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1 ..,

2 :543.42(075.8) : : /..,... : - -, ISBN () - (), ,, -, :543.42(075.8) : ,.. ISBN ,.., 2008, 2008.,

3

4 , -,. -,,,, -,. -, -,,., -, -. - ().. -,. 4

5 -. -, ,, ,., -., , ( ).,,..,,, , - -, ,.. -,. «-» , :. 5

6 ,, «-».., -, : -,,, -, -,, XX - :, -, ,,,,, ,. -,, , -,. 6

7 (,,, ). - (,,.), -.. -,, -.,,,,,. (,,..). (),. (SiO 2 ), (Al 2 O 3 ), (, CaCO 3 ), - (MgO).,,. -,,.. -,, -,. -,. : 1.,, ,, -, -. -,. - ( ) ( 7

8 ). () :,, , ,,,,,,,. -.,., ,, -,, ()., -., 2 %. - 2,4 2,8 % 4,5 5,0 %,.., -., -. -., Si, S, Mn, Cr, P, Cu. 8

9 ,., FeCO 3. - :,, -, % Fe () Fe 3 O 4 () % Fe - Fe 3 O 3 () % Fe 2Fe 2 O 3 3H 2 O () Fe 2 O 3 H 2 O () % Fe FeCO 3 () % Mn () -.. -,,...., 2 %.. -,, - -, , -.,,,.,,.. -., -,. - ( < 0,3 %), ( = 0,3 0,7 %) - ( > 0,7 %)., 1, 2, 3.., 08, 15, 20,

10 ,, -. - ; ; , : 2, :,,., 3, 3, 3.. :, , 2, 3 4 -, ,,,,,, (,, -, -, ). -.,., - ( 1 %) (08, 20, 75), 2 (30, 65). 0,66 1,34 % 0,58 %. ( - ). - :,, :, 7-0,7 %, 13 1,3 %,. 7, 8, 8,,,,,,. (10, 11, 10, 12, 13),, -,, ( ),. - () 0,25 % (11, 22, 43.), (12, 20, 40, 30), 0,2 %. :, 10

11 , -.,, 0,25 0,45 %. -,. - 2,5 %, 2,5 10 %, 10 %. -,,,,,,,. -,. - 0,5 % ,,,. - :, ( ) : 1. 15, 15, 20, 30, 30, 35, 38, 40, 45, 50 0,12...0,54 %, 0,17...0,37 %, 0,40...0,80 %, 0,70...1,30 % , 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 102, 352, ,12...0,56 %, 0,17...0,37 %, 0,70...1,80 % , 18, 27, 30, 35, 25. 0,15...0,45 %, 0,17...0,37 %, 0,70...1,25 %, 0,40...1,30 % , 38, 40-0,29...0,45 %, 1,00...1,60 %, 0,30...0,60 %, 1,30...1,60 % , 20, 30, ,11...0,44 %, 0,30...0,70 %, 0,80...2,70 %, 0,15...0,55 %. 11

12 ,12...0,18 % 0,37...0,44 %, 0,17...0,37 %, 0,40...0,80 %, 0,80...1,10 % 0,06...0,12 % 0,10...0,18 % , 202-0,10...0,18 % 0,17...0,25 %, 0,17...0,37 %, 0,40...0,70 %, 1,50...1,90 %, 0,20...0,30 % , 40, 45, 50, 1224, ,09...0,45 %, 0,17...0,37 %, 0,30...0,80 %, 0,40...1,65 %, 0,80...3,65 % , 30, 35, ,17...0,39 %, 0,90...1,40 %, - 0,80...1,30 %, 0,80...1,40 %, 302 1,40...1,80 %.,,,,,, -,,,,, -,,. - 0,40 1,8 %, 1,0 %. 2,2 % 5 %, - 0,7 1,12 %, 2,5 18,5 %, 4,8 8,5 % 3,0 4,4 %; - 1,0 %, % 0,4 29 %;, 0,15 %, 7 %, %, 3,5 5,8 % % ; - 13 %, 20,0 %, 0,15 % 0,25 %. : (7, 9, 9, 9, 95, 65, 9, 12, 18, 63, 95, 910, 1852.), ; - (6, 91, 121,, 328, 482, 5, 4, 42, 663, ). 12

