Near Space Balloon Performance Predictions

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Near Space Balloon Performance Predictions"

Transcription

1 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 4-7 January 2010, Orlando, Florida AIAA Near Space Balloon Performance Predictions Joseph P. Conner, Jr. 1 and Andrew S. Arena, Jr. 2 Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,OK, The objective of this paper is to discuss the development of a performance predictor for near space balloon systems during the ascent phase of the mission. During the ascent phase, the major parameters that are involved are the drag coefficient and the expansion of the balloons volume. These parameters will be determined by using a combination of real flight data and experiments ran in a lab. Once these parameters are found, a numerical simulation of the ascent phase is then compared to the results obtained from actual flights. Nomenclature A = cross-sectional area R = gas constant B = buoyancy Re = Reynolds Number C d = drag coefficient T = temperature c(i) = coefficient of polynomial V = velocity D = drag component V = volume of balloon g = gravity W = system weight m = mass of system ρ = density P = pressure Subscripts air = air alt = at altitude gnd = ground elevation He = Helium I. Introduction s exploration of near-space grows, a need for an accurate prediction of the mission has also grown. In the Acourse of an investigation into the development of a real-time performance predictor for near space balloon missions it became apparent that there was a need to fully understand the dynamics that are encountered during a mission. One of the most misunderstood phases of flight was the dynamics that occur during the ascent phase. In order to fully understand the behavior that is observed during ascent, it was required to gain an understanding of how the diameter of the balloon as well as its drag coefficient changed through out the mission. The mission typically ranges from a height of approximately 300 to 30,000 meters, with balloon volumes of less then 600 cubic feet at launch. In order to determine the drag coefficient on the balloon, it was necessary to establish the relationship of how the balloon s volume changed as a function of altitude. Once this relationship was found, flight data from several missions was used to experimentally determine the drag coefficient acting on the balloon. After the relationship was determined on how the balloon s performance changed as a function of altitude, a dynamic model was then created to aid in the prediction of future missions. II. Method The first issue that had to be addressed was the relationship of the balloon s volume as a function of altitude. The dynamic of the system during the ascent phase is governed by 1 2 Eq. ( 1) 1 Graduate Student, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 218 Engineering North, AIAA Member. 2 L. Andrew Maciula Professor in Engineering, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 218 Engineering North, AIAA Associate Fellow. 1 Copyright 2010 by Joseph P. Conner Jr. Published by the, Inc., with permission.

2 The generated buoyancy force is a function of the volume of the balloon, and the difference between the density of air and helium at altitude. The overall weight of the entire system includes the weight of the balloon, helium, and payloads. Finally, the drag term in this equation contains the drag coefficient, cross-sectional area of the balloon, and the balloon s velocity. Now that the governing equation for the balloon and payload have been developed, one needs to determine the maximum altitude that the system can traverse before the balloon has increased its volume to the point of bursting. The maximum volume that a balloon can increase is governed by the design and construction of the balloon. For the purpose of this paper we are going to assume that the information provided by the manufacturer of the balloon is correct. To determine the expansion of the balloon it will be assumed that it is governed by the ideal gas law. Since the volume, pressure, and temperature are known at the time of launch, one can then determine the conditions where the balloon will reach its maximum diameter as specified by the manufacturer. In order to test the assumption that the balloon can be modeled using the ideal gas law, we will need to verify that the balloon is near, or has the behavior of a zero-pressure balloon. A zero-pressure balloon is designed to expand such that the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the balloon remains the same and thus there is a zero-pressure difference between the inner and outer walls of the balloon. The balloons used for this experiment were designed and built by Kaymont. The balloons have been designed to maintain a spherical shape at inflation and expand at such a rate to maintain nearly zero pressure difference until burst. An experiment with the aim of verifying the zeropressure assumption was conducted by monitoring the pressure difference of a Kaymont KCI 30 balloon during inflation. During the experiment the fill volume of air was monitored by a gas sampling test meter which allow measurement of the volume of air to a resolution of 0.1 cubic feet. The pressure was monitored by use of a gas pressure sensor, which has a pressure range 0 to 210 kpa with a resolution of 0.05kPa. Finally the size of the balloon was recorded on camera with a 48 metal ruler in the foreground. The experimental setup is shown in Figure 1. Ball-Value Flow Control The objective of this experiment was to inflate the balloon and then record its volume and internal pressure. Once the balloon had reached a fixed volume, the fill process was paused and the interior pressure and a picture of the balloon were recorded. The fill then proceeded, stopping at fixed intervals until burst. The results of the incremental test, shown in Figure 2, indicated that while the pressure did vary as the balloon was filling, the change in pressure as a whole did not seem to vary dramatically. After reaching a volume of approximately 5 cubic feet the differential pressure required to continue to inflate the balloon actually started to decrease. This behavior was discussed by Fox in an article written for Physics Education. As the balloon is inflated, its skin becomes thinner and exerts less pressure on the air 2 Fill Nozzle Pressure Transducer Figure 1 Balloon Fill Experimental Setup Figure 2 Extended Pressure Fill Test for a Kaymont KCI 30 Flow Volume Meter

