1 Internationalisation, Employability and Global Citizenship: the role of intercultural and transferable skills in personal and professional life. Elspeth Emerita Professor of the Internationalisation of Higher Education
2 Internationalisation, Employability and Global Citizenship What skills are employers looking for? Developed through Internationalisation at home? Support from local context of institution and students Mobility: intercultural and transferable skills?
3 It is difficult to imagine that any college graduate from any university in any country today will be unaffected by an ever more globalized and interdependent world. The movement towards internationalizing the college curriculum and adding global competencies to the desired learning outcomes for undergraduates is not the latest fashion in higher education, rather the skills and confidence to live and work in a multi- cultural world are essential to future success, if not survival. [my emphasis] Liz Reisberg: Internationalization Begins at Home Inside Higher Ed; The world view, April 19, 2016
4 New definition of Internationalisation The intentional process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions and delivery of postsecondary education, in order to enhance the quality of education and research for all students and staff, and to make a meaningful contribution to society. De Wit & Hunter (2015) in European Parliament Study April 27, 2016 Slide 4
5 New definition of Internationalisation The intentional process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions and delivery of postsecondary education, in order to enhance the quality of education and research for all students and staff, and to make a meaningful contribution to society. De Wit & Hunter (2015) in European Parliament Study April 27, 2016 Slide 5
6 Global citizenship Notions of cosmopolitanism, global citizenship and international education often linked Disputed concept Think of the citizenship part of global citizenship not in the legal, territorial and formal sense of a status but as attitudes, values, relationships and expectations.
7 Some elements: global knowledge understanding global interconnectedness intercultural competence - relating successfully with people from other cultures engagement on local and global levels around issues that impact humanity (Deardorff, 2009, 348)
8 Key aspects of global citizenship social (living) professional (working/employability) Social component has dominated but professional component (employability) increasing in emphasis
9 Global citizenship, Employability Employability/transferable skills developed through mobility experiences International or experiential learning? (Mezirow disorienting dilemmas ) International or intercultural? Slide 9
10 Global Citizenship and Mobility If we tell students that what we do is educate them to be global citizens, we are embedding failure into the experience. Rather, we should be more realistic and say that the goal of education abroad is to create better educated citizens and one of the ways to cultivate a better educated citizen is to experience another culture. Woolf (2011)
12 What skills do employers want? Prospects: the UK s official graduate careers website Self-reliance skills People skills General employment skills Specialist skills Self-awareness Proactivity Willingness to learn Team working Interpersonal skills Oral communication Problem-solving Flexibility Business acumen Specific occupational skills Self-promotion Networking Planning action Leadership Customer orientation Foreign language IT/computer literacy Numeracy Commitment Technical skills
13 Employers are looking for graduates with first- hand experience of living and working among other cultures. Fielden et al (2007) Confirmed by Erasmus Impact Study (2014)
14 Erasmus Impact Study (2014) found that 92% of employers are looking for transversal skills Source Erasmus Impact Study 2014
15 Internationalisation and employability These are precisely the skills developed through international experience Jones 2013
16 Example of outcomes from study abroad (Jones 2010 and 2012) Intercultural competence Confidence Willingness to take risks Patience Sensitivity Flexibility and open- mindedness Humility and respect Creativity Managing personal expectations
17 Example of outcomes (Jones 2010 and 2012) Employability skills Team work and team leadership Organisational skills and project management Problem solving Networking Mediation skills and conflict resolution Decision making (and communicating decisions which may not be popular) Interpersonal skills
18 Global mindset not always developed through travel/mobility...the experience of being abroad may produce a hardening of boundaries between self and other. Idealistic versions of the inhabitants of a new country may soon be eclipsed by negative experiences and a stronger sense of the rightness of one s own nationality and cultural identity. (Alred et al., 2003: 118)
19 We need to work at helping students get the most from overseas experience The role of the period abroad? Review on return Preparation While away, ethnographic questioning & assessment tasks
20 More important challenge is to consider how internationalisation of the curriculum at home might offer similar opportunities for the static majority of students, those who do not take part in an international experience during their programme of study.
