifts. Seismic observations interpreted as slabs of former ocean floor now located inside the earth. Continental Drift Positional shifting of continents Alfred L. Wegner German Geologist ( ) Pangaea all lands supercontinent Pangaea Plate Tectonic Theory The earth's surface (lithosphere) consists of rigid plates, each moving relative to adjacent plates. Deformation occurs at the edges of the plates by three types of horizontal motion: Divergence plates moving apart Convergence plates compressing together or one sliding under the other (subduction)

5 Transform plates sliding past each other along a fault line Earth s plates Theory of Plate Tectonics Movement of plates explains: mountain formation earthquakes volcanoes Divergent Boundaries Occurs as the sea floor pulls apart at rifts or splits Mid-Atlantic Ridge Convergent Boundaries Occurs when one plate slides under another (subduction) or two plates collide together Pacific Plate beneath Japan Cocos Plate beneath Central America Indian-Australian plate colliding with Eurasian plate Three Types of Convergent Boundaries Ocean-ocean two oceanic plates converge with one subducting under the other Associated with island arcs (Aleutian Islands) Ocean-continent oceanic plate and continental plate collide with oceanic plate subducting under continental plate trenches and volcanic mountain chains (Sierra Nevada mountain range) Continent-continent two continental plates collide and buckle No subduction

6 Upfolded mountains (Appalachian Mountains and Himalayan Mountains) Transform Boundaries Occurs where one plate slides horizontally past another San Andreas Fault (Pacific Plate slide against North American Plate) Mid-Atlantic Ridge 20,000 feet below surface ~38,000 miles of ridges around globe (oceanic ridge) divides Atlantic Ocean into two equal parts At sea level, forms Iceland Mid-Atlantic Ridge Rift (trough) in middle of crest 20 miles wide Submarine earthquakes under crest Heat escaping rift Iceland ground cracks in Iceland are widening, often accompanied by volcanic activity Between 1975 and 1984 there was a 23 feet separation Mid-Atlantic Ridge Satellite imagery Interpretation of Observations of Mid-Atlantic Ridge Magma rises up at the rift forming new oceanic crust Younger crust is at ridge and older crust away from ridge Rocks acquire magnetism as they cool Records earth s magnetic field direction at time

7 Continuous seafloor spreading should have a smooth magnetic tape recording of reversals Zebra stripe pattern Problems for Slow and Gradual Plate Tectonics Zebra stripe pattern has been confirmed Drilling in the basalt shows magnetic polarity changes in patches down the holes with no consistent pattern with depth. Indicates rapid formation of basalt not slow and gradual formation Magnetic reversals in lava have been shown to occur rapidly Mid-Atlantic Ridge spreads about 2 inches per year Is the present really the key to the past? Pre-flood supercontinent and dense ocean floor rocks Cold dense ocean floor sinks into softer, less dense mantle Edges sink faster due to friction and drag the rest of the floor with it in conveyor belt fashion Faster movement creates more friction and heat in the mantle, reducing its resistance, and making the mantle move faster Runaway subduction

8 Mantle material is displaced, causing large scale movement through entire mantle Causes enough tension throughout earth to break up original single land mass Hot, mantle material rises up amid cracks and vaporizes some ocean water causing geysers (Gen 7:11; Gen 8:2) Steam condenses in atmosphere to cause global rain (Gen 7:11-12) Rapid subduction of the cooler pre-flood ocean floor into the mantle would have resulted in increased circulation of viscous fluid (note: plastic, not molten) rock within the mantle. accelerated convection in the core would cause rapid geomagnetic reversals these would be erratic and locally patchy, laterally and at depth, just as the data indicate Model provides mechanism for retreat of flood waters (Psalm 104:6-8) Vertical earth movements at end of flood as opposed to horizontal movements at beginning Plate collisions would have pushed up mountains Slow movement would not be forceful enough to push up Himalayans at Indian-Australian and Eurasian plates Psalm 104:6-8 6 You covered it with the deep as if it were a garment; the waters stood above the mountains. 7 At Your rebuke the waters fled; at the sound of Your thunder they hurried away -

9 8 mountains rose and valleys sank -to the place You established for them Final Summary The idea is quite new, and radical, and much work has yet to be done to flesh out the details. There may even be major modifications to the theory that increase its explanatory power, or future discoveries could cause the model to be abandoned. Such is the nature of scientific progress. Scientific models come and go, "But the word of the Lord endures forever" (1 Peter 1:25). Future Consequences predicted by Plate Tectonic Theory Portions of California will separate from the rest of North America The Italian boot will disappear Australia will link to Asia Africa will separate from the Near East

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