GCSE SOCIOLOGY FAMILIES TPS 2005

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1 GCSE SOCIOLOGY FAMILIES 1 TPS 2005

2 Use your mouse to move around the software. You can either click anywhere on the screen to get the next animation or click on a button if you see one on the screen. Always move the mouse before you click it. 2 TPS 2005

3 FAMILY THEORIES INDUSTRIALISATION AND URBANISATION FAMILY ROLES FAMILY PATTERNS FAMILY AND STATE CONCLUSIONS 3

4 Family theories Sociologists study the make-up of families and the effects that the family unit has on individuals, on society as a whole and on the economy of the country where the family lives. 4

5 Family theories What has been considered a typical family of mother, father and children has changed in recent years in Britain. What was considered necessary to be a family a hundred years ago, is very different today. 5

6 Family theories What does the term family mean? 6

7 Family theories Families are related by birth or marriage. 7

8 Family theories Families usually live in the same accommodation (although not always). 8

9 Family theories Families share what they own and earn between members of the family. 9

10 Family theories They reproduce children. 10

11 Family theories Families teach the children the culture and rules of their society and prepare them for later life by teaching them skills. 11

12 Family theories The term kin is a wider group of people who are part of the family, aunts and uncles and cousins for example. 12

13 Family theories What types of family exist today in our society? 13

14 Family theories The nuclear family where parents live with their children. 14

15 Family theories The extended family where other family members such as uncles, aunts and grandparents live locally. 15

16 Family theories The reconstituted family where children from a previous relationship become part of a new family. 16

17 Family theories The single-parent family, also known as the lone-parent family where one parent is the head of the family. The parent is usually, but not always, the mother. 17

18 Family theories Cultural and ethnic differences may play a role in forming a family. The social class that a family falls into is also important in the relationship that the family has within society. 18

19 Family theories Our family is usually the first place where we develop and learn our culture, not to mention the fact that our basic needs of food, shelter and clothing are all provided for here. 19

20 Family theories By being part of a family, we learn to speak and to communicate with other people, as well as learn the rules of behaviour. The family is the first place in life where we begin to learn the rules of our society. 20

21 Family theories Let s look at the variety of definitions that sociologists have put forward about families. 21

22 Family theories All sociologists agree that the family is important to society. It performs important functions and in many ways is the basis of society. Let s consider first the functionalist theory about the family. It describes the usefulness of a family. 22

23 Family theories - Functionalism Functionalism puts forward the theory that our culture is based on shared values that we agree to. Socialisation is the means of passing on those values to children to allow them to become part of that society. In other words, your identity is formed from the effect your family has on you. You will learn from your family what is correct behaviour and what is not. 23

24 Family theories - Functionalism For Functionalists, the family is viewed positively because the family works for the good of its own members and society as a whole. The family helps society to be stable. 24

25 Family theories - Functionalism Murdock, a Functionalist, put forward the theory in 1949 that the family carried out the following functions: Sexual function By being within a family and being married, the married partners have sex with each other. Outsiders receive the clear message that these two people are partners. 25

26 Family theories - Functionalism Murdock, a Functionalist, put forward the theory in 1949 that the family carried out the following functions: Reproductive function The family is the accepted framework in which to reproduce children. Our species has to reproduce and continue by having children. Children need a safe and secure place to live. 26

27 Family theories - Functionalism Murdock, a Functionalist, put forward the theory in 1949 that the family carried out the following functions: Economic function The family provides food and shelter. They help our economy by buying goods to live on and so put money into the economy. 27

28 Family theories - Functionalism Murdock, a Functionalist, put forward the theory in 1949 that the family carried out the following functions: Socialisation of children function Our values and culture are passed on through the family. Without this, there would be no society. Our family teaches us the rules of the society we live in. 28

29 Family theories - Functionalism Murdock, a Functionalist, put forward the theory in 1949 that the family carried out the following functions: Emotional support In ideal circumstances, the family should be able to provide emotional support in a world that might seem uncaring outside the family. 29

