Parameterized Complexity of Induced HMatching on ClawFree Graphs


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1 Parameterized Complexity of Induced HMatching on ClawFree Graphs Danny Hermelin Matthias Mnich Erik Jan van Leeuwen Abstract The Induced HMatching problem asks to find k disjoint, induced subgraphs isomorphic to H in a given graph G such that there are no edges between vertices of different subgraphs. This problem generalizes the classical Independent Set and Induced Matching problems, among several other problems. We show that Induced HMatching is fixedparameter tractable in k on clawfree graphs when H is a fixed connected graph of constant size, and even admits a polynomial kernel when H is a clique. Both results rely on a new, strong algorithmic structure theorem for clawfree graphs. To show the fixedparameter tractability of the problem, we additionally apply the colorcoding technique in a novel way. Complementing the above two positive results, we prove the W[1]hardness of Induced HMatching for graphs excluding K 1,4 as an induced subgraph. In particular, we show that Independent Set is W[1]hard on K 1,4 free graphs. 1 Introduction A graph is clawfree if no vertex in the graph has three pairwise nonadjacent neighbors, i.e. if it does not contain a copy of K 1,3 as an induced subgraph. The class of clawfree graphs contains several wellstudied graph classes such as line graphs, unit interval graphs, de Bruijn graphs, the complements of trianglefree graphs, and graphs of several polyhedra and polytopes. Consequently, clawfree graphs have attracted much interest, and are by now the subject of numerous research papers (see e.g. the survey [9]). Our understanding of clawfree graphs and their structure was greatly extended with the recently developed theory of Chudnovsky and Seymour. This work is partially supported by the ERC StG project PAAl no Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarbrücken, Germany, Cluster of Excellence Multimodal Computing and Interaction, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany, Dept. Computer, Control, and Management Engineering Antonio Ruberti, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, 1
2 This highly technical and detailed clawfree structure theory is contained in a sequence of seven papers called Clawfree graphs I VII (see [4] for an accessible survey), and culminates in several variants of clawfree decomposition theorems. Each of these decomposition theorems shows that every connected clawfree graph can be constructed by starting with a collection of basic clawfree graphs, and then gluing these basic graphs together in some controlled manner. Recently, Chudnovsky and Seymour s clawfree structure theory has been deployed for algorithmic purposes. For example, it was used to develop approximation algorithms for Chromatic Number on quasiline graphs [3, 18]. Faenza et al. [8] gave an algorithm to find a decomposition of clawfree graphs, and used this algorithm to improve on the fastest previously known algorithm for Independent Set on clawfree graphs. Their decomposition, although similar in nature, does not rely on Chudnovsky and Seymour s structure theorem. Independently, the authors of this paper, along with Woeginger, gave an algorithm for the ChudnovskySeymour decomposition theorem, and used this to show that Dominating Set is fixedparameter tractable on clawfree graphs, and admits a polynomial kernel as well [16]. (The fixedparameter tractability result was also shown independently by Cygan et al. [5] using different methods.) Recently, Golovach et al. [14] used the algorithmic decomposition theorem in [16] to give a parameterized algorithm for the Induced Disjoint Paths problem on clawfree graphs. In this paper we extend this line of research by considering the Induced HMatching problem on clawfree graphs. This problem generalizes several important and wellstudied problems, such as Independent Set and Induced Matching. It can be defined as follows. We are given a clawfree graph G and an integer k, and the goal is to determine whether there is an induced occurrence of k H in G; that is, whether there is a set of induced subgraphs M = {H 1,..., H k } in G, each isomorphic to H, that are pairwise vertexdisjoint and satisfy that (u, v) / E(G) for any pair of vertices u V (H i ) and v V (H j ) with i j. As discussed further below, the study of this problem among other things requires a significantly stronger decomposition theorem for clawfree graphs compared to those developed previously. The Induced HMatching problem is closely related to the equally wellstudied HMatching problem. In HMatching, the goal is to find induced subgraphs H 1,..., H k isomorphic to H that are pairwise vertexdisjoint. Observe that when H has minimum degree at least 3, HMatching reduces to Induced HMatching by subdividing all the edges of G and H. On the other hand, on line graphs (a subclass of clawfree graphs), a reduction exists in the other direction. Recall that the line graph L(G) of a graph G consists of a vertex v e for each e E(G) and there is an edge (v e, v f ) in L(G) if and only if e and f are incident to the same vertex in G. The graph G is known as the preimage of L(G). It can be easily seen that there is a 2
3 bijection between the set of induced Hmatchings on L(G) and the set of H matchings on G. Hence Induced HMatching on line graphs inherits all known complexity results on HMatching on general graphs. In particular, this implies that Induced HMatching is NPcomplete on line graphs if H contains a connected component with at least one edge [12, 19, 21]. In the context of parameterized complexity, the HMatching problem has received significant attention. In particular, the problem is known to be fixedparameter tractable by the size of the matching k [11, 20] and even has a polynomial kernel (when H is fixed) [23]. Recently, tight lower bounds on the kernel size for specific graphs H were obtained in [6, 17]. Note again that these results immediately carry over to Induced HMatching on line graphs. In general graphs, the Induced HMatching problem is W[1]hard for any clique H on h 1 vertices when parameterized by the matching size k [7, 24]. Marx [22] showed that the Induced HMatching for a graph H on a single vertex (i.e. the Independent Set problem) is W[1]hard on K 1,5 free graphs. Another related result by Cameron and Hell [2] shows that on certain graph classes the problem can be reduced to an instance of Independent Set on a graph in that same graph class, provided that the set of all occurrences of H are given. Their results, however, do not apply to clawfree graphs. Our Results. The main result of this paper is that Induced HMatching is fixedparameter tractable on clawfree graphs when parameterized by k for fixed connected graphs H of constant size. It is important to note that requiring H to be of constant size is essential, since the problem is W[1]hard with respect to k + V (H) even for line graphs and cobipartite graphs [13, 14]. In the special case that H is a fixed clique, we also show that the problem admits a polynomial kernel. In contrast, we prove that the problem becomes W[1]hard on K 1,4 free graphs. These results both complement and tighten the abovementioned known hardness results on the problem. Techniques. The main difference between this work and previous works on algorithms using the ChudnoskySeymour structure theorem is that the socalled twins and Wjoins seem hard to get rid of in Induced HMatching. Hence we require a stronger version of the previously proposed decomposition theorems, one that does not require that such structures are not present in the given clawfree graph. We provide such a decomposition theorem in Section 2, and show that the decomposition it implies can be computed in polynomial time. The new decomposition theorem that we develop has the advantage that it is simpler to state. In particular, it decomposes the input clawfree graph 3
4 into only two graph classes. Yet, for one of these graph classes, namely the class of fuzzy circulararc graphs (a superclass of proper circulararc graphs), the Induced HMatching problem was not previously known to be polynomialtime solvable. We show that in fact it is, and in the appendix we exhibit stronger results on circulararc graphs and give evidence why these results are tight. After obtaining our refined decomposition theorem, we solve Induced HMatching on clawfree graphs by applying the colorcoding technique [1] in a novel way. To give some intuition behind this approach, we recall that to solve Induced HMatching on line graphs G and H, we need to find pairwise vertexdisjoint induced subgraphs H 1,..., H k in the preimage of G such that H i is isomorphic to the preimage of H. In particular, we can find these H i in our structural decomposition for G. However, if G and H are clawfree, there is no notion of preimage and therefore no immediate relation between H and the H i that we would want to find. Instead, we show that it is sufficient to find, in a coordinated manner and using colorcoding, isomorphic copies of H itself. Thus, in some sense, colorcoding allows us to reduce Induced HMatching to HMatching. Complete details of this are given in Section 4. For obtaining our polynomial kernel when H is a fixed clique of order h, we reduce the size of the decompositionstructure to O(h 4 k 2 ). We then construct a kernel that mimics an easy algorithm for Induced HMatching on such reduced decompositionstructures. This kernel actually reduces the problem to an equivalent instance of Weighted Independent Set of size polynomial in k, which in turn can be reduced to an equivalent instance of Induced HMatching on clawfree graphs. The technique that we use here substantially simplifies the technique that was used before to obtain a polynomial kernel for Dominating Set on clawfree graphs [16]. 2 Preliminaries Let G be a graph. We call I V (G) an independent set if no two vertices of I are adjacent, and use α(g) to denote the size of a maximum independent set of G. The neighborhood of a vertex v V (G) is denoted by N(v) = {u V (G) (u, v) E(G)}, and the closed neighborhood of v is N[v] = N(v) {v}. This notation extends to subsets of vertices. Given X V (G), the subgraph induced by X is G[X] = (X, E(G) (X X)), and the graph G X is the subgraph induced by V (G)\X. Then G is clawfree if α(g[n(v)]) 2 for any v V (G). We next define a variant of circulararc graphs that will play an important role in the paper. Given a set A of objects, a graph G is the intersection graph of A if each vertex corresponds to an object of A and there is an edge between two vertices if and only if the corresponding objects intersect. In 4
5 a fuzzy intersection graph G of A, there is an edge between two vertices if the corresponding objects intersect in more than one point, and there is no edge if the corresponding objects do not intersect. The fuzziness stems from what happens if the two objects intersect in precisely one point: the graph may have an edge or not. We call A a representation of G. Now consider a set of arcs on a circle (throughout, we assume that arcs are not a single point). Then the set is called proper if no arc is a subset of another, almost proper if any arc that is a subset of another is in fact equal to the other, and almost strict if, for any maximal set of arcs with the same endpoints, at most one of these endpoints is also an endpoint of an arc outside the set. A graph is a proper circulararc graph if it is the intersection graph of a set of proper arcs on a circle. A graph is a fuzzy circulararc graph if it is the fuzzy intersection graph of an almostproper, almoststrict set of arcs on a circle. Note that any intersection graph of an almostproper set of arcs on a circle is a proper circulararc graph; hence a fuzzy circulararc graph without any fuzziness is just a proper circulararc graph. It is known that any fuzzy circulararc graph is claw free. A hypergraph R consists of a set of vertices V (R) and a multiset of edges E(R) such that each e E(R) is a subset of V (R). We explicitly allow empty edges. Note that if e 2 for every e E(R), then R is a multigraph, possibly with selfloops. A stripstructure of a graph G consists of a hypergraph R and for each edge e E(R) a strip (J e, Z e ) such that for each e E(R), J e is a clawfree graph and Z e independent set; V (J e ) is an V (J e ) \ Z e for any e E(R), and the sets V (J e ) \ Z e over all e E(R) partition V (G); for each e E(R) and for each r e, there is a unique z r e Z e and Z = r e zr e; for each r V (R), the union of N(z r e) over all e E(R) for which r e induces a clique C(r) in G; if u, v V (G) are adjacent, then u, v V (J e ) for some e E(R) or u, v C(r) for some r V (R); J e [V (J e ) \ Z e ] equals G[V (J e ) \ Z e ]. Given a strip (J, Z), the set N(z) for z Z is referred to as a boundary of (J, Z), while the (possibly empty) graph J N[Z] is called the interior of (J, Z). We call (J, Z) a spot if J is a threevertex path and Z consists of its ends, and a stripe if no vertex of J is adjacent to more than one z Z. We prove the following theorem in the appendix. 5