13 : 8,5 29 %, 0,15 6,2 %, 1,8 6,0 % 6 20 % (60, 55, 60, 70.); 14,0 23,0 %, 2,8 6,0 %, 0,25 3,2 %, 30,0 39, 0 % (35, 0628.); 33,5 80,0 %, 0,15 1,5 %, 0,3 1,1 % (50, 34, 50, 80.).,, -. -, - :,,,,,,,,,, -,,,,.,, -., - 1,5 %., c..,,, -..., - Fe 3 C ( ), ( ).., -,,., -. ( ), ( ),.,

14 () / 2 (10, 15, 21, 30.). -,,, -,,,.. -,.. (40, 50.) ,,,,, -.,,,. : - (), - (%) ( 30-6, 35-10, 45-7, 55-4.).,,,,,, -, (%) 5 : %; 99,0 99,90 %; 99,90 99,99 %; 99,99 99,999 %; 99,999 99,9999 %.,,, -,,,,,,,,, -,,,,,,,,,. 14

15 . - = 8,96 / ,,. -,,. : 00 (99,99 % Cu), 0 (99,95 % Cu), 1 (99,9 % Cu). :. -,,,,, -. -, : 96, 70, 68, 63, 62-1, 403, 303. :,,,,,,. -,.,,, -. -,, -. ( %) -,,,,,. (-,,,,, ).. : 5, 7, 9-2; 10-2, 9-4; , ,5 11 %. -, -,,. : 2; 1,7; 1,9 1,60 1,85 1,85 2,1 %. (0,2 0,5 %). -,,,,,. ( ) (5.). -,, -,,. 15

16 ,, - 7 % : 6,5 0,4; 6,5 0,15; 4 0,2; ,5; 8,0-0,30; 7-0,2; ,, -,, -. ( %). - (19, 30-0,1-1.), (15-20.), (13-3, 6-1,5). -,,, -., -,,. -,,,., , - ( = 2,7 / 3 ), -,,, (99,999 % Al), 995 (99,995 % Al), 99 (99,990 % Al), 97 (99,970 % Al), 95 (99,95 Al) 85 (99,85 % Al), 8 (99,80 % Al), 0 (99 % Al). -,. -,, -..,.,. 37 : 8, 13, 2, 9 (4), 19, 57 (10), 11, 25, 30.,. -,,.. 16

17 : 1, 16, 3,8 4,9 % ( ), ; 4-1, 6, 8., -,, ;,,, -,.,, -, (95, 65,, 1,.). -,,,,.. () 97., 450,, -. -,,., (,,..) = 1,7 / ,,, : 1) 3 Mg Al Zn Mn; 2) () () 5, 4, 5, 5, 6 Mg Al Zn Mn; 8 Mg Zn Zr Cd; 12 Mg Zn Zr; 15 Mg Zn Zr La; 3) 9, 10, : 1) 1 8; 2) 2, 2 1, 17.; 3) 5,

18 - = 4,5 / , -.,.. (Ti) -.,. 882, , , ,. - -,,,. -,,. -,. 6, 14.,,.,, -. 5, 3-1, 20, 21. = 8,9 / 3 - = , -.,, -,, ,5-1,5 (), -. 9 % 9,5 ( ). 20 % (2080-) (1560). 18

19 (78, 77.), -, , (,,,,, ).. 2 : 99,9 ( 99,90 %) 99,8 ( 99,80 %) 99,8 ( 99,80 %).,. 3 99,93, 99,9 99,8 (, 99,93, 99,90 99,80 % - ) 24. : 2 (99,9 99,8 99,9 99,8 % ) (999,9 999) 37.,,,, ,,.,,,..,, -,,.,,, -. -,.,,.. - : -, - 19

