7th grade midterm study guide 2016

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1 7th grade midterm study guide 2016 Hi, 7 th grade! Your science midterm will have questions from chapter 1, the first two sections of chapter 2, and the first two sections of chapter 3 in your Inside Earth textbook. Makes sure you can define the words in bold, understand the figures, and summarize each section. The midterm will also ask you about the scientific method, scientific measurement, scientific naming, the organism classification system (Remember King Philip came over from Germany swimming), and food webs.) I have written some questions below to help you study. If you have any questions or difficulties, please see me at lunch or after school or me (ccing your parents) or ask your parents to call me. You have learned a lot so far this year, and I am sure you will all do very well! Completion Complete each statement. 1. When continental plates pull apart at a divergent boundary on land, a(n) forms. 2. The part of the mantle called the is made of soft rock that bends like plastic. 3. In the asthenosphere, heat is transferred as soft rock flows slowly in cycles known as. 4. Scientists known as study the forces that shape Earth s surface. 5. When you touch a hot plate, the transfer of heat from the plate to your hand is called. 6. The theory of was that all the continents once were joined as a single supercontinent and have since drifted apart. 7. To support his theory, Alfred Wegener provided evidence from, traces of ancient organisms preserved in rock. 8. The energy from the sun that warms your face is transferred by a process called. 9. The process of continually adds new crust to the ocean floor along both sides of the mid-ocean ridge. 10. Two of Earth s plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions, along a boundary. 11. Oceanic crust is made up mostly of an igneous rock called. 12. The longest mountain chain on Earth is the, most of which lies under the ocean. 13. Subduction occurs where the oceanic crust bends down toward the mantle at a.

2 14. The lithosphere is broken into sections called, which float on top of the asthenosphere. 15. The formation of volcanoes and mountain ranges can be explained by the theory of. 16. A continental plate collides with an oceanic plate at a(n) boundary. 17. An ocean plate plunges beneath a trench and back into the mantle in a process known as. 18. Wegener believed that the continents had once been joined in one landmass called. 19. Scientists think that the, made of solid iron and nickel, spins to produce Earth s magnetic field. 20. Geologists learn about Earth s interior by studying, which move through Earth. 21. A change in the volume or shape of Earth s crust is called. 22. The stress force that causes a mass of rock to pull or twist in opposite directions is called. Short Answer 23. What is shearing? 24. What is compression force? 25. After Christmas: How does a fault block mountain form? 26. After Christmas: What happens when friction between the opposite sides of a fault is high? 27. Forces that shape Earth s surface by building up mountains and landmasses are called constructive or destructive?

3 28. How do geologists observe Earth s interior? Can they see it directly? How do they figure out the parts of the earth? 29. What is the correct order (starting from the surface) of Earth s layers? 30. Describe the Earth s inner core. 31. What is radiation? 32. Heat transfer through fluid is called currents 33. According to Wegener s hypothesis of continental drift, how were the landmasses originally shaped? 34. What is Pangaea? 35. What technology did scientists use in the mid-1900s to map the mid-ocean ridge? What technology do they use now in addition to that one? 36. What kind of rocks did scientists in a submersible see when they observed the mid-ocean ridge that helped them realize that new material is being formed in the ocean? 37. What is subduction?

4 38. Old oceanic crust has become cooler with time. Does it become more dense or less dense? Does it sink or rise? 39. How do convection currents cause the plates to move? 40. What are transform boundaries? 41. How does a rift valley form? What is happening to the plates? 42. What does geo mean? 43. Is the mantel molten metal or hot rock? 44. Which part of the earth spins to create the magnetic field around the earth? 45. What part of the Earth do the convection currents flow in? 46. What landform often forms by a collision between two pieces of continental lithosphere at a converging boundary? 47. Where is the largest chain of mountains in the world?

5 48. What is a convergent boundary? What are the plates doing? Use the diagram to answer each question. 49. Earth s solid inner core spins inside the hot, molten metal of which layer? 50. The asthenosphere is part of which layer of Earth? 51. Pressure increases with depth toward the center of Earth. In which layer would you expect pressure to be the greatest? 52. According to the theory of plate tectonics, on which layer of Earth do plates float? 53. Which layer of Earth is made up partly of crust and partly of mantle material?