6 Theorem 2.1 Let G be a connected clawfree graph that is not a fuzzy circulararc graph and has α(g) > 4. Then G admits a stripstructure such that each strip is either a spot, or a stripe (J, Z) with 1 Z 2 that is a fuzzy circulararc graph or satisfies α(j) 4. Moreover, we can find such a stripstructure in polynomial time. 3 (Fuzzy) CircularArc Graphs In this section, we consider the complexity of Induced HMatching on (fuzzy) circulararc graphs. 3.1 CircularArc Graphs In this subsection, we consider the complexity of Induced HMatching on circulararc graphs. These results generalize results by Heggernes et al. [15] on Induced Subgraph Isomorphism on interval graphs. Recall that Induced Subgraph Isomorphism is the problem that asks, given two graph G and H, whether G contains an induced subgraph which is isomorphic to H. Recall that a (proper) circulararc graph is the intersection graph of a set of (proper) arcs on a circle. If the union of the arcs does not cover the circle, then the graph is a (proper) interval graph. Theorem 3.1 Induced HMatching on a circulararc graph G and a connected proper interval graph H can be solved in polynomial time, even if G, H, and k are part of the input. Proof: We first show that we can enumerate all occurrences of H in G. To this end, we fix a representation of G. Now consider all possibilities for the leftmost and the rightmost vertex of H. That is, we guess which vertex l H of H will have the leftmost left endpoint in an isomorphism of H into an induced subgraph of G, and we guess the vertex r H having the rightmost right endpoint as well. Similarly, we consider all possibilities for the vertex l G of G to which l H can be mapped, and all possibilities for the vertex r G of G to which r H can be mapped. This can be achieved by simply trying all possible pairs of vertices of G and H. Now remove all vertices that have their left endpoint to the left of l G and all vertices that have their right endpoint to the right of r G. Finally, create four new cliques of size 1 + max{ V (G), V (H) } and add them as neighbors of l H, r H, l G, and r G. Call the resulting graphs G and H. Note that G has to be an interval graph and that H has to be a proper interval graph. It remains to verify that G contains an induced subgraph isomorphic to H. This can be done in polynomial time using a result of Heggernes et al. [15]. In this way, we find all possible occurrences of H as an induced subgraph of G. 6
7 Given all occurrences of H in G (note that there are polynomially many), we can use a result of Cameron and Hell [2] to reduce the problem to an Independent Set problem on a circulararc graph. Since Independent Set can be solved in polynomial time on circulararc graphs, we obtain the polynomialtime algorithm claimed in the theorem statement. The following result follows from a simple extension of a similar result by Heggernes et al. [15] on interval graphs and connected proper interval graphs. Essentially, we need to cut open G and H at a maximal clique to reduce the theorem statement to their result. Theorem 3.2 Induced Subgraph Isomorphism on a circulararc graph G and a connected proper circulararc graph H can be solved in polynomial time, even if both G and H are part of the input. Proof: We can determine in linear time whether G is an interval graph. If so, then H has to be a proper interval graph. If H is a proper interval graph, then we can just use the method described in the proof of Theorem 3.1 above to find an induced subgraph isomorphic to H. If H is not a proper interval graph, then G must be a circulararc graph. Suppose that G indeed contains an induced subgraph isomorphic to H (by abusing notation, we call this subgraph H as well). Then, similar as in Theorem 3.1 of [15], there exists a maximal clique K G in G and a maximal clique K H in H such that K H is mapped to a subset of K G and no other vertices of H are mapped to K G. We guess these maximal cliques K G and K H. Find a point x G such that the intervals of G containing x G correspond exactly to K G, and find a point x H such that the intervals of H containing x H correspond exactly to K H. Now remove an infinitesimally small part of the arcs around x G and x H. Then, as in the proof of Theorem 3.1 above, add cliques of size 1 + max{ V (G), V (H) } on both sides of these two gaps as an anchor. Call the resulting graphs G and H. Note that G has to be an interval graph and that H has to be a proper interval graph. It remains to verify that G contains an induced subgraph isomorphic to H. This can be done in polynomial time using a result of Heggernes et al. [15]. Theorem 3.3 Induced HMatching on circulararc graphs G and connected proper circulararc graphs H can be solved in polynomial time, even if both G and H are part of the input. Proof: We can check in linear time whether H is a proper interval graph. If so, then we can solve the problem in polynomial time by using Theorem 3.1. Hence we may assume that H is not a proper interval graph. Then, clearly, G can have an induced Hmatching of size at most one. This can be checked by verifying whether G has an induced subgraph isomorphic to H by using Theorem