3 inside, thus taking less pressure to fill the. This is one of the main reasons why when you first start to inflate a balloon by mouth you have to blow very hard to stretch the rubber. As you continue to inflate balloon, it becomes easier. An example of a typical run with the different fill volumes is shown in Figure 3. One item that should be noted is that during inflation the balloon takes on a spherical shape and then continues to maintain this shape until burst. This spherical shape allows the cross-sectional area to be directly determined as function of the balloon s diameter. 1 cubic foot 5 cubic feet 10 cubic feet 15 cubic feet 20 cubic feet 22 cubic feet 24 cubic feet 26 cubic feet 28 cubic feet 30 cubic feet Figure 3 Images of Balloon During Pressure Test After repeating this experiment for a total of five times, the data was processed and it was observed that the interior pressure of the balloon remained at or near kpa (14.5 psi) with a standard deviation of kpa, which results in a pressure differential between interior and external pressures of approximately 0.95 kpa (0.139 psi). The results of the five runs shown in Figure 4, illustrate the typical internal pressures seen during inflation. One drawback with this figure is that the results are plotted with respect to absolute pressure, and as can be seen in the zero volume state, there was a difference in atmospheric pressure over the several days the experiments were ran. To alleviate this problem, it was decided to plot the differential pressure between the interior and exterior of the balloon. The resulting differential pressure, shown in Figure 5, indicates that the pressure difference of the balloon remained at or near kpa (0.136psi), with a standard deviation of kPa. This small difference supports the assumption that the balloon can be approximated as a zero-pressure balloon. Since the balloon can now safely be modeled as a zero-pressure balloon, it s expansion rate should be governed by the Ideal gas law. Figure 4 Pressure Fill Test for Several Kaymont KCI 30 Balloons Figure 5 Differential of Interior and Exterior Pressure Test 3

4 With the balloon now established as a near zero-pressure balloon, the expansion of the balloon as a function of altitude can safely be assumed to be governed by the ideal gas law. Occurring to the Ideal gas law, the state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature according to the equation Eq. ( 2) Once the balloon is filled with a known volume of helium, the volume of the balloon at altitude can be found with Eq. ( 3) Using Eq. ( 3) along with the standard atmospheric model, a graph of balloon expansion as a function of altitude was determined. In order to obtain the results, it was assumed that the balloon was filled with approximately 550 cubic feet of helium at launch and that the helium expands at a rate governed by the ideal gas law. To determine how well this method works, information obtained from a camera on ASTRO-04 was used to determine the size of the balloon during the flight. To accomplish this, a payload was designed that held a digital camera which was focused toward the balloon. The fill volume of the balloon was determined to 550 cubic feet of helium by monitoring the pressure remaining in the two pressure tanks used during fill. Using the resulting pictures shown in Figure 6, a comparison between results obtained with the equation developed above and the pictures were created to indicate how the balloons diameter increased as a function of altitude. The results indicate that the model of balloon expansion developed above, matches well with data obtained from the ASTRO-04 flight. Figure 6. Expansion of Balloon during ASTRO-04 Now that there is an understanding on how the balloon s diameter changes with respect to time, one can now establish how the drag changes as a function of altitude. The total drag on the system can be determined with 1 2 Eq. ( 4) In order to determine the drag coefficient acting on the balloon, it was assumed that at any given time a quasi-steady solution to Eq. ( 1) would be satisfied. In order to verify that a quasi-steady solution is valid, the flight results for several flights were used to determine the acceleration during the ascent phase of the mission. The results obtained from nine missions indicate that while there is some acceleration, it is typically well below 1/100 th of gravity. 4

5 g/100 Figure 7. Acceleration of system during Ascent Phase Figure 8. Real Flight Data Showing Altitude as a Function of Mission Time The acceleration profiles used above where not obtained directly but from fitting a 4 th order polynomial line through mission data of altitude as a function of mission time, as seen in Figure 8. In order to obtain the altitude information, a packet radio along with a GPS receiver onboard the balloon was used. This radio transmitted the location of the balloon on a 13 second interval and then the signal was decoded and stored for use in real-time tracking as well as post flight analysis. Once this data was obtained, a 4th order polynomial was fit to the data and then plotted against the real data. Examples of this curve fitting are shown in Figure 9 and illustrate the results of the curve fit compared to real flight data for several flights. a)astro-12 b) ASTRO-09 c) ASTRO-06 d) ASTRO-04 Figure 9. Real Flight Data Compared to 4 th Order Polynomial Fit 5