6 54. Overall, which layer of Earth appears to be the thickest? Use the diagram to answer each question. 55. Which type of plate boundary occurs at X? 56. What feature occurs at Y, and how does it form? 57. What is happening at Z? 58. Identify the three plates in the diagram and name the materials that make up each plate. 59. Which type of plate boundary occurs at Y?

7 60. What feature occurs at X and how does it form? 61. How fast do earth plates move? What part of the human body grows as fast as they move? 62. Could scientist discover the parts of the inside of the earth by finding them? Why or why not? 63. How did the earth form? What crashed together? What force brought them together? 64. Why is the inner core hot? 65. Which is more dense the crust or the mantle? What floats on what? 66. Which has more granite: The oceanic crust or the continental crust? 67. What is the formula for density? 68. Does heated gas take up more or less volume than cold gas? 69. Draw a convention cell. Why does magma rise when it is nearer to the core? Why does it fall as it spends more time away from the core?

8 70. Can the same plate have both ocean crust and continental crust on it? (Remember the egg you drew on and cracked.) 71. What is the ring of fire? Find it on the map in your book? 72. What is pahoehoe? It s not santa! 73. Which US state is growing in landmass? How? 74. What is the difference between active, dormant, and extinct volcanoes? 75. What provides the force that pushes magma to the surface of the earth in a volcano? 76. What is lava called before it reaches earth s surface? 77. Draw diverging plates. 78. Draw a diagram of subduction. 79. What happens to a crust after it is subducted?

9 80. What is silica made out of? 81. Compare and contrast obsidian rock and pumice? Howa do they look? How were they formed? 82. Does all lava move quickly? What makes some lava move quickly? 83. What happened at Pompeii? What is Mont Vesuvius? 84. What god are volcanos named after? 85. Why does the iron in some rocks face in different directions? 86. Give 3 pieces of evidence for sea floor spreading 87. Does everything with mass have gravity? Why doesn t your pencil fly into your hand? Use the diagram to answer each question.

10 88. Describe the rock layers shown in Diagram A and any forces acting on the rock. 89. In diagram B, which type of fault will form if the stress force continues? Explain. 90. What caused the rock layers to take on the shape shown in diagram C? 91. Contrast the plate movements that cause the stresses in diagrams B and C. 92. Will a normal fault result from the stresses being applied to the rock unit in diagram D? Explain. 93. Compare diagram B to diagram A. How is it different?

11 94. What are the two types of seismic waves? 95. What is the difference between P waves and S waves? How are they shaped? Which can move through fluid? Which is faster? 96. What is an epicenter? 97. If a P wave and S wave arrive at the same spot near the same time is the earthquake far away or close? 98. Are earthquakes always big or do little earthquakes happen often? 99. Which US state is most at risk for big earthquakes? Why? 100. What techniques do engineers us to make buildings that stay safe during earthquakes> Essay 101. Were Africa and South America ever joined? Cite evidence from a landform and fossil to support your answer. 102 Compare and contrast the outer core and the inner core Compare and contrast what occurs when two oceanic plates collide, when two continental plates collide, and when an oceanic and a continental plate collide List the levels of classification for organisms. (Think of King Phillip.) 105. In the classification of organisms, what kingdom does Harombe, the guerrilla, belong to, what kingdom do roses belong to, what kingdom do you belong to? 106. What two levels of classification are used in scientific nomenclature (naming)

12 107. The owl that expelled the pellet you dissected is a Tyto alba. What is his genius? What is his species? 108. What is in the owl s food web? 109.What does the owl eat? What eats owls? 110. Put the steps of the scientific method in order: analyze the data, make a hypothesis, design an experiment, gather background information, draw a conclusion, improve the experiment or suggest another (optional) 111. What is a hypothesis? 112. Which is better: a large sample size or small sample size? 113. Give an example of a virtue scientists need and explain why they need it I want to test fertilizer. I put one kind next to my oak tree in the sun and one kind next to my weeping willow in the shade. My oak tree grows taller! That fertilizer is better! What is the mistake in my experimental design? 115. List the metric prefixes in order. How many centimeters are in 10 kilometers? 116. What is the metric unit for length? 117. What is the metric unit for mass? 118. What is the metric unit for liquid volume?