8 Theorem 3.4 Induced HMatching on circulararc graphs G and proper circulararc graphs H is FPT when parameterized by k and the number of connected components of H. Proof: If H is connected, then the result follows immediately from Theorem 3.3. If H is not connected, then H has to be a proper interval graph. But then we can cut open G. Guess where and reduce G to an interval graph. Then create H as k copies of H, and find H as an induced subgraph in G using the algorithm of Heggernes et al. [15]. Note that Induced HMatching is NPhard if both G and H are a proper interval graph, even if k = 1 [15]. Hence parameterization by some property of H is really necessary in Theorem 3.4. It is open whether parameterization by k is necessary, i.e. whether Induced HMatching is FPT when parameterized by V (H) and k is part of the input. The approaches presented above seem to fail. For example, even if all occurrences of H in G can be found in FPT time, we would then be required to solve an instance of Independent Set on a multiinterval graph, which is known to be W[1]hard [10]. Note that if H is assumed to be fixed, then problem is polynomialtime solvable due to a result by Cameron and Hell [2]. 3.2 Induced HMatching on Fuzzy CircularArc Graphs A graph G is cobipartite if it is the complement of a bipartite graph. Theorem 3.5 ([13]) Induced HMatching is NPhard and W[1]hard when parameterized by V (H), even if k = 1 and both G and H are connected cobipartite graphs. Observe that any cobipartite graph can be obtained as a thickening of a single semiedge. Moreover, the graph consisting of a single semiedge is a circular interval trigraph. Hence any cobipartite graph is a fuzzy circulararc graph and Theorem 3.5 immediately gives the following corollary. Corollary 3.6 Induced HMatching is NPhard, and W[1]hard when parameterized by V (H), even if k = 1 and both G and H are connected fuzzy circulararc graphs or connected clawfree graphs. Hence, there is little hope of generalizing Theorem 3.3 or Theorem 3.4 to fuzzy circulararc graphs. Instead, we consider the case when H is fixed. Theorem 3.7 Induced HMatching on a fuzzy circulararc graph G can be solved in polynomial time when H is a fixed, connected graph. 8
9 Proof: We generalize the approach of Theorem 3.1. First, observe that since H is fixed, we can find the set H of all occurrences of H in G in polynomial time. We call two occurrences of H compatible if no vertex of one occurrence is a neighbor of a vertex of the other. We may assume that H occurs at least once in G. Pick an arbitrary H H, and remove N[H ] from G. Since fuzzy circulararc graphs are closed under deletion, the resulting graph is also a fuzzy circulararc graph, which we call G as well by abusing notation. Now find a representation of G, using the algorithm of Oriolo, Pietropaolo, and Stauffer [25]. This gives a representation A of G as described in Lemma A.2. For each H H, let l(h ) (resp. r(h )) be the leftmost (resp. rightmost) endpoint of any arc of H. Let P be the set of endpoints of the arcs of A. For each point p P, let H p be the set of all H H for which r(h ) = p. Finally, since we removed one occurrence of H from G, we can uniquely order P from left to right as p 1,..., p P. For each p P, we order the elements of H p arbitrarily. We describe a dynamic programming approach that solves Induced H Matching. For each i = 1,..., P and for each j = 1,..., H pi, let M[i, j] = max max j =1,..., H pi max 1 i <i M[i 1, j ] H j p i,h j max j =1,..., Hp i p i compatible M[i, j ] For simplicity, we let M[0, 1] = 0. Then the result follows by computing max {M[ P, j]}. j=1,..., H p P By running this dynamic programming algorithm for all possible choices of H, we obtain a polynomialtime algorithm (when H is fixed) to solve Induced HMatching. 4 FixedParameter Algorithm In this section, we prove the following theorem. Theorem 4.1 Let H be a fixed connected graph. Then Induced HMatching is fixedparameter tractable on clawfree graphs when parameterized by the size of the matching k. Throughout the section, we use H to denote a fixed connected graph of order h, and G to denote a clawfree graph on n vertices given as input to the Induced HMatching problem. Observe that H is part of the problem description rather than part of the problem instance, and so its 9
10 size is constant. We may assume that G is connected as the extension to the disconnected case is immediate. The algorithm we use to prove Theorem 4.1 deploys the clawfree decomposition theorem stated in Theorem 2.1. Note that in order to apply this decomposition theorem, we need to first handle two cases: the case where α(g) is small, and the case where G is a fuzzy circulararc graph. The latter is handled by Theorem 3.7, and the former is easily handled as follows. Lemma 4.2 Induced HMatching on graphs G with α(g) 4 can be solved in polynomial time. This lemma is immediate from the observation that if α(g) 4, then any induced Hmatching of G will have size at most Guessing the Induced StripGraph The first step of our algorithm in case G is not a fuzzy circulararc graph and has α(g) > 4 is to apply Theorem 2.1 to obtain a stripstructure of G. Assume that G has an induced Hmatching M of size k. Our goal from now on will be to discover M. We will call an edge of R covered if its corresponding strip contains a vertex of M. Similarly, we call a vertex r of R covered if the clique C(r) corresponding to r contains a vertex of M. With these definitions, we can talk about the subgraph of R induced by covered edges and vertices, which we call the covered subgraph of R. As a first step, we guess what the covered subgraph of R looks like. Obviously, we cannot guess which vertices of R will be in the covered subgraph, as this would yield an n O(hk) time algorithm. However, we can guess the graph that the covered subgraph will be isomorphic to, which we will call the base graph. To bound the size of the base graph, note that each edge of R corresponds to at least one vertex of an occurrence of H. Hence the base graph has at most hk edges and at most 2hk vertices. As the base graph can be seen as a multigraph, there are at most 2 O((hk)3) possibilities for this graph. (A tighter bound might be obtainable here, but the above bound is sufficient for our purposes.) Let B denote the base graph induced by M. Since we go through all possible choices of the base graph, we can assume that our guess is correct and isomorphic to B. As a second step, we guess how the k occurrences of H are spread over B. That is, for each edge e of B, we guess exactly what the intersection of M with the hypothetical strip corresponding to e would look like. In particular, we need to guess the intersection of M with the boundaries of the strip. We call this the Bassignment. To this end, we simply try all possible assignments of the hk vertices of M to the edges of B. For each edge of B, we have one bucket to indicate that the vertex should be in the interior of the strip and a bucket for each boundary of the strip. If we guess 10