6 The polynomial equations were then differentiated to obtain velocity as a function of altitude and then differentiated once more to obtain the acceleration graphs discussed above. Now with the capability of determining velocity during the ascent phase at any given altitude, one can focus on determining the drag coefficient as a function of either altitude or Reynolds number. 2 Eq. ( 5) Using Eq. ( 5) along with flight data from nine different ASTRO flights drag coefficient as a function of Reynolds number was found. Since the balloon is designed to maintain a spherical shape the results are plotted against the classic drag coefficient of a sphere 2 and are shown in Figure 10. The drag coefficient results of the flights were then fit with a 4th order polynomial to obtain a model of the drag coefficient over the flight regimes that had been encountered; this result is then used during the ascent phase to aid in the prediction of flight performance during the ascent phase. The resulting balloon drag model is shown in Figure 10 with the classic spherical drag shown as a reference. The results show that while the balloons drag coefficient does exhibit the behavior of transition from low to high as Reynolds number decreases, it does so with a smoother transition. Where the classic drag on a sphere has a major transition from approximately 0.10 to 0.4 over a Reynolds number range of 250,000 to 400,000, the balloon transition over this same drag coefficient range occurs in a Reynolds number range of 200,000 to 1,200,000. Figure 10. Reynolds Number Versus Drag Coefficient Figure 11. Drag Model Compared with Flight Data Figure 12 Drag Model Compared to Classic Spherical Drag 6

7 Results Once the drag coefficient was found, a full numerical simulation of the ascent phase could be performed using Eq. ( 1). In order to determine how well this numerical simulation works, actual results from several ASTRO flights were used. It was decided to plot the results of ASTRO-09 and ASTRO-11 against numerical simulation of both flights. The reasoning behind selecting these two flights is that with information collected to date ASTRO-11 represents one of the fastest ascent rates and ASTRO-09 one of the slowest. As can be seen in Figure 13, the results of the simulation and the flight data agree. a) ASTRO-11 b) ASTRO-09 Figure 13. Ascent Simulation Compared with Flight Results While the slower flight, Figure 13, ASTRO-09 appears to be a constant ascent rate this is actually not the case. In fact, below 10,000 meters the balloons ascent rate is slowly increasing. As the balloon passes 10,000 meters its ascent rate decreases until approximately 25,000 meters where its ascent rate starts to increase again. This resulting change in ascent rate can be seen in Figure 14. Figure 14. Ascent Velocity as a Function of Altitude Figure 15. Drag Coefficient as a Function of Altitude This change in flight speed has been noted by other ballooning programs but few have taken the time to fully understand why this happens. If we take a look at drag coefficient as a function of altitude, we note that as the balloon is approaching 10,000 meters the drag coefficient increases rapidly. Then as the balloon passes 25,000 meters, its drag coefficient then decreases, as can be seen in Figure 15. This change in drag coefficient then directly reflects the changes in ascent rate that was observed. 7

8 Conclusion This paper presented the development of a balloon drag model which took on the form c i Re where: c E 01 c E 06 c E 12 c E 18 c E 24 Eq. ( 6) In the development of this model, it was determined that the Kaymont balloon could be modeled as a zero-pressure balloon and as such its volume was directly a function of the Ideal gas law. Finally, using the information develop, it was found that one could predict the performance of the balloon and system during the ascent phase and only requires knowledge of the initial weight of the system and fill volume of the balloon. Acknowledgments The author s thanks are due to NASA for funding provided through EPSCoR and Oklahoma Space Grant Consortium which made this project possible. References 1 Conner, J.P., Development of a Real-Time Performance Predictor and an Investigation of a Return to Point Vehicle for High Altitude Ballooning, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, Hoerner, S. F. Fluid Dynamic Drag. Bakersfield : authors family Hoerner Fluid Dynamics, Fox, John N. The Baffling balloons! Physic Education

9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE

9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE 9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 6 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE The purpose of this lab is to investigate how properties of gases pressure, temperature, and volume are related. Also, you will

More information

INVESTIGATION OF FALLING BALL VISCOMETRY AND ITS ACCURACY GROUP R1 Evelyn Chou, Julia Glaser, Bella Goyal, Sherri Wykosky

INVESTIGATION OF FALLING BALL VISCOMETRY AND ITS ACCURACY GROUP R1 Evelyn Chou, Julia Glaser, Bella Goyal, Sherri Wykosky INVESTIGATION OF FALLING BALL VISCOMETRY AND ITS ACCURACY GROUP R1 Evelyn Chou, Julia Glaser, Bella Goyal, Sherri Wykosky ABSTRACT: A falling ball viscometer and its associated equations were studied in

More information

EXPERIMENTS IN HIGH ALTITUDE BALLOONING

EXPERIMENTS IN HIGH ALTITUDE BALLOONING EXPERIMENTS IN HIGH ALTITUDE BALLOONING 08/28/2014 Andrew Donelick Harvey Mudd College Overview My whole summer! Launch and tracking improvements Implementation of radio system Additional side projects:

More information

Experiment 3 Pipe Friction

Experiment 3 Pipe Friction EML 316L Experiment 3 Pipe Friction Laboratory Manual Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department College of Engineering FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nomenclature Symbol Description Unit A cross-sectional

