Data Structures and Algorithms. Lab 1. Hands on Data Structures Using C++ Stacks and Queues

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1 Data Structures and Algorithms Lab 1 Hands on Data Structures Using C++ Stacks and Queues Dr. Rabie A. Ramadan Notes: Students must read this document before the lab and make their code ready for compilation. TA s are not responsible for writing the code to the students. They may help them correcting the errors only. TA s will not accept the code from a student unless it is free of errors, free of warnings, and running. 1. Objective: The objective of this lab is to experiment with the implementation of some of the basic data structures. C++ is our vehicle to implement such structures. Note: Students must have their code written before entering the lab. 2. Introduction: Two of the more common data objects found in computer algorithms are stacks and queues. Both of these objects are special cases of the more general data object, an ordered list. A stack is an ordered list in which all insertions and deletions are made at one end, called the top. A queue is an ordered list in which all insertions take place at one end, the rear, while all deletions take place at the other end, the front. Given a stack S=(a[1],a[2],...a[n]) then we say that a1 is the bottommost element and element a[i] is on top of element a[i-1], 1<i<=n. When viewed as a queue with a[n] as the rear element one says that a[i+1] is behind a[i], 1<i<=n.

2 The restrictions on a stack imply that if the elements A,B,C,D,E are added to the stack, in that order, then the first element to be removed/deleted must be E. Equivalently we say that the last element to be inserted into the stack will be the first to be removed. For this reason stacks are sometimes referred to as Last In First Out (LIFO) lists. The restrictions on queue imply that the first element which is inserted into the queue will be the first one to be removed. Thus A is the first letter to be removed, and queues are known as First In First Out (FIFO) lists. Note that the data object queue as defined here need not necessarily correspond to the mathematical concept of queue in which the insert/delete rules may be different. The stack and queue operations are summarized as follows: A) Adding into stack procedure add(item : items); {add item to the global stack stack; top is the current top of stack and n is its maximum size if top = n then stackfull; top := top+1; stack(top) := item; end: {of add B) Deletion in stack procedure delete(var item : items); {remove top element from the stack stack and put it in the item if top = 0 then stackempty; item := stack(top); top := top-1; end; {of delete

3 These two procedures are so simple that they perhaps need no more explanation. Procedure delete actually combines the functions TOP and DELETE, stackfull and stackempty are procedures which are left unspecified since they will depend upon the particular application. Often a stackfull condition will signal that more storage needs to be allocated and the program re-run. Stackempty is often a meaningful condition. C) Addition into a queue procedure addq (item : items); {add item to the queue q if rear=n then queuefull else rear :=rear+1; q[rear]:=item; end; end;{of addq D) Deletion in a queue procedure deleteq (var item : items); {delete from the front of q and put into item if front = rear then queueempty else front := front+1 item := q[front]; end; end; {of deleteq 3. C++ Implementation: The following C++ code implements the stack and queue operations. However, there might be some errors in the code. One of the students duties is to find these errors and correct them.

4 3.1. Stack Using Arrays // stack.h: header file class Stack { int MaxStack; int EmptyStack; int top; char* items; public: Stack(int); ~Stack(); void push(char); char pop(); int empty(); int full(); ; // stack.cpp: stack functions Stack::Stack(int size) { MaxStack = size; EmptyStack = -1; top = EmptyStack; items = new char[maxstack]; Stack::~Stack() {delete[] items; void Stack::push(char c) { items[++top] = c; char Stack::pop() { return items[top--]; int Stack::full() { return top + 1 == MaxStack; int Stack::empty() { return top == EmptyStack;

5 // stackmain.cpp: use stack #include <iostream.h> int main() { Stack s(10); // 10 chars char ch; while ((ch = cin.get())!= '\n') if (!s.full()) s.push(ch); while (!s.empty()) cout << s.pop(); cout << endl; return 0; 3.2. Stack Using Templates The following program takes the simple stack given elsewhere, and writes it in a "templated" version, that is, in generic form using C++ templates. In the listings below, code related to templates appears in red, while parameters to the template are given in orange. In the implementation, whenever a stack is instantiated, the actual parameters to the template are textually substituted in for the formal parameters to the stack. Thus below, first char and 10 are substituted for Typ and MaxStack. Next double and 4 are substituted for Typ and MaxStack. After this substitution, the compiler compiles the resulting code, which contains only references to specific types, and so can be optimized. The main function below shows the instantiation of two stacks, the first a stack of up to 10 chars, and the second a stack of up to 4 doubles. The code pushes items on each stack until they are full, and then pops them for printing until the stack is empty. As in the earlier programs, this code is simplified, without even any checking for underflow or overflow. This version allocated the actual memory locations for the stack on the program stack, so here there is no memory leak. This version will work for user-defined types also. These C++ features allow the creation of much more complex templated "container" classes in the C++ Standard Template Library (STL).

6 C++ Stack With Template Three separate files: stack.h, stack.cpp, and stacktest.cpp // stack.h: header file class Stack { int EmptyStack; Typ items[maxstack]; int top; public: Stack(); ~Stack(); void push(typ); Typ pop(); int empty(); int full(); ; // stacktest.cpp: use templated stack #include <iostream.h> int main() { Stack<char, 10> s; // 10 chars char ch; while ((ch = cin.get())!= '\n') if (!s.full()) s.push(ch); while (!s.empty()) cout << s.pop(); cout << endl; Stack<double, 4> ds; // 4 doubles double d[] = {1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, 0.0; int i = 0; while (d[i]!= 0.0 &&!ds.full()) if (!ds.full()) ds.push(d[i++]); while (!ds.empty()) cout << ds.pop() << " "; cout << endl; return 0; // stack.cpp: function definitions Stack< Typ, MaxStack >::Stack() { EmptyStack = -1; top = EmptyStack; Stack< Typ, MaxStack >::~Stack() { delete[] items; void Stack< Typ, MaxStack >::push(typ c) { items[ ++top ] = c; Typ Stack< Typ, MaxStack >::pop() { return items[ top-- ]; int Stack< Typ, MaxStack >::full() { return top + 1 == MaxStack; int Stack< Typ, MaxStack >::empty() { return top == EmptyStack;

7 3.3. Queue Using ATL #include <iostream> #include <queue> #include <list> using namespace std; int main() { int thedata[] = {45, 34, 56, 27, 71, 50, 62; queue<int, list<int> > q; cout << "The queue size is now " << q.size() << endl; cout << "Pushing 4 elements " << endl; for (int i = 0; i < 4; ++i) q.push(thedata[i]); cout << "The queue size is now " << q.size() << endl; cout << "Popping 3 elements " << endl; for (int i = 0; i < 3; ++i) { cout << q.front() << endl; q.pop(); cout << "The queue size is now " << q.size() << endl; return 0; 4. Requirements and Deliverable A) Array implementation to the queue B) A time performance comparison between the array and STL implementations for both stack and queue. Explain your answer? 5. References: queuestack/queuepushpopandsize.htm

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