The temperature dependence of the far- infrared radio correla3on in the Herschel ATLAS

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1 The temperature dependence of the far- infrared radio correla3on in the Herschel ATLAS Daniel J. B. Smith Euclid/SKA mee3ng Oxford, September 2013

2 The far- infrared radio correla3on FIRC Far- IR luminosity and 1.4 GHz luminosity widely used as SFR indicators Expected to be correlated But physics is very different; thermal IR vs synchrotron Widely expected to break down Bell, 2003 Appleton, 2004

3 Why is the FIRC of interest? To reveal the proper3es of star- forming galaxies detected at radio frequencies, need to fit their SEDs: what is the stellar mass, dust mass, A V, dust luminosity, star forma3on history? Are galaxies intrinsically red (and old) or intrinsically blue (and dusty). Physical proper3es of the two are drama3cally different. Best way to dis3nguish is with far- IR data. MagPhys SED fibng code (da Cunha et al. 2008): Energy absorbed by dust in stellar birth clouds is re- radiated in far- infrared Implemented in H- ATLAS in Smith et al. (2012), Smith et al. (in prep)

4 Determining Galaxy Proper3es: Photometry from: FUV GALEX- GAMA (Seibert in prep); ugriz GAMA (Driver et al. 2010); WISE GAMA- WISE (Cluver et al. in prep); far- IR Herschel- ATLAS Intrinsic Starlight Photometry Thermal dust: Re- processed starlight Transmifed Starlight Five year gap from now un3l SPICA/CCAT; Herschel warm, SCUBA- 2 future uncertain from end of Rapid increase in radio data quality over period: If FIR and radio are fixed with respect to one another then can we use radio data as a proxy? If FIRC breaks down then we need to know about it!

5 The FIRC in H- ATLAS Use 160 deg2 of data at 100, 160, 250, 350 & 500 um from the phase 1 release of the Herschel ATLAS (Eales et al. 2010, Ibar et al. 2010, Pascale et al. 2010, Rigby et al. 2011) 5sigma sensi3vity limits of 130, 130, 32, 36, 42 mjy from um, respec3vely Reliable counterparts to 13, um posi3ons in SDSS, cross- iden3fied using a Likelihood Ra3o method (Smith et al. 2011, see also McAlpine et al. 2012, Valiante et al. in prep) Aims to detect 3x105 galaxies in eventual 600deg2 coverage, overlapping with the GAMA survey (Driver et al., 2010), SDSS, UKIDSS- LAS (also DES, PanSTARRS, VST) atlas.org

6 Radio data: NVSS & FIRST FIRST (Becker et al. 1995): 10,000 deg 2 overlapping NVSS; 5 resolu3on, 0.15 mjy beam - 1 RMS aperture fluxes measured in 7 apertures at op3cal posi3ons NVSS (Condon et al. 1998): En3re sky North of - 40 dec; 45 resolu3on, 0.45 mjy beam - 1 RMS fluxes measured from maps at op3cal posi3ons + catalogue fluxes where they exist H- ATLAS phase1 at 160 deg 2 represents a small (!) overlapping patch of sky

7 Proper3es of the sample 600 sources detected >5sigma detec3ons at 250um >4sigma detec3ons at 1.4 GHz (NVSS and/or FIRST) Spectroscopic Redshirs for all Several improvements over Jarvis et al. 2010: 6x as many sources Spec- z only Befer temperature/l dust es3mates due to inclusion of PACS data (see Smith et al. 2013, arxiv:1309.) Also Beta = 1.82 cf 1.5 Also look at the stacks

8 Check that FIRST and NVSS are consistent: Excess NVSS flux due to resolved sources, beyond the 7 FIRST aperture. All but four flagged as AGN (see later), remaining four extended, plus 1 contaminated. Redshir distribu3ons of SF galaxies and 1.4 GHz detec3ons: Probing the z < 0.5 popula3on Future radio surveys allow more representa3ve sub- sample

9 Calcula3ng Temperatures & Luminosi3es Calculate effec3ve dust temperature by assuming the op3cally thin modified black body isothermal SED; beta = 1.82 (Smith et al. 2013) Calculate integrated dust luminosity using the Siebenmorgen & Krügel (2007) SEDs Monochroma3c FIR luminosi3es k- corrected using best fit SK07 SED L 1.4GHz calculated assuming spectral index 0.8

10 Luminosity distribu3ons How to iden3fy AGN? L 1.4GHz > W Hz - 1 (e.g. Mauch & Sadler 2007)

11 The FIRC in H- ATLAS FIRC defined by: 97 AGN iden3fied using: q 250 < 1.0 (Hardcastle et al., 2013)

12 Redshir dependence of the FIRC

13 Temperature Dependence of the FIRC Ambient diffuse ISM Birth Clouds Integrated FIRC shows posi3ve temperature dependence individual sources (blue/red stars) stacks (green crosses) Can electrons persist for longer arer starburst than dust luminosity? Or is this to do with different sources of dust hea3ng in the ISM/BC?

14 Different dust hea3ng components causing FIRC temperature dependence? Birth Clouds: Dominates FIR in hot sources Recent star forma3on Strong link to 1.4GHz Image: Da Cunha et al Diffuse ISM: Dominates FIR in cold sources Evolved stars hea3ng Weaker link to 1.4 GHz luminosity? Can radio con3nuum observa3ons explain the varia3ons in the FIRC and constrain dust hea3ng mechanisms?

15 Future prospects More sensi3ve radio data LOFAR over H- ATLAS fields; can do all this with detec3ons rather than having to stack (481/13,000 currently). Also JVLA + SKA pathfinders over deep fields Can we build the radio data in to SED- fibng? Implica3ons for Far- IR luminosity as an SFR indicator in normal galaxies with mul3ple sources of dust hea3ng Perhaps radio data can help determine the different sources of dust hea3ng in star- forming galaxies

16

17 Temperature Dependence of the FIRC: Wavelength q um: q q 100um: 160um: Cartoon Version: Birth Clouds 100um shows strongest q 100 at highest T: q 250um: 250um shows lifle temperature dependence: 500um shows strongest q 500 at lowest T: q q 350um: 500um: Ambient diffuse ISM

18 Is this plausible? Rough calcula3ons of comparing total thermal energy of dust with dust luminosity gives 3mescales: log 10 (tau dust /yrs) = Synchrotron version for typical 3mescale of electrons in a 0.1-1nT magne3c field (Beck et al. 2012) gives: log 10 (tau electrons /yrs) =

19 Timescales Calcula3on Calculate Total Thermal Energy: E thermal = 5MkT 2µm p τ thermal E thermal L dust Calculate electron gamma factor at cri3cal frequency 21cm: υ c = γ 2 B de mag dt = 4 σ T cγ 2 B 2 3 2µ 0 τ synchrotron γmc 2 de mag dt

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