More information

Tracking High Altitude Balloons in an EE Projects Class

Tracking High Altitude Balloons in an EE Projects Class Paper ID #6574 Tracking High Altitude Balloons in an EE Projects Class Dr. Dick Blandford, University of Evansville Dick Blandford is the chair of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer

More information

Chapter 9: The Behavior of Fluids

Chapter 9: The Behavior of Fluids Chapter 9: The Behavior of Fluids 1. Archimedes Principle states that A. the pressure in a fluid is directly related to the depth below the surface of the fluid. B. an object immersed in a fluid is buoyed

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

Pressure in Fluids. Introduction

Pressure in Fluids. Introduction Pressure in Fluids Introduction In this laboratory we begin to study another important physical quantity associated with fluids: pressure. For the time being we will concentrate on static pressure: pressure

More information

Section 1 Fluids and Pressure

Section 1 Fluids and Pressure Section 1 Fluids and Pressure Key Concept Fluid is a nonsolid state of matter. All fluids can flow and exert pressure evenly in all directions. What You Will Learn Pressure is the amount of force exerted

More information

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor)

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Name Class Date Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Concept DataStudio ScienceWorkshop (Mac) ScienceWorkshop (Win) Archimedes Principle P13 Buoyant Force.DS P18 Buoyant Force P18_BUOY.SWS Equipment

More information

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction Last lab you investigated flow loss in a pipe due to the roughness

More information

R = 1545 ft-lbs/lb mole ºR R = 1.986 BTU/lb mole ºR R = 1.986 cal/gm mole ºK

R = 1545 ft-lbs/lb mole ºR R = 1.986 BTU/lb mole ºR R = 1.986 cal/gm mole ºK Flow Through the Regulator The SCUBA tank regulator arrangement can be idealized with the diagram shown below. This idealization is useful for computing pressures and gas flow rates through the system.

More information

Archimedes' Principle

Archimedes' Principle Archimedes' Principle Introduction Archimedes' Principle states that the upward buoyant force exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the

More information

MATLAB AS A PROTOTYPING TOOL FOR HYDRONIC NETWORKS BALANCING

MATLAB AS A PROTOTYPING TOOL FOR HYDRONIC NETWORKS BALANCING MATLAB AS A PROTOTYPING TOOL FOR HYDRONIC NETWORKS BALANCING J. Pekař, P. Trnka, V. Havlena* Abstract The objective of this note is to describe the prototyping stage of development of a system that is

More information

Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine

Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine Session 2166 Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine John E. Matsson Oral Roberts University Abstract This paper describes the experience gained from the operation of a JetCat model turbojet engine

More information

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor)

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) July 21 Buoyant Force 1 Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Concept DataStudio ScienceWorkshop (Mac) ScienceWorkshop (Win) Archimedes Principle P13 Buoyant Force.DS P18 Buoyant Force P18_BUOY.SWS

More information

The Precharge Calculator

The Precharge Calculator 5116 Bissonnet #341, Bellaire, TX 77401 Telephone and Fax: (713) 663-6361 www.mcadamsengineering.com The Precharge Calculator Purpose: The Precharge Calculator by Interlink Systems, Inc. is a Windows based

More information

Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs

Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs 59 Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs Study the description of the experiment that follows and answer the following questions.. (3 marks) Explain why a mass suspended vertically

More information

Pipe Loss Experimental Apparatus

Pipe Loss Experimental Apparatus Pipe Loss Experimental Apparatus Kathleen Lifer, Ryan Oberst, Benjamin Wibberley Ohio Northern University Ada, OH 45810 Email: b-wibberley@onu.edu Abstract The objective of this project was to develop

More information

Lab 5: Conservation of Energy

Lab 5: Conservation of Energy Lab 5: Conservation of Energy Equipment SWS, 1-meter stick, 2-meter stick, heavy duty bench clamp, 90-cm rod, 40-cm rod, 2 double clamps, brass spring, 100-g mass, 500-g mass with 5-cm cardboard square

More information

Effects of Atmospheric Pressure on Gas Measurement

Effects of Atmospheric Pressure on Gas Measurement Effects of Atmospheric Pressure on Gas Measurement Class # 1390.1 March 2012 / White paper by Denis Rutherford Regional Sales Manager Central US Schneider Electric Telemetry & Remote SCADA Solutions 6650

More information

Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow

Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Lab Page ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Spring Quarter 00 Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow Objectives: a) Calibrate a pressure transducer and two different flowmeters (paddlewheel

More information

Scientific balloons. Fort Hays State University November 22, Paul Adams and Jack Maseberg

Scientific balloons. Fort Hays State University November 22, Paul Adams and Jack Maseberg Scientific balloons Fort Hays State University November 22, 2013 Paul Adams and Jack Maseberg (N8VRN) (K1AMO) Things that fly Sky lanterns (~300 B.C.), 575 K = 575 F = 302 C Disney s Tangled (2010) theskylantern.com