20 (), - -, -,. :, ; ; ; ;. :, - ;., -, -.,. -,, -. -,,. : - (1 5), (,, -2, -.), (-1-2), (1, 16.), (, 0, 3.), (65,, , 948.), -, (-1, -2, -3, -4, -1, -2.),, (6, 8, 15, 8-, 20-, 712, 304, 108-.). 1.2., -,. :,,,,, -,, -. :, -,,,,,,,. 20

21 -. -,,. :, -,,, -,,. -.,, -.. -, ().. -,... ( ). -,,,, -, ,,.,., 1 2, 1-1.,

22 , : -,,,,,,,. - (b) ( m ). () -. m, -. M mhm. (1) b H M, (2) m b. (, ) b Hm, 1 -. (, - ) -, -. - m ( - ).. b r,, - s. -, - 0 max. b. 22

23 - ( - ).. -, ,, -, -, , -.,, , ( ), -. -,.,,., -, ( )

24 -,, - (,, - ).. :., -,.,, ,., (, -, )..,. 1.? 2.? 3.? 4.? 24

25 2.,..,.,., -,...,,,.,,. -. -, :,.. - ( ) -. -,, , , - -..,. -,. 25

26 ,, -.,. -, -, -. (- )., (, - ). -. ( ). -,.,.. -,. -,,,,, -,. ( ),,,,. -.,.. -..,. -, -.,, -., 26

27 , -.,,, , (. 1) : (, );. -., - -.,. -, (),,.. 27

28 ,, ,,,. - -,, -.., : (- -,.. - ). 3.,, -, ,. - -.,, -.,. -., -,,,.. :, -,,,, -. 28

29 , -.,,, -..,, % % %. - ( ). -, -,, -. -.,, %., -,. -,, %. -.,, -., -,,. - :,, ;. - -.,. - 29

30 . -. (0,1 1 %) -, -,,.,, ,,. -.,. VIII. : 1. : 1/ (1 ) e. (, ). 1/16 16 ( 1.. ). 1 = 1, , 1... = 1, = 1, , (, 2 18 = ) N = /. - ( ), , - 18., : m ,,,. 30

31 : = 1 / 3, 1 - = 18 /, /. : /., V0 310., ,, -. ( - ),,., ( )., -, 10,.. 10.,,,...., -, , 16., -, Z.., -, («-» ). -.,. -,. : = 19 / 3, = 238, 4,310 8, , V : = 0,97 / 3, = 23, 6,310 8, V 3 231, , ,97 31

32 , -. = 4, CGSE, m = 9, ,, ,,, ,.,...., ,, - (). -. m 0 - r. :,. -.,. - n, 1, 2, 3 n = 1,,. - n., - 32

33 -. n.. 1- (n = 1) -; 2- (n = 2) L-; 3- (n = 3) M-; 4- (n = 4) N-; 5- (n = 5) O-; 6- (n = 6) P-.,. n- E n me z, (3) 2 2 nh 2 2 nh rn. (4) me z - l, 0 n 1 n1; l 0; n 2; l 0; l 1; n 3; l 0; l 1; l 2;.. l -.,,. l = 0 s-; l = 1 p-; l = 2 d-; l = 3 f-..,, n = 3 l = 1 3.,. 2. l. 33

34 . 2., n + l -., - n. : 4s(n + l = = 4), 3d, 3d(n + l = = 5), 4, 4(n + l = = 5), 3d,.. n = :. - s, 1 1 : s s. 2 2., nl. n, l, s.,,.. l.,,. -. m, +l l., l = 2, m = +2; +1; 0; 1; 2. -, l. 34

35 ,., -, (n), - (l) (m), 2-,.. : z = 1., 1, n = 1 (-). l = 0,.. -, m = s : s s , : z = L l 0 m 0 s ; ; (2 S) ; ; n = 2 l m s (2 p) 6 (2 ) m0 s ; ; (2 ) m1 s ;. (2 ) n = l 0 m 0 s ; 2 (3 S) l 1 m 12 (3 p) 1 m 02 6 m 12 35