11 that the strip is a spot, then there is only a single bucket. Since there are at most three buckets per strip, this takes O((3hk) hk ) time. (Again, a better bound may be possible here, but this bound is sufficient for our purposes.) For each assignment, we verify whether it is proper. That is, we need to verify whether the assignment could possibly correspond to an induced Hmatching of size k. First, if two vertices of H are adjacent, then in each occurrence of H they must be assigned to the same edge of B or to two different edges of B that share an endpoint. In the latter case, they must also be assigned to the boundary buckets corresponding to that endpoint. Secondly, for each vertex b of B, the boundary buckets corresponding to b of the edges incident to b can contain vertices of at most one occurrence of H. Moreover, those vertices must induce a clique in H. As we go through all possible Bassignments, we may assume that our guess corresponds to the actual way M is spread out over B. Thus, our goal now is to ensure the existence of a subgraph R B of R which is isomorphic to B such that the k occurrences of H are spread in R B according to the correct Bassignment. Obviously, we cannot actually find R B in FPTtime, since Subgraph Isomorphism is known to be W[1]hard, but we show that this is not necessary to reach the above goal. 4.2 ColorCoding We apply the technique of colorcoding [1] in a nontrivial way. We use a set of colors C B containing colors for each vertex of B and for each bucket of each edge of B. Before we apply colorcoding, we need to describe the elements that we wish to color. We will have an element for each vertex of R (a vertexelement), and for each edge of R which corresponds to a strip, we create an element for the interior of the strip and for each boundary of the strip (called edgeelements). If however the strip is a spot, then we create only a single element. Note that this corresponds directly to the creation of buckets as we did for the Bassignment. We denote the set of elements by E. We now color the elements of E with the colors of C B. For this, we use a C B perfect hash family of colorings F where we are guaranteed that for any subset of C B vertices and edges in R, there is a subset of colorings in F that will assign distinct colors to this subset in all possible ways. According to [1] there exists such a family F of size at most f( C B ) n O(1) = f (k) n O(1) for computable functions f and f, and this family can be constructed in FPTtime with respect to C B (and hence with respect to k). We call a coloring nice if R B is colored in a correct way, i.e. if the colors of C B indicate the isomorphism between B and R B. Observe that the set of colorings F above assures us that if M is indeed an induced subgraph of G, one of the colorings in F will be nice. Thus, to complete the description of our algorithm, all that remains is to show the lemma below. 11
12 Lemma 4.3 Given a nice coloring σ of E, the induced Hmatching M can be found in G in FPTtime with respect to k. Proof: First, we check whether the coloring of the vertices and edges is consistent. That is, each vertexelement should have received a vertexcolor, each edgeelement should have received an edgecolor of the right type, each of the at most three edgeelements of the same edge should have received edgecolors that correspond to the coloring of an edge of B, and for each edge e its incident vertices have received colors that correspond to the coloring of the vertices of B incident to the edge colored in the way that e is colored. Any vertex or edge that is inconsistently colored is blanked, i.e. we remove its color. Note that if the fourth check above fails, we blank the elements of the edge and not of its incident vertices. Second, we consider all strips (J, Z) in turn for which the corresponding edge was not blanked. Through the current Bassignment and using the coloring σ, we know what we need to find in this strip. In particular, consider the occurrences of H assigned to the boundaries of the strip. Recall that for each boundary, vertices of at most one occurrence can be assigned. Denote the vertices of the at most two occurrences assigned to the boundaries of the strip by H b i. We then use exhaustive enumeration to try all possible realizations X of the vertices of each H b i in J that are consistent with the current Bassignment. Then we remove N[X] from J \ Z and, if no vertices are assigned by the Bassignment to a boundary N(z), we remove N[z] from J as well. Call the resulting graph J. From Theorem 2.1, we know that α(j ) 4 or J is a fuzzy circulararc graph. Hence, it follows from Lemma 4.2 and Theorem 3.7 that we can solve Induced HMatching on J in polynomial time. Denote the solution for X by M e (X). Let Xmax e denote a set X such that M e (X) is maximal. We then verify that M e (X) is at least the number of occurrences of H prescribed by the Bassignment; otherwise, we blank all elements of the edge. After this step, we have actually found all k occurrences of H that are in the interior of a strip according to M and the Bassignment. It remains to find occurrences of H that span multiple strips or affect a strip boundary. For this, we color the vertices of G with a set of colors C k = {0,..., k } where k = k k. For each edge e that is not blanked, consider Xmax. e Recall that Xmax e consists of vertices of at most two occurrences of H, say occurrences i, j {1,..., k }. We first color the vertices of Xmax e (in G) by colors i and j from C k in the obvious way (i.e. vertices from occurrence i receive color i), and color all remaining vertices of V (J) \ Z with color 0. The crucial observation is that, by construction, any pair of vertices from different color classes in C k will be independent. It is thus sufficient to find a copy of H in each color class of C k. This takes n O(h) time in total, where h = V (H). By combining these copies of H with the copies in M e (Xmax) e for each e E(R), we find an induced Hmatching of size at least k. 12