More information

Viscosity: The Fluids Lab Teacher Version

Viscosity: The Fluids Lab Teacher Version Viscosity: The Fluids Lab Teacher Version California Science Content Standards: 1. Motion and Forces: Newton's laws predict the motion of most objects. 1b. Students know that when forces are balanced,

More information

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor)

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Economy Force Sensor (CI-6746) 1 Mass and Hanger Set (ME-9348) 1 Base and Support Rod (ME-9355) 1 Ruler, metric 1 Beaker,

More information

The Viscosity of Fluids

The Viscosity of Fluids Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et

More information

Physics 1050 Experiment 2. Acceleration Due to Gravity

Physics 1050 Experiment 2. Acceleration Due to Gravity Acceleration Due to Gravity Prelab Questions These questions need to be completed before entering the lab. Please show all workings. Prelab 1: For a falling ball, which bounces, draw the expected shape

More information

FLOW MEASUREMENT 2001 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DERIVATION OF AN EXPANSIBILITY FACTOR FOR THE V-CONE METER

FLOW MEASUREMENT 2001 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DERIVATION OF AN EXPANSIBILITY FACTOR FOR THE V-CONE METER FLOW MEASUREMENT 200 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DERIVATION OF AN EXPANSIBILITY FACTOR FOR THE V-CONE METER Dr D G Stewart, NEL Dr M Reader-Harris, NEL Dr R J W Peters, McCrometer Inc INTRODUCTION The V-Cone

More information

Swissmetro travels at high speeds through a tunnel at low pressure. It will therefore undergo friction that can be due to:

Swissmetro travels at high speeds through a tunnel at low pressure. It will therefore undergo friction that can be due to: I. OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT. Swissmetro travels at high speeds through a tunnel at low pressure. It will therefore undergo friction that can be due to: 1) Viscosity of gas (cf. "Viscosity of gas" experiment)

More information

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

More information

The Viscosity of Fluids

The Viscosity of Fluids Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et

More information

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 Gases A Gas Has neither a definite volume nor shape. Uniformly fills any container.

More information

39th International Physics Olympiad - Hanoi - Vietnam - 2008. Theoretical Problem No. 3

39th International Physics Olympiad - Hanoi - Vietnam - 2008. Theoretical Problem No. 3 CHANGE OF AIR TEMPERATURE WITH ALTITUDE, ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND AIR POLLUTION Vertical motion of air governs many atmospheric processes, such as the formation of clouds and precipitation and the dispersal

More information

Barometric Effects on Transducer Data and Groundwater Levels in Monitoring Wells D.A. Wardwell, October 2007

Barometric Effects on Transducer Data and Groundwater Levels in Monitoring Wells D.A. Wardwell, October 2007 Barometric Effects on Transducer Data and Groundwater Levels in Monitoring Wells D.A. Wardwell, October 2007 Barometric Effects on Transducer Data Barometric Fluctuations can Severely Alter Water Level

More information

Finding Drag Coefficient using Solidworks Flow Simulation

Finding Drag Coefficient using Solidworks Flow Simulation Finding Drag Coefficient using Solidworks Flow Simulation Using solidworks to find the drag coefficient of shapes is a very useful way to cut down on the design time of a project, as it can remove tests.

More information

The moment of inertia of a rod rotating about its centre is given by:

The moment of inertia of a rod rotating about its centre is given by: Pendulum Physics 161 Introduction This experiment is designed to study the motion of a pendulum consisting of a rod and a mass attached to it. The period of the pendulum will be measured using three different

More information

CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C

CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle

More information

Interaction of Energy and Matter Gravity Measurement: Using Doppler Shifts to Measure Mass Concentration TEACHER GUIDE

Interaction of Energy and Matter Gravity Measurement: Using Doppler Shifts to Measure Mass Concentration TEACHER GUIDE Interaction of Energy and Matter Gravity Measurement: Using Doppler Shifts to Measure Mass Concentration TEACHER GUIDE EMR and the Dawn Mission Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) will play a major role in

More information

NUMERICAL MODELING OF PROPELLANT BOIL-OFF IN A CRYOGENIC STORAGE TANK

NUMERICAL MODELING OF PROPELLANT BOIL-OFF IN A CRYOGENIC STORAGE TANK NUMERICAL MODELING OF PROPELLANT BOIL-OFF IN A CRYOGENIC STORAGE TANK ABSTRACT A.K. Majumdar 1, T.E. Steadman 2, J.L. Maroney 2, J.P. Sass 3 and J.E. Fesmire 3 1 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ER43

More information

Foundations and Mathematical Application of the Water Rocket

Foundations and Mathematical Application of the Water Rocket Foundations and Mathematical Application of the Water Rocket Students Utilize 2-Liter Bottle Rocket Launcher will help students to explore the science of rocketry. Students build &propel 2-liter bottle

More information

ACFM vs. SCFM vs. ICFM Series of Technical White Papers from Ohio Medical Corporation