30 Family theories - Functionalism Negative aspects All this sounds as if the family is a supportive, caring, selfsufficient unit which has no need of outside help. Sadly, this is not always the case. Pressure and conflict can enter into any family and lead to breakdown and divorce. Women may not always have an equal relationship in the household. Violence and abuse can become part of family life. 30

31 Family theories Historical changes It is obvious that some theories reflect positive views about the family and others see negative issues associated with the family unit. The family unit has changed radically over the years. 31

32 Family theories Historical changes We have considered differing theories of the functions of the family. Many sociologists have pointed out that industrialisation in our society has contributed much to the development of a nuclear family that is isolated from its extended family and even its neighbours. 32

33 Family theories Historical changes Think about your own family. Are they all living near you? 33

34 Family theories Historical changes Think about your own neighbours. Do you know them and speak to them? 34

35 Family theories Historical changes Think about your family and friends. Do they live near their place of work? Or do they have to travel a long distance to their work? 35

36 Family theories Historical changes The pace of life for families today often means that they know fewer people than they would have done fifty years ago. 36

37 Family theories Historical changes Let s now consider the changes to the family due to changes in our society and industrialisation and urbanisation. 37

38 The family, industrialisation and urbanisation Society has undergone major changes due to technology and scientific progress. 38

39 The family, industrialisation and urbanisation The family used to be the central unit of society in Britain. That family had the father at its head and he was the breadwinner. The family was usually dominated by the father and his views were considered above all else. 39

40 Family roles The role of couples, as well as the role of children in the family, are both areas that sociologists have researched. The division of labour Traditionally, the husband went to work and the wife stayed at home and looked after the house and children. Women were considered less important than men. This pattern has very much changed, particularly in the last century. 40

41 Family roles In the 1950 s changes began to take place and more couples began to share the household tasks and the decisions about their children and their home. 41

42 Family roles By the 1970 s the family had become more symmetrical. This means that there was more sharing of tasks in the home and bringing up the children. 42

43 Family roles There were several reasons for this change. More women were working and becoming more equal in providing for the family. 43

44 Family roles Birth rates were decreasing as women had fewer children. Women had more rights and were becoming regarded as equal partners in many marriages. 44

45 Family roles Sadly though violence against women is still common in family life, as well as violence against and abuse of children. 45

46 Family roles However, many women still felt, and still do feel, that they work harder bringing up children and looking after the home than men do. 46

47 Family roles In the 1980 s when unemployment rates were high, there was little impact on the division of tasks in the home if the male became unemployed. 47

48 Family roles By the 1990 s studies showed that where women were in work and their husband unemployed, men had begun to take on responsibility for household chores. 48

49 Family roles Children The views concerning the role of children in family life have changed. In early industrial Britain, children were an asset economically as they could soon work and earn wages. Nowadays, children are the centre of family life but are thought of as an expense rather than an economic asset. 49

50 Family roles Children Class and ethnicity can influence a child. Whether you are born a boy or girl is also a major influence on your childhood. Depending on which country a child is brought up in, laws will vary about what children can and cannot do legally. 50

51 Children Family roles All children do not experience a similar childhood. Apart from the social class, culture and ethnicity issues, sadly some children experience violence and abuse. 51

52 Family roles Children Changes in marriage, cohabitation (where people live together but do not marry) and divorce have all had an effect on children, as we shall see in the next section. 52

53 Family patterns Here, in Britain, the decline in marriage and the increase in marital breakdown and divorce is thought to have added to the change in the structure of the family. 53

54 Family patterns Since the 1960 s fewer couples have married. Co-habiting has increased. Many couples live together before marriage. About a third of all births are outside marriage. There is an increasing acceptance of homosexual relationships. 54

55 Family patterns There are increasing numbers of marital breakdowns resulting in: divorce (legal termination) or formal separation (spouses living apart) or 'empty shell marriages where couples remain living together but in name only 55

