Leaving Cert Geography Revision Notes

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1 Leaving Cert Geography Revision Notes

2 Contents PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CORE UNIT INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH... 4 CONTINENTAL DRIFT... 8 PLATE BOUNDARIES... 9 OCEANIC-CONTINENTAL CONVERGENCE VOLCANOES WHAT IS A VOLCANO? VOLCANIC MATERIALS WILL IT FLOW / BLOW? GLOBAL PATTERN OF VOLCANOES CLASSIFYING VOLCANIC STRUCTURES EXTRUSIVE STRUCTURES LEVELS OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY PREDICTING VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS LEINSTER BATHOLITH GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN ICELAND EARTHQUAKES PHYSICAL PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Page 2 of 147

3 REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY CORE UNIT IRELAND PHYSICAL PROCESSES ECONCOMIC PROCESSES EUROPE PARIS BASIN, France INDIA PHYSICAL PROCESSES (Climate and Relief) CHECKLIST REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT POPULATION URBAN GROWTH The Wright Plan Buchanan Report Urban Renewal URBAN LANDUSE MODELS THE 5 ZONES OF THE CONCENTRIC MODEL URBAN GROWTH IN EU : The Randstad DEVELOPING WORLD CITIES Page 3 of 147

4 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CORE UNIT 1 INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH Introduction planet. (Endogenic forces) are in order of increasing depth: o o o The crust The mantle The core Layer 1- the crust This is the surface, outermost layer of the earth. It has the following features: It is a solid layer made up of rock Its main surface features are the continents and ocean basins It is the thinnest layer with maximum depth around 70 km The thickness of the crust varies Temperatures are lower than in the deepest layers Highest temperatures around 375 c There are 2 types of crusts; Continental crust and Oceanic crust Continental crust This forms the surface of all the continents and surrounding shallow seas It is the thickest part of the crust (average of 45km thickness) It is thickest under the great mountain ranges e.g. the Alps It is the oldest part of the crust with some rocks as old as 4 billion years Mostly made up of granite The rocks of the continental crust are often referred to as sial this refers to their most common mineral components silica and aluminium Page 4 of 147

5 Oceanic crust This is the most common type of crust It lies under all the oceans of the earth It is the thinnest part of the crust, its thickness an average of 8km Oceanic crust is heavy (heavier than continental) Most common rock is basalt Rocks of the oceanic crust are often referred to as sima this refers to their most common mineral components silica and magnesium Layer 2- The mantle This is the layer directly below the crust. It has the following features: It is nearly 3000 km thick we can divide it into the upper, middle and lower mantle Temperatures are higher than those of the crust (increase with depth, believed to be over 5000 c in the lower mantle) Can flow slowly, despite having the properties of a solid Layer 3- the core This is the centre layer of the earth. It is made up of the outer core and the inner core. 1. The outer core o o Approx. 2,200 km thick 2. The inner core o This is a solid layer, rocks are believed to be up to 5 times denser than surface rocks o It is about 2,300 km wide o Temperatures are believed to reach up to 5,500 c The Lithosphere This refers to both the crust and the upper mantle. Both are composed of solid rock because temperatures are not high enough to melt the rocks into a molten, or semi molten state. The lithosphere is therefore the solid shell surrounding the earth. It averages about 100km in depth. Page 5 of 147

6 Tectonic Plates ed tectonic plates. There are seven major plates and several rock beneath. There are two types of tectonic plate. Oceanic plates are 5km to 10km thick, continental plates are 25km to 90km thick. Oceanic plates are made from denser rock than continental plates, and are therefore heavier. The map shows the global distribution of the main Fold Mountains Fold Mountains are formed where two tectonic plates converge. The rocks in the crust become crumpled and folded to form new mountain ranges. Areas of fold mountains include, Alps, Andes, Rockies and Himalayas. zones and volcanoes are found at the boundaries between different plates. 200 million years ago all the continents were joined together, forming a mega island called pangea. There are 7 major plates and 7 minor ones - molten asthenosphere er, collide with one another or slide past one another Page 6 of 147

7 CONVECTION CURRENTS C Suggests the positions of the continents on the earth's surface have changed over time relative to one another Accepted that the continents still continue to move today All the continents were originally united in one super continent called Pangea (Greek for all land) About 200 million years ago it began to break up First it broke up into 2 major elements called Laurasia and Gondwanaland separated by the Tethys Sea These continued to break up and drift to form the pattern of continents that we know today Page 7 of 147

8 CONTINENTAL DRIFT he mantle where it flows sideways drift PROOFS OF CONTINENTAL DRIFT 1. Continental fit: Shapes of continents fit together resembling a jigsaw puzzle. Especially in the case of South America and Africa 2. Matching rocks and mountain ranges-mountain ranges dot the coastlines of Europe, Africa and North America, matching rock groups link up with each other- Appalachian mts. of USA and 'Caledonian mts. of Ireland, Britain and Scandinavia could have been part of same mt. range originally. 3. Matching glacial deposits-glacial deposits left by ancient ice sheets in St America, Africa, India and Australia match, same age and origin 4. Sea floor spreading- ocean floors are widening as new rock is formed where the plates originally split, as plates separate, driven by convection currents,molten magma rises up from within the mantle to fill the opening, as it cools magma creates new crust and leads to the formation of the new ocean floor. New crust continues to form and older crust continues to move away from the centre, samples taken from the ocean floor get progressively younger towards ridge at centre of the ocean, rocks at the edge of the Atlantic are up to 200 million years old while those at the centre are less than 10 million years old. Page 8 of 147

9 PLATE BOUNDARIES INTRODUCTION: lace at their boundaries or margins another, there are 3 types of plate boundary: 1. Divergent plate boundaries Plates separate and move apart from one another; new rock is formed so these are constructive boundaries 2. Convergent plate boundaries Plates collide; rock is changed or destroyed so they are destructive boundaries 3. Conservative plate boundaries Where plates grind past one another, rock is neither created nor destroyed so they are passive boundaries DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES islands ocean floor cooled by sea water and forms new oceanic crust up to form a mt ridge beneath the ocean and occasionally rises above the surface to form Page 9 of 147

10 - south direction 2500 and 3000 metres from the ocean floor CASE STUDY- AFRICA (A CONTINENT BREAKING APART) e crust in this region was damaged originally when the African and Eurasian plates collided to move apart m the rest of the continent Page 10 of 147

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