ACFM vs. SCFM vs. ICFM Series of Technical White Papers from Ohio Medical Corporation ACFM vs. SCFM vs. ICFM Series of Technical White Papers from Ohio Medical Corporation Ohio Medical Corporation 1111 Lakeside Drive Gurnee, IL 60031 Phone: (800) 448-0770 Fax: (847) 855-6304 info@ohiomedical.com

More information

ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY

ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY EXPERIMENT 1 PHYSICS 107 ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY Skills you will learn or practice: Calculate velocity and acceleration from experimental measurements of x vs t (spark positions) Find average velocities

More information

Performance. 13. Climbing Flight

Performance. 13. Climbing Flight Performance 13. Climbing Flight In order to increase altitude, we must add energy to the aircraft. We can do this by increasing the thrust or power available. If we do that, one of three things can happen:

More information

Rockets: Taking Off! Racing Balloon

Rockets: Taking Off! Racing Balloon Rockets: Taking Off! For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Rockets and Balloons What happens when you blow up a balloon then let it go? Does the balloon move through the air? Did you

More information

Natural Convection. Buoyancy force

Natural Convection. Buoyancy force Natural Convection In natural convection, the fluid motion occurs by natural means such as buoyancy. Since the fluid velocity associated with natural convection is relatively low, the heat transfer coefficient

More information

Absolute and Relative Gas Concentration: Understanding Oxygen in Air. Bruce Bugbee and Mark Blonquist

Absolute and Relative Gas Concentration: Understanding Oxygen in Air. Bruce Bugbee and Mark Blonquist Absolute and Relative Gas Concentration: Understanding Oxygen in Air Bruce Bugbee and Mark Blonquist Absolute and Relative Gas Concentration Gas concentration is described in two ways, absolute and relative

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture

More information

Averaging Pitot Tubes; Fact and Fiction

Averaging Pitot Tubes; Fact and Fiction Averaging Pitot Tubes; Fact and Fiction Abstract An experimental investigation has been undertaken to elucidate effects of averaging stagnation pressures on estimated velocities for pressure averaging

More information

Experiment #4 Sugar in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices. Laboratory Overview CHEM 1361. August 2010

Experiment #4 Sugar in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices. Laboratory Overview CHEM 1361. August 2010 Experiment #4 Sugar in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices Laboratory Overview CHEM 1361 August 2010 Gary S. Buckley, Ph.D. Department of Physical Sciences Cameron University Learning Objectives Relate density

More information

MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY OF LIQUIDS BY THE STOKE S METHOD

MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY OF LIQUIDS BY THE STOKE S METHOD 130 Experiment-366 F MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY OF LIQUIDS BY THE STOKE S METHOD Jeethendra Kumar P K, Ajeya PadmaJeeth and Santhosh K KamalJeeth Instrumentation & Service Unit, No-610, Tata Nagar, Bengaluru-560092.

More information

A. Hyll and V. Horák * Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Military Technology, University of Defence, Brno, Czech Republic

A. Hyll and V. Horák * Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Military Technology, University of Defence, Brno, Czech Republic AiMT Advances in Military Technology Vol. 8, No. 1, June 2013 Aerodynamic Characteristics of Multi-Element Iced Airfoil CFD Simulation A. Hyll and V. Horák * Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty

More information

The Fundamentals of Gas Flow Calibration

The Fundamentals of Gas Flow Calibration The Fundamentals of Gas Flow Calibration Application Note Introduction Understanding the fundamentals of gas flow calibration is essential for evaluating calibration systems, estimating the magnitude of

More information

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was

More information

A New Technique Provides Faster Particle Size Analysis at a Lower Cost Compared to Conventional Methods

A New Technique Provides Faster Particle Size Analysis at a Lower Cost Compared to Conventional Methods A New Technique Provides Faster Particle Size Analysis at a Lower Cost Compared to Conventional Methods Howard Sanders and Akshaya Jena Porous Material Inc. Ithaca, NY The technique described here calculates

More information

Temperature. Number of moles. Constant Terms. Pressure. Answers Additional Questions 12.1

Temperature. Number of moles. Constant Terms. Pressure. Answers Additional Questions 12.1 Answers Additional Questions 12.1 1. A gas collected over water has a total pressure equal to the pressure of the dry gas plus the pressure of the water vapor. If the partial pressure of water at 25.0

More information

FIGURE P8 50E FIGURE P8 62. Minor Losses

FIGURE P8 50E FIGURE P8 62. Minor Losses 8 48 Glycerin at 40 C with r 1252 kg/m 3 and m 0.27 kg/m s is flowing through a 4-cm-diameter horizontal smooth pipe with an average velocity of 3.5 m/s. Determine the pressure drop per 10 m of the pipe.

More information

Archimedes Principle. Biological Systems

Archimedes Principle. Biological Systems Archimedes Principle Introduction Many of the substances we encounter in our every day lives do not have rigid structure or form. Such substances are called fluids and can be divided into two categories:

More information

Effects of mass transfer processes in designing a heterogeneous catalytic reactor

Effects of mass transfer processes in designing a heterogeneous catalytic reactor Project Report 2013 MVK160 Heat and Mass Transport May 13, 2013, Lund, Sweden Effects of mass transfer processes in designing a heterogeneous catalytic reactor Maryneth de Roxas Dept. of Energy Sciences,

More information

(a) Calculate the voidage (volume fraction occupied by voids) of the bed.