13 5 Polynomial Kernel The main result of this section is the following theorem. Theorem 5.1 Let H be a fixed clique. Then Induced HMatching has a polynomial kernel with respect to the parameter k. We now prove Theorem 5.1. Throughout, we assume that α(g) > 4 and that G is not a fuzzycircular arc graph. Otherwise, we can solve Induced HMatching in polynomial time by Lemma 4.2 and Theorem 3.7, and reduce to a trivial yes  or no instance. We can then also assume that we have used Theorem 2.1 and computed a stripstructure with a corresponding stripgraph R. 5.1 Bounding the Size of the StripGraph First, we show that we can assume that R is a hypergraph with a bounded number of edges. The approach is based on one in [26] and [6] for H Matching. We need the following auxiliary lemmas. We define the disdegree of a vertex r R as the cardinality of the set e R:r e r in R. e \ {r}. In other words, this is the number of distinct neighbors of Proposition 5.2 If a vertex v V (G) is not contained in any induced subgraph isomorphic to H, then we can safely remove v from G. Lemma 5.3 Let r R be a vertex in the stripgraph of disdegree d hk. Then G has an induced Hmatching of size k if and only if G := G C(r) has an induced Hmatching of size k 1. Proof: If G has an induced Hmatching M of size k, then G has an induced Hmatching of size k 1, since at most one occurrence of H in M can include vertices of the clique C(r). For the converse direction, let M be an induced Hmatching of G of size k 1. Consider the set D of distinct vertices contained in an edge together with r. We call an element x of D marked if a vertex of M is contained in a strip corresponding to an edge between x and r or contained in C(x). Clearly, any occurrence of H in M can be responsible for marking at most h vertices of D. It follows that at least h vertices of D are unmarked. For each unmarked vertex, pick a vertex of C(r) that is contained in a strip corresponding to an edge between x and r. This yields a new occurrence of H. Since neither the chosen strip nor C(x) for unmarked vertices x contains any vertices of M, this occurrence is independent of the occurrences of H in M. Hence we have obtained an induced Hmatching of size k in G. 13
14 We call an edge e E(r) promising if it corresponds to a strip (J e, Z e ) such that J \ N[Z e ] contains a subgraph isomorphic to H. The proof of the following proposition is trivial. Proposition 5.4 The stripgraph has at most k 1 promising edges, or G has an induced Hmatching of size k. We can also bound the number of nonpromising edges on each two vertices. We call an edge of R used by an occurrence of H if the strip corresponding to this edge contains a vertex contained in this occurrence of H. Similarly, given an induced Hmatching M, we call an edge of R used by M if the edge is used by an occurrence of H in M. Lemma 5.5 If E(R) contains d 2h nonpromising edges on the vertices x, y V (R) (where possibly x = y), then we can remove at least d 2h such edges and their corresponding strips. Proof: Let M be any induced Hmatching of G. Any occurrence of H in M which contains a vertex of a strip corresponding to a nonpromising edge on x, y must have a vertex in C(x) or C(y). Moreover, since C(x) and C(y) are cliques, neither can contain vertices of more than one occurrence of H in M. If x = y, then the occurrence of H in M containing a vertex of C(x) (if it exists) can be replaced by an occurrence obtained by just taking one vertex from the boundary of the strips corresponding to the first h edges {x}. Hence we can remove d h arbitrary nonpromising edges {x} and their corresponding strips. So suppose that x y. Let E denote the set of nonpromising edges in E(R) on x, y. Call an edge of E that corresponds to a stripe helpful. Suppose that at least 2h edges of E are helpful. Then the occurrence of H in M containing a vertex of C(x) (if it exists) can be replaced by an occurrence obtained by just taking one vertex from the boundary of the stripes corresponding to the first h helpful edges. Simultaneously, the occurrence of H in M containing a vertex of C(y) (if it exists) can be replaced by an occurrence obtained by just taking one vertex from the boundary of the stripes corresponding to the second h helpful edges. Hence we can just keep 2h arbitrary helpful edges and remove all other edges of E and their corresponding strips. So suppose that less than 2h edges of E are helpful. Observe that if two edges of E are used by two distinct occurrences of H in M, then all edges used by these two occurrences are helpful. Hence we need to keep all helpful edges. We also note that if M contains a vertex of a strip that corresponds to an edge of E that is not helpful, i.e. that corresponds to a spot, then the union of all vertices in the strips corresponding to the edges of E contains only one occurrence of H in M. This occurrence of H may be 14
15 easily replaced by an occurrence obtained by taking one vertex of each strip corresponding to the first h edges of E. It follows that we need to keep all helpful edges and a minimum of h edges in total, and can remove all other edges of E and their corresponding strips. Finally, we prove that the number of strips can indeed be bounded. Lemma 5.6 Either the stripgraph has O(h 4 k 2 ) edges, or we can reduce (G, k), or G has an induced Hmatching of size k. Proof of Lemma 5.6: By Lemma 5.3, we can assume that any vertex of the stripgraph has disdegree at most hk. By Lemma 5.5, it follows that we can assume that any vertex is incident on 2h 2 k nonpromising edges. Now apply a greedy algorithm to find a maximal induced Hmatching M. Call a vertex used if it is incident to an edge used by M. We can assume that M has size at most k 1. Note that any occurrence of H in G uses at most h edges of R. Hence M uses at most h(k 1) edges of R. Moreover, since M is maximal, any occurrence of H in G must use an edge of R incident to a used vertex. There are at most 4h 3 k(k 1) 4h 3 k 2 such edges that are nonpromising. Hence it follows from Proposition 5.4 that, in total, there are at most 2h 3 k 2 + k edges that are not used but have an endpoint that is used. Observe that if r V (R) is a vertex that is not used by M, then r can be contained in at most h 1 edges, or it would be possible to extend M. For if r is contained in at least h edges, then none of these edges are used in M. Hence we could add h vertices of C(r) to M, contradicting the maximality of M. The lemma follows. 