36 l 2m 22 m 12 m m 12 m K 8 L. 3. -,,, ( ).., -.,, - 82., (- ), -. -, 82 ( 82 ).., Al, ,, M

37 .. - (- ). -,.., (. 4).. 4. ;,, -,,, (),.,. - ( ) ( ),. -. -, -.,, -,,. -.,,., -., 37

38 (). -, , -,., -,. 4s - 3p 3d - 3p 5s - 3p 4d - 3p 5d - 3p n=3 n=4 n=5 n=6 E() s 5s 4s 3961,5 3944,1 2660,4 3961,5 6p 5p 4p 2652,5 3944,1 3092,8 3082,1 2373,1 2575,1 5d 4d 3d 2373,4 3092,8 2367,1 2575,4 2568,0 3082,2 2660,4 2652,5 2575,1 2575,4 2568,0 2373,4 2367,1 5f 4f 0 3p. 5.,. 5.,. 4s., -, 3,

39 3944,1 Å 3961,5 Å. -, 3,1,.,..,, = 2652,5 Å 2660,4 Å, 5s, 4,7. -., -.,, -..,., l. s-, - s b.., 4 3.,, -... : 3961,5 Å, 3944,1 Å ( 4s3), 3092,7 Å 3082,2 Å ( 3d3)., -,....., -., -, - ()., , -. 3,9,, 24,6,. 39

40 (), ().,... n. l, 3s, 3p 3d,. 21.., d- f-.., : s-, d- f ,,, -. ( ) -.,. ( ) :. - 40

41 , - :,. sini n. (1) sin r ( ), ( - ). -,, -. -,, -. -.,, -,. -,, ,.. -, -...,, -. -.,,.,. -., -, (), -.,, (). 1. (2) T,. -, () -,..,. 41

42 1 4,, T,.. -,,.,. 360, 2 -,., -, 0, 1 T = 90, /2, 1 T 4 2 = 180,,..,,. 0,,, 180,.,, -, / = /. -, -,. ( ) ( )., ( ),. c ct. (3) ( ) -.,,,,,,., : 1,33, -, n = 1,33. -,,. - 42

43 .. -,., ,,. -.. : 1. -, ,. - ( ). -,. -.,.,. -. E h, (4) h = 6, ; (). 43

44 0, 0. (. 6). x 0 X. 6. J N. J N h. (5) -. -,, -. -., -. -,. :,,., -. -,, (). 1,, 1. c. (6) (Å), - (), (), (). : 44

45 c10 ; ; ,7 ; ; 1 h ; (7) h 4, , ,6210 ; ; , ; , ; , ,. ( ). (7)., h, (8),.. 1 ; (9) h h E P. (10) c c h. (11) P m, P m ( c )., h, (12) m = 2, /., m 0 = 9, E ev

46 2 m 2 0 E ev. 2 m0 Pm 2m E, 0 0 h h h Å. 2mE 0 2meV 0 2me 0 V V.. V 150 ( Å). V ,5 10 1,2210 Å 0,122 Å 1,2210 1, : 7 / = /, 11 / = / Pm / h 6, P 6, ,, -. -,, , -...,,. -.,,.. -, 46

47 ,. -,. -.. :, ( - ) 0,75 (7 500 Å). ( < 25) ( > 25). -, Å.,,., -.,,.. - : (4 000 Å Å), (2 300 Å Å) - (1 850 Å 50 Å),.,, -, -. -, -. 47

48 () () - () () () (Å) 1 = 10 6 = 10 9 = Å 1 = 10 6 = 10 3 = 10 4 Å 1 = 10 9 = 10 3 = 10 Å 1 Å =10 10 = 10 4 = 10 1 c ; hc ; ( Å) ; E E () 8 10 ( Å) ; 1 ( ) ; () 1 ( ) () -1 () 1 = 10 6 c ; ; c h 48

49 . 1 ( -1 ) ( 1 ) 1 1 = = ; hc 1 ( ) 8066,0 (); 1 ; ( ) ; () Å () () () 1 = 10 7 = 6, = 10 7 = 6, = 1, = = 1, h ; hc E ; , 2397 E() ( ) () ; h ; 1 ( ) E() 8066, ? 4., -? 5.? 49