56 Family patterns This has brought about the decrease in the number of nuclear households. 56

57 Family patterns Families can also be composed of the following types of households: Reconstituted (where one or more parents have been married before so bring children to the marriage) Stepfamilies Single-parent families Or one-person households 57

58 Family patterns About 40% of marriages now end in divorce. The reasons for the increase are debatable but the following reasons are seen to have contributed: 58

59 Family patterns Legal changes in 1969, making divorce proceedings easier Legal aid was made available for divorce cases Changes in women s economic situation more earning power and availability of welfare benefits, allowing women to leave a marriage Decline in religion All are thought to have contributed to an increase in divorce. 59

60 Family patterns There is also the debate about why women are still expected to run the home, as well as to work full-time, placing enormous pressure on them. This dual burden of work and home still exists for many women. 60

61 Family patterns The trend in patterns of divorcing in Britain indicate that the unskilled and unemployed have a higher rate of divorce. 61

62 Family patterns Age has also appeared to be a factor in divorce. The younger the age that people marry, the higher the chances of them divorcing. In Britain from 1985 to 1989, the divorce rate amongst teenagers who had married was approximately twice as high as those people who had married over the age of

63 Family patterns Reasons have been put forward for this: Many teenagers are not earning high salaries so money may be tight and this can cause problems. Teenagers may not make good decisions about their choice of partner and experience may lead them to change their minds after time has passed. 63

64 Family patterns Statistics show that marriages have a better chance of success if both partners come from the same social background. So, why do so many marriages fail? 64

65 Family patterns People expect more from marriage today than they did in previous times. 65

66 Family patterns Previously marriages were arranged for economic reasons; today most people marry for love. If marriage does not meet their emotional needs, they may abandon it. 66

67 Family patterns Family disorganisation is the term given to the breakdown of the family. It is felt that the breakdown has led to an increase in welfare dependence. There is also much debate on the effect that divorce has on children. 67

68 Family patterns In general, women are having fewer children and an increasing number of women have taken the decision not to have any children at all and to pursue a career instead. People are also marrying later in life and choosing to have children later. 68

69 Family patterns However, having said all this about marriage, it is also important to look at the positive statistics of marriage. According to the trends in the 1990 s, 60% of people are likely to remain married until they die. That s good news for marriage. 69

70 Family and State The family and state policies Families live in a society so it is common sense that they will be affected by the laws that govern that society. 70

71 Family and State The family and state policies Government policies concerning health, education, taxation and welfare assistance will all impact directly on the family. 71

72 Family and State The family and state policies In Britain, the family life has traditionally been regarded as people s personal business and not an area that the state should interfere in. 72

73 Family and State The family and state policies However, with the increase of child protection laws and the welfare state, the state is having an increasing role to play within the family. 73

74 Family and State The family and state policies In other countries, the state has taken a firmer view of how it should control family life. In China, for example, at the end of the last century, overpopulation was a problem for the state so couples were encouraged to have only one child. 74

75 Family and State The family and state policies In Britain in recent years there have been changes to the law concerning the family. In 1993, the Child Support Agency was set up to ensure that fathers who were absent from their children did pay maintenance for them so that this burden did not fall exclusively on the welfare state. 75

76 Family and State The family and state policies The government felt that this was a way of not only saving money but also maintaining a stance about parental responsibility and moral values. 76

77 Conclusions In more recent times, it has become more and more difficult to define the term family. Perhaps it should be defined by the people who believe they are living together as families. Included could also be gay and lesbian couples. 77

78 Conclusions The composition of families has changed radically just in the last three hundred years and continues to change. Sociologists have carried out much research to demonstrate how the family functions. 78

79 Conclusions Any discussion about how the family should or should not conduct itself also involves the rules and laws of that society in which the family lives. We cannot ignore the society around us. After considering all the theorists and thinkers on this subject, there is one fact that remains unquestionable: 79

80 Conclusions We all are influenced by our family life. As children we are on the receiving end of that influence. When we move on to form our own family, we in turn will have an effect on the individuals who make up our family. 80

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