13 7th grade midterm study guide 2016 Answer Section COMPLETION 1. rift valley 2. asthenosphere 3. convection currents 4. geologists 5. conduction 6. continental drift 7. fossils 8. radiation 9. sea-floor spreading 10. transform 11. basalt 12. mid-ocean ridge 13. deep-ocean trench 14. plates 15. plate tectonics 16. convergent 17. subduction 18. Pangaea 19. inner core 20. seismic waves 21. deformation 22. shearing SHORT ANSWER 23. shearing. 24. compression 25. fault-blocr hak mountain. 26. The fault locks, and stress builds up until an earthquake occurs. 27. constructive forces. 28. by recording and studying seismic waves 29. crust, mantle, outer core, inner core 30. a dense ball of solid metal. 31. radiation. 32. convection currents. 33. the continents were once joined together in a single landmass. 34. the name of the supercontinent that existed millions of years ago 35. sonar 36. rocks formed by the eruption of molten material from Earth s mantle 37. subduction.

14 38. cool. 39. convection currents in the asthenosphere. 40. transform boundary. 41. diverge. 42. geologists. earth 43. a layer of hot rock. 44. inner core. 45. asthenosphere. 46. mountain range. 47. the longest chain of mountains in the world. 48. convergent boundary. 49. the outer core 50. the mantle 51. the inner core 52. the asthenosphere 53. the lithosphere 54. the mantle 55. divergent 56. At Y, a deep-ocean trench is forming. Two plates of different densities are colliding. The oceanic crust is denser and plunges beneath the continental crust, forming a trench. 57. The edge of plate B is plunging beneath plate C and melting in the mantle. 58. Plates A and B are made of oceanic crust and lithosphere. Plate C is made of continental crust and lithosphere. 59. convergent 60. At X, the mid-ocean ridge occurs along a boundary between two oceanic plates. The plates are moving apart, causing molten material to repeatedly rise from the mantle, erupt, and harden as solid rock along the center of the ridge. 61. about as fast as fingernails grow 62. No, too hot and too much pressure 63. Astroids. Gravity 64. see video and book 65. mantle 66. continental 67. D+M/V 68. more 69. Heat makes it less dense so it rises. Cold makes it more dense so it falls 70. Yes! 71. see book 72. see book 73. hawii. Volcanoes are adding to it 74. bk 75. Gasses disolved in magma 76. Magma 77. see book 78. book 79. book 80. Silicon and o

15 81. Book 82. book 83. volcano 84. Vulcan 85. The poles switched 86. bk 87. yes 88. Diagram A shows a section of rock that contains three different layers. All layers are parallel and are equal in thickness. There are no forces being exerted on the rock layers. 89. A reverse fault will form. Compression will squeeze the rock until a fault occurs in which the rock forming the hanging wall slides up and over the footwall. 90. tension 91. The compression in diagram B occurs when one plate pushes against another. The tension in diagram C occurs when two plates move apart. 92. No, because the stresses being applied will not push the rock unit up or down but sideways. A strike-slip fault rather than a normal fault will result. 93. Diagram B shows how compression affects rock layers, causing the layers to bulge in the center and occupy a smaller horizontal area. 94. P and S 95. book 96. Book ESSAY 97. Rock from a mountain range in Africa matches up with similar rock in South America, suggesting that the two were once joined. A type of fossil plant has been found on both continents. The seedlike structures of this plant could not have traveled the great distances now separating the continents. Therefore, it seems likely that the two landmasses once were joined together. 98. According to the theory of continental drift, the continents once were joined together in a single landmass. The continents have since moved slowly over Earth s surface to their present positions. On a map, the outlines of some present-day continents look as if the continents could fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. 99. The outer core is hot, molten iron and nickel under extreme pressure. The outer core surrounds the inner core, which occupies the center of Earth. The inner core is also iron and nickel and is also extremely hot. But pressure within the inner core is so great that it remains a solid. The inner core spins inside the liquid outer core. Scientists hypothesize that this movement causes Earth s magnetic field When two oceanic plates collide, one bends and slides under the other, forming a trench. When two continental plates collide, they squeeze the crust upward into mountain ranges. When an oceanic and a continental plate collide, the oceanic plate slides beneath the continental plate. The oceanic plate begins to melt as it sinks back into the mantle. This melting forms magma, which then may erupt through the continental plate as volcanoes.

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