50 ,., -., -,,... -.,,,,. -. ( )., -.., -.,,.,..,, - 4,9,,, 4,9., 4,9. = 2536,5 Å. 50

51 ,, -. 10,4 ( 10,4 ), , -. -, , E kt, (13) k = 1, / = 8, / ;. ( = 300 ): 5 3 E 8, ,026.,, -, -. - (13). -,. -,

52 N(V) N max Vmax V(E). 8. : N,, V,,. - 0, ,0005..,,. = 2000 ( 0, 2 ), -,, - : 2,1., (4,9 Hg, 6,2 N 2 ). = ,, 5,1. 10,4, - Hg ,, -. E E g E g N AN kt 0 e AN0 e, (14) g0 g0 N 0 ; N, - ; g g 0, -, ; ; A. 52

53 -.., -. (14), J.,. : 0 E kt g J AN 0 e h. (15) g -, - : E J AC e kt, (16) N 0 -. (16), -.,, , ,, , -.. ()

54 R : A2 E 1 kt J A Ce R Be J E 2 Ce kt 54 E E kt 2 1, (17) A1 B. A 2 2 1, ( ), ,. E kt B 1 E 2 C2 A kt 2C2e J A C e C R J. (18) -,,. -. ( - ), -., , -., -.

55 , (16),.,. - (18).. - (. 9)., -..,,,,. -, -., b J a C, (19) ;, E, a A e kt ; b. 0 JJ I II II III III b=1b 1> b1>b>0 >0 b=0b C 55 I- I ( ( ) ) II- J J ( ( ) III-. 9. ( ) J A C e kt., - b. - E

56 , -. lg J lg ab lg C. (20),, b = 1. b. -, - (. 10). lgj lgj lga lga lgc lgc ,. -.,,. -.,. -, 0,1 Å

57 (. 11). -., -,, -. -,. J C C C ,,. -,,,,,,... -,. -,.,., , 57

58 .. -.,,. -,, , -, -,, -, -, -. -,. -.,.. -,, ,, ,. 58

59 , -.,, 100.,, -, : P iu, (21) i ; U. -,..,. -,.. -.,,,, :, , ,,,.,. 59

60 ,,, , -,. - -.,, ,.. -,.,.,,, (. 13) ,,,. -, 60

61 , -., -. -, (. 14). R. 14..,. -. -,. -,..., -.,,.,,, -. -, -,., ,,,... 61

62 -. -.,., -. -,,, -,.,..,... ( - ), , ,

63 .,, -.., -., , (. 15). -,. -..,, - : Q CU. (22) - t, Q it, (23) i, ; t,. -.,., -. (. 16, ) -..,.. R. 16.,,, 63

64 (. 16, )., -. - (. 16, ), -., : T 2 LC, (24) 1 1, (25) T 2 LC, ;, ; L, ;, (. 17), -,., -..,, 10 4.,, -.,. -., - 64

65 . ( 200 ). -.,,. (- ), -.,. - -., -. ( ),.,. ( ), :,, , -,, ,

66 ~ R v~ V. 18., 40, 5 6., ,,,, -., ( ). -. :, -, 1.,, 2-20 ( ). - -,..,,.,., - -.,.,. 18, 66

67 ., -. 50, 100.,,.,.,, -, (- ).,.. 100, -.,. T 2 ~ R=400 R=40 0,5 C 1 1 L L 2 1 T1 C , -.. (. 19) , -., 1. -, L 2., 1. -, L

68 1. R c 2 C , -.,.. 1/50 (. 20). B, +300 I II III IV V 0, ( I) II -... III,.. III., -. IV,., 68

69 .,,,,., , -,,. -,., , ,, -. 1.? 2.?

