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1 Short 25 second video on Pangaea moving, no sound or words. h8ps:// watch?v=wauk94adxpa 3 minute video showing pictures of the coninents over the ages, no verbal explanaion, just wri8en h8ps:// watch?v=ugcded4xvd4

2 PLATE TECTONICS- the geologic theory that states that pieces of the Earth s lithosphere are in constant, slow moion, driven by convecion currents in the mantle. The theory of plate tectonics explains the forma3on, movement, and subduc3on of Earth s Plates

3 h8ps:// watch?v=jbdvvxys- r4 15 minutes of footage from the March 2011 earthquake in Japan. This is the most powerful earthquake to have ever hit Japan and the 4 th most powerful earthquake since records were started in It triggered tsunami waves that reached up to 40.5 meters. The earthquake moved the island of Honshu 2.4 m East and shiked the earth on its axis somewhere between 10cm and 25cm. IT LASTED ONLY 6 MINUTES!!

4 ConvecIon Currents and the asthenosphere It is believed that convecion currents flowing within the asthenosphere are the force that causes coninental dri[, the movement of the Earth s tectonic plates.

5 Plate Boundaries The edges of different pieces of the lithosphere- Earth s rigid shell- meet at lines called plate boundaries. These are on land and under water. Fault- a break in the Earth s crust where rocks have slipped past each other FAULTS FORM ALONG PLATE BOUNDARIES

6

7 TYPES OF PLATE BOUNDARIES 1. TRANSFORM 2. DIVERGENT 3. CONVERGENT

8 TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES WHEN two plates slip past one another in opposite direc3ons. Earthquakes occur frequently on transform boundaries. Ex: San Andreas Fault in CA.

9 TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES

10 TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES

11 DIVERGENT BOUNDARIES TWO PLATES MOVING APART. THE SPACE THIS CREATES IS FILLED WITH NEW CRUST MATERIAL FROM THE HOT MAGMA BELOW. KNOWN AS A CONSTRUCTIVE BOUNDARY (I.E. IT IS CONSTRUCTING NEW MATERIAL) DI: meaning 2 WHY was the movie DIVERGENT called DIVERGENT?

12 Sea Floor Spreading (Divergent) A process that con3nually adds material to the ocean floor (CONSTRUCTIVE). At the mid- ocean ridge, molten material rises from the mantle and erupts. The molten material then spreads out, pushing the older rock to both sides of the ridge. IN THE OCEAN

13 RiK Valley (Divergent BOUNDARY) When 2 coninental plates pull apart a ri[ valley forms. The Great Ri[ Valley in east Africa marks a deep crack that runs ~3,000 km. ON LAND

14 Africa s Great Ri[ Valley

15 MID- ATLANTIC RIDGE h8p:// PRI_PT_divergent.html

16 CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES TWO PLATES COLLIDING 1. OCEANIC & OCEANIC 2. OCEANIC & CONTINENTAL 3. CONTINENTAL & CONTINENTAL When 2 plates collide, the density of the plates determines which remains on top, WITH THE MORE DENSE PLATE SLIDING UNDERNEATH. Oceanic crust =mostly basalt =more dense than coninental crust= mostly granite.

17 WHICH WOULD SLIDE UNDERNEATH THE OTHER: AN OCEANIC PLATE OR A CONTINENTAL PLATE?

18 Collision: Oceanic & Con3nental Plates When Oceanic and ConInental Plates collide, Oceanic dives under Con3nental. As the plate descends, molten rock forms and rises toward the surface creaing volcanoes

19 SUBDUCTION: Oceanic & Oceanic Plates When Oceanic and Oceanic Plates collide, the more dense dives under the other. This is called subduc3on.

20 Collision: Con3nental & Con3nental Plates When two coninental plate collide, the crust buckles and mountain ranges form. Earthquakes are common. Ex: Himalayas

21 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE WHAT TYPE OF BOUNDARY IS SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING PICTURES? 1 TRANSFORM (SLIDING PAST EACH OTHER) 2 DIVERGENT (2 PLATES MOVING APART) 3 CONVERGENT (CRASHING INTO EACH OTHER

22 TRANSFORM BOUNDARY

23 DIVERGENT BOUNDARY

24 THE ARROWS SHOW ALL THE BOUNDARIES WHERE PLATES ARE COLLIDING WITH EACH OTHER CONVERGENT BOUNDARY

25 TRANSFORM BOUNDARY

26 THE HIMALAYAS HAVE BEEN FORMED AS THE INDIAN PLATE RUNS INTO THE EURASIAN PLATE CONVERGENT BOUNDARY FREQUENTLY CREATES MOUNTAINS

27 THE CASCADES ARE AN EXAMPLE OF MOUNTAINS BEING FORMED AS THE JUAN DE FUCA OCEANIC PLATE IS COLLIDING INTO AND subducing beneath the westward moving North American coninental plate. CONVERGENT BOUNDARY FREQUENTLY CREATES MOUNTAINS & VOLCANOES

28 THE AFRICAN RIFT VALLEY WHERE THE AFRICAN PLATE IS SPLITTING INTO 2 NEW SEPARATE PLATES. Geologists generally refer to these NEW plates as the Nubian Plate and the Somali Plate. DIVERGENT BOUNDARY

29 THE ANDES MOUNTAIN RANGE OF WESTERN S. AMERICA HAS BEEN FORMED AS THE NAZCA PLATE COLLIDES WITH AND IS SUBDUCTING BENEATH THE S. AMERICAN PLATE CONVERGENT BOUNDARY FREQUENTLY CREATES MOUNTAINS

30 THE ARROWS SHOW ALL THE BOUNDARIES WHERE PLATES ARE MOVING AWAY FROM EACH OTHER DIVERGENT BOUNDARY

31 CONVERGENT BOUNDARY

32 TRANSFORM BOUNDARY

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