(a) Calculate the voidage (volume fraction occupied by voids) of the bed. SOLUTIONS TO CAPTER 6: FLOW TROUG A PACKED BED OF PARTICLES EXERCISE 6.1: A packed bed of solid particles of density 500 kg/m 3, occupies a depth of 1 m in a vessel of cross-sectional area 0.04 m. The

More information

CORE STANDARDS, OBJECTIVES, AND INDICATORS

CORE STANDARDS, OBJECTIVES, AND INDICATORS Aerospace Engineering - PLtW Levels: 11-12 Units of Credit: 1.0 CIP Code: 14.0201 Core Code: 38-01-00-00-150 Prerequisite: Principles of Engineering, Introduction to Engineering Design Test: #967 Course

More information

Lecture L14 - Variable Mass Systems: The Rocket Equation

Lecture L14 - Variable Mass Systems: The Rocket Equation J. Peraire, S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2008 Version 2.0 Lecture L14 - Variable Mass Systems: The Rocket Equation In this lecture, we consider the problem in which the mass of the body changes during

More information

Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers

Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers Problem set 1 1. A rod 4.2 m long and 0.50 cm 2 in cross-sectional area is stretched 0.20 cm under a tension of 12,000 N. a) The stress is the Force (1.2 10 4 N)

More information

HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

More information

Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window

Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window Ahsan Iqbal #1, Alireza Afshari #2, Per Heiselberg *3, Anders Høj **4 # Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research

More information

Origins of the Unusual Space Shuttle Quaternion Definition

Origins of the Unusual Space Shuttle Quaternion Definition 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including The New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 5-8 January 2009, Orlando, Florida AIAA 2009-43 Origins of the Unusual Space Shuttle Quaternion Definition

More information

Name Date Class. As you read about the properties of air, fill in the detail boxes that explain the main idea in the graphic organizer below.

Name Date Class. As you read about the properties of air, fill in the detail boxes that explain the main idea in the graphic organizer below. Name Date Class The Atmosphere Guided Reading and Study Air Pressure This section describes several properties of air, including density and air pressure. The section also explains how air pressure is

More information

Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc.

Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc. ASGMT / Averaging Pitot Tube Flow Measurement Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc. Averaging Pitot Tube Meters Introduction

More information

Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics

Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics Surface tension, surface energy The atoms at the surface of a solid or liquid are not happy. Their bonding is less ideal than the bonding of atoms

More information

Rocketry for Kids. Science Level 4. Newton s Laws

Rocketry for Kids. Science Level 4. Newton s Laws Rocketry for Kids Science Level 4 Newton s Laws Victorian Space Science Education Centre 400 Pascoe Vale Road Strathmore, Vic 3041 www.vssec.vic.edu.au Some material for this program has been derived from

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 7. General Energy Equation

More information

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

More information

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Chapter 19: THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Evidence that a gas consists mostly of empty space is the fact that: A. the density of a gas becomes much greater when it is liquefied B. gases exert pressure

More information

When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.

When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Fluid Statics When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Consider a small wedge of fluid at rest of size Δx, Δz, Δs

More information

Pressure Modulation of Weak Shock Waves through. Turbulent Flows

Pressure Modulation of Weak Shock Waves through. Turbulent Flows 4th Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit 28 June - July 2, Chicago, Illinois AIAA 2-4472 Pressure Modulation of Weak Shock Waves through Turbulent Flows Daisuke Takagi, Atsushi Matsuda 2, Akihiro Sasoh

More information

Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once.

Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once. Gases Section 13.1 The Gas Laws In your textbook, read about the basic concepts of the three gas laws. Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once. pressure

More information

International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology Volume 4, Issue 2: Page No.161-166, March-April 2015

International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology Volume 4, Issue 2: Page No.161-166, March-April 2015 International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology Volume 4, Issue 2: Page No.161-166, March-April 2015 http://www.mnkjournals.com/ijlrst.htm ISSN (Online):2278-5299 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

More information

Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law

Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law Gas Law Problems Abbreviations Conversions atm - atmosphere K = C + 273 mmhg - millimeters of mercury 1 cm 3 (cubic centimeter) = 1 ml (milliliter) torr - another name for mmhg 1 dm 3 (cubic decimeter)

More information

Acceleration Due to Gravity

Acceleration Due to Gravity Acceleration Due to Gravity Introduction When forces on an object become unbalanced, an acceleration will ensue. This dictum has been in our vernacular for several centuries now. It accurately describes

More information

These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.