70 ,, n. -.,, -.,.., - (. 22, ) > 2> 3 1> , : ;, - (. 22, ) , -.,,,., ;, -,,, -,. 2 70

71 . 23. (, )...,,. -,. i1 r2, r1 i2,.. (. 23, ).. -,.. ( 1 ), ( 2 ) (. 23, ).,,, ( ), -.,,., - 71

72 .,. 2sin 2 n. (26) n sin 2. -,., Å,., - - -, A Å : -,,,.. -,.., Å. -,. - ( 1,9) -

73 ,, (),. -,. -.,. -,.,,. -. (CaF 2 ) (LiF) Å Å, -..,.., 3,. 5,5,. ( 25 ).,..,., 60. -, ( ) -,. 30, ( ). -., -,,. : 30 -,, 73

74 (. 25, )., 60 -., : ; ; ;, , , b ( )

75 . - ( 180 ).. b B A. 26., -., -,. (.. ). -. AB m,, -, m ; AB bsin, bsin m. (27),, -,,,.. -,.,

76 . -,, (27). m. m = 0,, ( 0), -. m = 1,,..,,, -. m = , Å -, Å. -. -,, -. -, -..,. : m. (28) b cos m -, cos,. -,, -,., / /. -,.,.,. 76

77 4.3., -,. -,.,, (. 27).,,,.,., -, ,... -.,,, -. -., -., -.,. - -,,. 77

78 ( );, -,. - d.,,,, -. d, f 1. f1,, -,.,. - (. 28) , -,,.,,,. -,. -., 90,,. 78

79 ,,, -. f 2 ; f 2 -.,.,,. -, -, -., : , , -, , Å. -..,,

80 2.. - l, -, -.,,. l f 2 sin. (29), - sin, l f2. (30),. f l 2. (31) sin -, - : dl f2 d. (32) d sin d - ( ),, -. f 2 = 1,5 5, 13 Å/.,., - : dl l. (33) d f 2 f 1. 80

81 f g. (34) f g = : S 2 1 g a, (35)., S., ,. 2 1.,., S dl ga dl d d. (36) 5. -.,,, ,,., -. -.,,. 0, (37) d d., f S 2 f2 d, (38),. 81

82 ,.. ga f2. (39) d f.. g 2, f 1 f a 1. (40) d,,., -,. -,,, (38). 4.5.,. -, - -, (. 29) -, Cr, Ni, W, V, Zn, Fe, Pb, Sn, Al, Cu, Mg, Mo, Mn, Si -.,,.,,, Cr, W, Mn, V, Mo, Ni, Co, Ti, Al, Nb, Zr, Si, Cu ; Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, Pb, Sn, Al, Be, Si ; Mg, Cu, Mn, Fe, Si, Zn., -,,,.. -,, - 82

83 -, : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5, -. -, -, -., - -., : ; : (519,146; 519,235 ); () 11,2; ; 83

84 - 459, ; 2,31,2;, : 322,2; 28,8; ;, : 6,5; , 10 %...+5 % 2 %...+2 % : 6,0 8,0 ; 3,0 4,0 ; ;, : 25 ; 30.., -, (- ),, ,. ;, -, -, (. 30),. 84

85 , -.,, - (,..). - : 0,1 %, 0,1 %, 0,02 %. -,,, -, : ; 13,5 20 ; 0,015., - : R 250 ; N /; 3,2. : 220 ±10 %; 50 ± 0,1; 2,2 ; : ; ; : (, ); - 85

86 ( - ); ( ) (. 31) ,,.,,. -,,, -, -.,. : ;, /: 390 1,65; 470 3,5; ,34; 0,089 ; 322,2 ; 0,01 ; 7 ; 3,5 ; 86

87 930 ; 220, 50 ;, : ; ; ; 35., Test-Master PRO. - (. 32) ( - ) Test-Master PRO,, WAS AG. :,,,,,,,,, -, - -,,. 87

88 , - 100% Test-aster, -. DSP ( ). 14 CCD- -, est-master,.. 5. METALSCAN 3010/20/30. Arun Technology,. METALSCAN 3010/20/30 (. 33) - - -,,. 3020, METALSCAN 3010/20/30 Metalscan , -, -. - ( -, )