21 Definition of Internationalisation at Home Internationalisation at Home is the purposeful integration of international and intercultural dimensions into the formal and informal curriculum for all students within domestic learning environments. Beelen and Jones (2015)
22 How can IaH help develop global citizenship and employability? Need to reach 100% of students INTERCULTURAL as well as international Embedded within curriculum Internationalised learning outcomes and assessment Use of domestic intercultural contexts
23 Informal Curriculum Celebrations and events academic / cultural Seminars/Exhibitions Festivals: Language Culture Food Film Music Student Union activities Clubs and Societies
24 International or intercultural? Maybe we should use the word internationalisation less and connect it more to the international and intercultural dimensions of personal transferable skills and learning outcomes. (Jones & de Wit, 2014) Not dependent on location
25 Broad concept of culture Domestic/international students and staff Returning students Engagement with culture in local society Faith groups Community centres Groups supporting refugees and asylum seekers Local employers with diverse workforce Special interest groups music, dance, food, art
26 Inter- cultural volunteering in our local communities Refugees and asylum seekers
27 Local faith or migrant communities
29 Drug addiction or alcohol abuse
30 Women s refuge Looked- after children
31 Diversity in domestic staff/student population as well as international students can represent significant resource for creative work in the classroom. Recommended reading Carroll (2015) Tools for Teaching in an Educationally Mobile World The Diversity Wheel Loden 1996
32 Domestic students who have studied abroad Culturally inclusive pedagogy Students from other countries who have come to the country to study Staff born outside the country Diversity Wheel (Loden 1996) Staff who have worked outside the country
33 Transferable skills development Internationalisation which is transformational rather than merely symbolic (Turner and Robson 2008) But also through encounters with cultural otherness of any kind Interculturalisation
34 Role of the academic Create challenging intercultural learning opportunities to enhance global citizenship /intercultural competence and employability: Appropriate to the discipline Appropriate to the student body With relevant learning outcomes Assessed to ensure achievement Thus reaching 100% of the student body
35 Internationalisation is for all students Even if domestic graduates never leave their own country, on graduation they will be forced to compete in international, or multinational, work and discovery environments. Zimitat (2008) And living and socialising in an increasingly diverse society
36 Internationalisation, Employability and Global Citizenship What skills are employers looking for? Developed through IaH? Support from local context of institution and students Mobility: intercultural and transferable skills?
37 Recommended reading Betty Leask (2015) Internationalizing the curriculum Jude Carroll (2015) Tools for Teaching in an Educationally Mobile World David Killick (2015) Developing the Global Student
38 Resources Finding Common Ground /enhancing_interact.html Bringing the Learning Home
39 Encouraging interaction between international and domestic students Finding Common Ground Arkoudis SA, Yu XY, Baik CWB, Chang SLC, Lang IWL, Lang J, Pearce A & Watty KW. (2010).Finding Common Ground: enhancing interaction between domestic and international students. Guide for academics. Report No, for Australian Learning & Teaching Council. Sydney, Australia: Australian Learning and Teaching Research Council: Studio Teaching Project.
40 This 2010 research project investigated local and international student interaction within teaching and learning contexts. Video and written materials available online Planning interaction Creating environments for interaction Supporting interaction Engaging with subject knowledge Developing reflexive processes Fostering communities of learners
41 International Student Lifecycle Resources Bank Higher Education Academy (UK)
42 Thank you My work is available to read at Or via my website
43 References Beelen, J. and Jones, E. (2015) Redefining Internationalisation at Home. In Curaj, A., Matei, L., Pricopie, R., Salmi, J., Scott, P. (Eds.) The European Higher Education Area: Between critical reflections and future policies. Springer International Carroll (2015) Tools for Teaching in an Educationally Mobile World. Routledge De Wit, H. and Hunter, F. (2015) European Parliament Internationalisation Study 70_EN.pdf De Wit, H. & Jones, E. (2014) We need to change the language of internationalisation. University World News Issue No 343, 14 th November Erasmus Impact Study (2014) impact_en.pdf Jones, E. (2013) Internationalisation and employability: the role of intercultural experiences in the development of transferable skills Public Money and Management Vol 33 No 2 Jones, E. (2015) (in press) Mobility, Graduate Employability and Local Internationalisation. In Jones, E., Coelen, R., Beelen, J., & De Wit, H. (Eds.), Global And Local Internationalization. Sense Publishers Leask, B. (2015) Internationalizing the Curriculum. Routledge Loden, M. (1996). Implementing Diversity. McGraw Hill Woolf, M. (2011) International Educator, November/December Nafsa