5.2 Using the Reduced StripGraph To obtain an intuition of the kernel, we give the following description of a simple algorithm for Induced HMatching of H is a fixed clique. We first reduce the stripgraph R using Lemma 5.6. Then we observe that if we know the behavior of the induced Hmatching on C(r) for each r R, then we can reduce to polynomialtime solvable instances of induced Hmatching on individual strips. Since the number of vertices of R is bounded, this gives a fixedparameter algorithm. The kernel will mimic this algorithm by reducing to an instance of Weighted Independent Set on general graphs of size polynomial in k. By using a Karpreduction (as shown in the appendix), we can obtain an instance of Induced HMatching on clawfree graphs again. For our purposes, we define Weighted Independent Set as the problem of given a graph G, a weight function w, and integers k, K, to decide whether G has an independent set of size at least k and weight at least K. 15
16 Theorem 5.7 Let H be a fixed clique. In polynomial time, we can reduce an instance of Induced HMatching on clawfree graphs with parameter k to an equivalent instance of Weighted Independent Set with O(2 h h 4h+4 k 2h+2 ) vertices, maximum vertexweight at most k, k bounded by O(h 4 k 2 ), and K bounded by k. Proof: First, we reduce the stripgraph using Lemma 5.6. Then, for each edge e E(R), and each pair of integers i, j { 1, 0,..., h}, we define the following two functions. Suppose that e = 2, and e = {x, y}. Then the function ω(e, i, j) is the size of a maximum induced Hmatching on J e \ Z e that, if i = 1, contains at least one vertex of N(z x e ); if 0 i h, contains no vertices of N[X {z x e }] for at least one X N(z x e ) of size i, if j = 1, contains at least one vertex of N(z y e ); if j 0, contains no vertices of N[Y {z y e }] for at least one Y N(z y e ) of size j. The function ω evaluates to if an induced Hmatching with the given constraints does not exist. It follows immediately from Lemma 4.2 and Theorem 3.7 that the function ω can be computed in polynomial time. We define a similar function ω(e, i) if e = 1, and compute its values in polynomial time. Below, we will largely ignore edges e with e = 1, as they are dealt with in essentially the same manner as edges with e = 2. We now describe the instance of Weighted Independent Set that we will construct. For each edge e E(R) and each i, j { 1, 0,..., h}, we create a vertex vi,j e of weight ω(e, i, j). For any e E(R), we construct a clique on the vertices vi,j e. This expresses that for each strip, we can choose at most one solution. It remains to coordinate the solutions of the strips. Let U denote the set of all sets U of integers such that i U i = h and min i U i 1 for each U U. We also add the set {0} to U. Let E r denote the set of edges in R containing a vertex r V (R) and let d r = E r. Finally, we construct the set P r. Each P P r will be an assignment of the numbers of some U U to the edges of E r. If U < E r, then all remaining edges will be assigned the number zero. The set of all such assignments over all U U is P r. We create two types of vertices for each r R. Whenever we refer to an edge e containing r, we assume that the second parameter of the function ω corresponds to the vertex zr. e Now, first, we create a vertex vp r for each P P r. The weight of vp r is set to 1, unless P assigns zero to every edge e, in which case the weight is set to zero. If P assigns i to edge e, then we make vp r adjacent to ve i,j for all i i and for all j. This expresses that if an 16
17 occurrence of H is a subset of C(r), how the vertices of this occurrences are distributed over C(r). Second, we create a vertex ve r for each e containing r and give it weight zero. We make this adjacent to vi,j e for each i 0 and for each j, and to vi,j e for each e e containing r, each i 0, and each j. This expresses that if an occurrence of H contains at least one vertex of an occurrence of H (but less than h), in which strip incident to r these vertices must be found. Finally, we construct a clique on the vertices created for r. This completes the construction of the instance of Weighted Independent Set. It follows from Lemma 4.2 and Theorem 3.7 that this instance can be constructed in polynomial time. Denote the graph by G and the weight function by w. We claim that G has O(2 h h 4h+2 k 2h+2 ) vertices. To see this, we note that for each edge of R, we create (h + 2) 2 vertices. By Lemma 5.6, this gives a total of O(h 6 k 2 ) vertices. We can count the number of vertices created for each vertex r of R as follows. Observe that U 2 h+1 (more precise bounds are known, but this will suffice). We can assume that the numbers of each U U are ordered from small to large. To bound P r, we note that the number of ordered subsets of E r of size at most h is at most E r h. For each ordered subset X, we create a bijection to each U U with U = X by assigning the ith element of U to the ith element of X. We then extend this assignment to E r by assigning zero to any elements of E r \ X. This shows that P r is O(2 h h 4h k 2h ). The number of vertices created for each r thus is O(2 h h 4h k 2h ). The claim follows. To bound the weights, observe that if ω(e, i, j) > k for some e, i, j, then the instance of Induced HMatching is a yes instance and we can easily reduce to a trivial yes instance of Weighted Independent Set. Hence all the weights are at most k. Finally, let k be equal to the number of vertices and edges in R, and let K = k. Note that k is bounded by O(h 4 k 2 ) by Lemma 5.6. We claim that Induced HMatching on G, k is a yes instance if and only if Weighted Independent Set on