These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide. Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers

More information

Tank Draining Exercise

Tank Draining Exercise Tank Draining Exercise EAS 361, Fall 009 Before coming to the lab, read sections 1 through 5 of this document. Engineering of Everyday Things Gerald Recktenwald Portland State University gerry@me.pdx.edu

More information

Motion and Gravity in Space

Motion and Gravity in Space Motion and Gravity in Space Each planet spins on its axis. The spinning of a body, such a planet, on its axis is called rotation. The orbit is the path that a body follows as it travels around another

More information

Coaxial Cable Delay. By: Jacques Audet VE2AZX

Coaxial Cable Delay. By: Jacques Audet VE2AZX Coaxial Cable Delay By: Jacques Audet VE2AZX ve2azx@amsat.org Introduction Last month, I reported the results of measurements on a number of coaxial cables with the VNA (Vector Network Analyzer). (Ref.

More information

CHAPTER 25 IDEAL GAS LAWS

CHAPTER 25 IDEAL GAS LAWS EXERCISE 139, Page 303 CHAPTER 5 IDEAL GAS LAWS 1. The pressure of a mass of gas is increased from 150 kpa to 750 kpa at constant temperature. Determine the final volume of the gas, if its initial volume

More information

Students Manual for the Exam

Students Manual for the Exam Students Manual for the Exam General Engineering and Mechanical Engineering Discipline - March 2014 - COPYRIGHT NOTICE COPYRIGHTS 2013 NATIONAL CENTER FOR ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION (QIYAS) UNLESS

More information

CH-205: Fluid Dynamics

CH-205: Fluid Dynamics CH-05: Fluid Dynamics nd Year, B.Tech. & Integrated Dual Degree (Chemical Engineering) Solutions of Mid Semester Examination Data Given: Density of water, ρ = 1000 kg/m 3, gravitational acceleration, g

More information

pressure inside the valve just before the final release of air. in pipeline systems resulting from 2p 1 p a m C D A o

pressure inside the valve just before the final release of air. in pipeline systems resulting from 2p 1 p a m C D A o BY SRINIVASA LINGIREDDY, DON J. WOOD, AND NAFTALI ZLOZOWER It is a common practice to locate air valves at high elevations along water transmission mains. Improper sizing of an air valve could lead to

More information

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion. Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

More information

Figure 1- Different parts of experimental apparatus.

Figure 1- Different parts of experimental apparatus. Objectives Determination of center of buoyancy Determination of metacentric height Investigation of stability of floating objects Apparatus The unit shown in Fig. 1 consists of a pontoon (1) and a water

More information

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES 4.0 PUMP CLASSES Pumps may be classified in two general types, dynamic and positive displacement. Positive displacement pumps

More information

LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES 55 Name Date Partners LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies by the attraction

More information

Free fall from SPACE!

Free fall from SPACE! Free fall from SPACE! Description: A major theme in physics is free fall motion. This lesson capitalizes on that fact, and the recent free fall jump made by Felix Baumgartner from 39,045 meters. Computations

More information

CH. 2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS

CH. 2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS CH. 2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS GRAVITY LOADS Dead loads Vertical loads due to weight of building and any permanent equipment Dead loads of structural elements cannot be readily determined b/c weight depends

More information

Chapter 3 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 3 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: _ Date: _ ID: A Chapter 3 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which state of matter has a definite volume but a variable

More information

Penn State University Physics 211 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1

Penn State University Physics 211 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1 PURPOSE The purpose of this laboratory project is to calculate, verify and then simulate various satellite orbit scenarios for an artificial satellite orbiting the earth. First, there

More information

Buoyant Force and Archimedes' Principle

Buoyant Force and Archimedes' Principle Buoyant Force and Archimedes' Principle Introduction: Buoyant forces keep Supertankers from sinking and party balloons floating. An object that is more dense than a liquid will sink in that liquid. If

More information

Handheld Water Bottle Rocket & Launcher

Handheld Water Bottle Rocket & Launcher Handheld Water Bottle Rocket & Launcher Category: Physics: Force and Motion Type: Make & Take Rough Parts List: Rocket Launcher: 1 3/8 One- hole rubber stopper 2 Valve stems, from an inner tube 4 Small

More information

CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER

CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 1, Issue2, July-2012 1 CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER ABSTRACT (1) Mr. Mainak Bhaumik M.E. (Thermal Engg.)

More information

Practical Application of Industrial Fiber Optic Sensing Systems

Practical Application of Industrial Fiber Optic Sensing Systems Practical Application of Industrial Fiber Optic Sensing Systems John W. Berthold and David B. Needham Davidson Instruments, Inc. P.O. Box 130100, The Woodlands, TX 77393 ABSTRACT In this presentation,

More information

ADVANCED LEAK TEST METHODS

ADVANCED LEAK TEST METHODS ADVANCED LEAK TEST METHODS Before new technologies were available to directly measure very small leaks, most leak measurements were done indirectly. Direct mass leak flow measurement has many advantages.

More information

Experimental Evaluation Of The Frost Formation

Experimental Evaluation Of The Frost Formation Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2014 Experimental Evaluation Of The Frost Formation Yusuke Tashiro Mitsubishi

More information