89 -. : (17 ) ( ),. : ;, ; CCD-; ; : ; - ( 1 3 ), ;. : - ; - ( ); - ( 200 ); ; LCD, TFT - ; (330MHz, OS Windows 98, 32Mb RAM, 2Gb HDD, FDD) - ;. :, Windows 98;,, ;, , 50/60.,,

90 (. 34) -,. -71,,, ,, ± 0,5,, , ,,. -, - 90

91 , «-400» CRL-., -. -,,. - : - ;, 4,, ; - ; - ; ,,., ( 6 ). : -,.. ;, - ;,. IBM- -. WinQuant, -,,,. 91

92 : : - 1 ;,, , 2400 /; -,, , 1800 /; (Na), 670 (), 766 (Li); -, ; : ; ; ; ; ; 0,0001 % %; ( ) 0,5 5 %; ; 120.; 36.; HAMAMATSU, ; ; 350 ; ; : 15 25, - ± 5 /, < 80 %; : 220 ± 22V 50, 2,5 ; 99,995 %. 1.? 2. -? 3.? 4.? 5.? ? 92

93 , (),,, 22.,,,,,,,, -. (),, - -., - (-, -.),. - ~ 1 2 8,, ,, - ()., -. ( ), ()..,,., 1 1,5, 0,

94 -. - ( 20, 2, 3), -. -, , -.. -, (- ),,. -,,,. -, -,, -, - 450,, ,. -.,, -,. -,,,. -., V1 «1». -, -., -., -, -. «1». 94

95 , V V 3, Å 4379, , , , (), Å , , , ,33 V ,20 1 Cr Cr 4 Cr 6 Cr , , , , , , , , , , Ni , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,28

96 Ni 2. 2 (), Å, Å , ,24 Ti , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,30 W ,61 W , W , n , n , , , , ,17 Nb , ,85 Nb ,94 Nb 3 Co , , , ,22 Si , , , , , , ,02 2. :, - «=», 1 = 2; -, «<» «>», 1 < 2 1 > 2; -, : «<<» «>>», 1<<2 1>>2.

97 ,, -,. -. -,,, ,. -,, - 60., -,. - 2, Å...,, : ; 1 3 ();,, (). 97

98 :,,,,,,,,,. 1.. : V1, V3, V4. V1 -. V3 - V4. V1 0,15 0,5 %, V3 0,8 2,5 %. V4 -, 0,1 % V1 V V1, % 0,15 1 = 4 0,30 2 = 4 0,50 3 =

99 . 37. V3 V V3, % 0,8 1 = 2 1,5 1 = 3 2,5 1 = 4 4 «1V» V4 V 0,1 % V4 99

100 2.. : r1, Cr4, Cr6 Cr7. Cr4 Cr r1 r6 -. r6 -, - ; Cr1 Cr Cr1, % 0,05 1 = 4 0, ,

101 . 40. Cr Cr6 Cr Cr4, % 1,0 1 = 2 2,5 1 = 3 5,

102 Cr Cr6, % = > 2; 1 < = Cr7 Cr Cr7, % 0,3 1 = 7 0,7 2 = 7 1,0 1 = 6; 2 7 1,5 1 < 5; 1 6; 2 > 7 2,5 2 = ; 2 = = 4; 2 = > 4; > 4;

103 9, % r1 0,05 0,2 0,3 % r % r % r7 0,3 30 2,5 % : Mo1, Mo2. Mo1 -,, Mo2. Mo1 0,15 1,2 % Mo2 0,25 2 %. 10 Mo Mo1, % 0, ,15 0,30 1 = 4; 2 7 0,30 0,60 1 6; 2 8 0,60 1,2 1 5; 2 = 6 1,2 1 > 5; Mo1 103

104 . 44. Mo2 11 Mo Mo2, % 0,25 1 = 4 0,30 1 > 2; 1 < 3 0,70 1 = 3 2,0 1 > : Ni1 Ni2. Ni1. 0,2 5 %. 0,2 0,5 -. Ni2 -, 1,5 20 %. 1 2 %,, - Ni1. 10 %. 104