G, w, k, K is a yes instance. For the one direction, consider an induced Hmatching M of size k. Now construct an independent set I of G as follows. Initially, mark all vertices vi,j e over all i, j as potentials. For each r V (R), check if an occurrence of H in M is fully contained in C(r). If so, find the assignment P of P r induced by this occurrence. Then we add vp r to I. Moreover, we remove the potential mark from all neighbors of vp r. We proceed similarly if no vertex of M is contained in C(r). Otherwise, a vertex of an occurrence of H in M is contained in C(r), but there is also a vertex of this occurrence in J e \ N[zr] e for some e containing r. Then we add ve r to I and remove the potential mark from all its neighbors. All remaining potential vertices form an independent set by construction of G. Moreover, for each edge e exactly one vertex vi,j e is a potential vertex. This gives the required independent set. It has weight at least K as M has size k. 17
18 For the converse, let I be an independent set of G of size at least k and weight at least K. Observe that by construction of G and k, I = k. We now use the inverse of the above process to construct an induced H matching M. Since K = k, M will have size k. The theorem follows. It is now straightforward to prove Theorem 5.1. Proof of Theorem 5.1: If V (H) = 1, then the problem is actually Independent Set. Since this can be solved in O(n 3 ) time on clawfree graphs [8], we can easily reduce to a trivial yes  or no instance. So assume that V (H) > 1. Since Weighted Independent Set is in NP and Induced HMatching on clawfree graphs is NPhard when H is a fixed clique of size at least two [12, 19, 21], there exists a Karpreduction from Weighted Independent Set to Induced HMatching on clawfree graphs when H is a clique. Note that when the input graph G to Weighted Independent Set is a graph with size polynomial in k and maximum vertexweight at most k, the Induced HMatching instance produced by this reduction is has size polynomial in k. The proof now follows from Theorem Hardness In this section we prove that Induced HMatching is W[1]hard with respect to k on K 1,4 free graphs when H is any fixed clique. For this, we first show that Independent Set is W[1]hard on K 1,4 free graphs. We will present a reduction from the Multicolored Clique problem. In this problem, we are given a graph G and an assignment of colors {1,..., k} to the vertices of the graph, and the question is whether G admits a kclique using exactly one vertex of each color. This problem is well known to be W[1]hard (see e.g. [10]). Theorem 6.1 Independent Set on K 1,4 free graphs is W[1]hard. Proof: Let (G, k) be an instance of Multicolored Clique where each vertex has been assigned a color in {1,..., k}. Let V i denote the set of vertices in V (G) having color i. For each color i, construct a gadget on V i (k 1) vertices. We may imagine them to be organized in a matrixlike shape with V i rows and k 1 columns, such that each row corresponds to a vertex of V i and each column to a color other than i. We then add edges from (v, j) V i {1,..., k}\{i} to (u, j) and to (u, j + 1) for all u V i \{v}, where we take j + 1 to be 1 if j = k. Observe that in this way each row of the gadget is an independent set of size k 1. Moreover, the edges to (u, j) and (u, j + 1) ensure that any independent set of size k 1 of the gadget consists of vertices of exactly one row. 18
19 For each pair of colors i, j (i j), we also construct a matrixlike gadget. It has E ij rows, where E ij = (V i V j ) E, and two columns, one for color i and one for color j. Each element of the matrixlike gadget again consists of one vertex. We add all edges between the vertices of the gadget, except that the edge between (e, i) and (e, j) is not present for any e E ij. We then connect the vertex and edge gadgets as follows. Consider a pair of colors i, j and some u V i. We then connect (u, j) in the gadget for V i to all (e, i) in the gadget for E ij for which u e. We call the resulting graph G. Note that G is indeed K 1,4 free, as the neighborhood of each vertex can be partitioned into three cliques. Finally, we set k = k(k 1) + 2 ( k 2) = 2k(k 1). The resulting instance is (G, k ). Suppose that G has a multicolored clique K of size k. We construct the following independent set I. For the unique vertex u in K V i for each color i, we add the k 1 vertices on the row of the gadget of V i that corresponds to u to I. For the unique edge e in K E ij for each pair of colors i, j, we add the two vertices on the row of the gadget of V i that corresponds to e to I. It is immediate from the description of the construction that this is an independent set and that it has size k. Suppose that G has an independent set I of size k. By construction, it follows that each edge gadget can have at most 2 vertices in I, as the columns of the gadget are cliques. Moreover, they must be in the same row. Similarly, each vertex gadget can have at most k 1 vertices in I. Moreover, they must be in the same row, because otherwise there would be (u, j) I and (u, j + 1) I with u, u V i. This is explicitly disallowed by the construction. Hence each vertex gadget and each edge gadget has exactly one selected row. Now observe that the selected vertex rows and edge rows together induce a multicolored clique. This clique has size k by our choice of k. We now show how this theorem implies the hardness of Induced H Matching in K 1,4 free graphs for any fixed clique H. Theorem 6.2 Induced HMatching on K 1,4 free graphs is W[1]hard for any fixed clique H. Proof: Let (G, k) be an instance of Independent Set on K 1,4 free graphs. Construct a graph G by, for each v V (G), adding V (H) 1 new vertices and making them adjacent to each other and to all vertices of N[v]. That is, we replace v by a twin set of size V (H). Call this twin set H v. Clearly, G has an induced K 1,4 if and only if G has an induced K 1,4. The resulting instance of Induced HMatching is (G, k). Suppose that G has an independent set I of size k. Let M be the set of H v for all v I. Since I is an independent set, M must be an induced Hmatching. It clearly has size k. 19
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