105 . 45. Ni1 12 Ni Ni1, % 0, ,5 1 = 2 3,0 1 > 2; 1 < 4 5,0 1 = Ni2 105

106 13 Ni Ni2, % 1,5 1 3,0 1 < = > Ti1, -. Ti1 0,05 1,5 % Ti1 14 Ti Ti1, % 0,05 2 = 3 0,1 0,15 2 > 3 0, ,35 1 = 4 0,8 1 = 5 1 1,

107 6.. - : W1, W2 W3. W1, W2 -, -, W3. W %, W % W3 1 5 % W W2 107

108 15 W W1, % 1 1 < 4 2,5 1 = ; = >> 3; 2 >> 4 16 W W2, % 5 1 = >> W3 17 W W3, % 1,0 1 = 3 2, ,5 1 > 3; 1 4 5,0 1 > 4 108

109 7.. : Mn1 Mn3. Mn1, - -, Mn3. Mn1 0,3 4 %, Mn3 0,4 1 %. Mn1 3 % Mn1 18 Mn Mn1, % 0,3 0,5 1 < 2 0,6 0,7 1 = 2 1,0 2,0 1 > 2 3,0 4,0 1 = 3 19 Mn Mn3, % 0,4 2 < 4 0,7 2 > 4; 1 < 3 1,0 1 = 3 109

110 . 52. Mn3 8.. : Nb1, Nb2 Nb3. Nb1, Nb2, -, Nb Nb1 0,1 1,5 %. 1Nb 2Nb, 1Nb 4671,09 Å, 1 %, - 2Nb 4675,12 Å, 0,2 %. - 0,2 % 1 %, - Nb1. 110

111 . 53. Nb Nb2 «1» Nb2 0,3 %. 111

112 20 Nb Nb1, % 0,1 0, ,6 1,0 1 > 3; 1 4 1,5 1 > Nb3 0,2 %. Nb2 Nb3. Nb2, 0,3 % ,80 Å, 2Nb. Nb3 0,2 %, - 4 %. Nb3, - Cr7. Nb1. 112

113 9.. Co1, % Co1 21 Co Co1, % 2 1 < = > Si2 0,1 4 %. Si Si Si1, % 0,1 0, ,3 1 = 4 0,6 1 = 6; 2 = 3 1,2 1,4 1 > 6; 1 7 1,8 2,0 1 7; 2 < 6 3,0 4,0 1 > 7;

114 . 57. Si , 6, 0,7, 0,8. 30., -, 20 %, 1 %, - 0,8 1,2 %.., -, -., -.. -, - 114

115 .,, M; 12MX 12MX; 15XM 20; ; ( 0,03 %) (- Ti1), ; 44 -,, Cr7 - Nb3 : 1. 0,15 % - 0,1 % Mo2 V4, MX 15XM. 2. -,, 50 -.,, , -., 115

116 -, , :, -, ,, -. -,, -., -,, ,,, -, -., (), ,. -. -, 116

117 .,.. (- ) -.,,,, -. :, - ;, -,, ; -,.,,, - 3., 60,, ,..,, ,, -, -. -,..., -, ,,. 117

118 , :,,.,, -,, : ; ; ; ; (. 56). -, - :, «69 70» «69 70», «65 66» « »..,.. - -, (. 57) -,.. 118

119 : 1 12,,,,,.,, (100 %), -., -, -,. -.,,, epxoce,,, , , ,,,,,,, -., 20., 119

120 ,,. 6, 6.,, -. - ( ), -. 1.? 2. 1V3 = 3? 3.? 4., -? 5.? 120

121 1.....:, :. - -., ,.. -..:, :, :, ,..,.. -..: -, ,..,....:, / - -.., :, /.., ,.. -. / «-»., : -, /.., : -, : -, : -, : -,

122 /16.. XEROX.... 7, , NATIONAL QUALITY ASSURANCE - ISO 9001: ,.,.,

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