# Sequences and Series

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1 Contents 6 Sequences and Series 6. Sequences and Series 6. Infinite Series The Binomial Series Power Series Maclaurin and Taylor Series 40 Learning outcomes In this Workbook you will learn about sequences and series. You will learn about arithmetic and geometric series and also about infinite series. You will learn how to test the for the convergence of an infinite series. You will then learn about power series, in particular you will study the binomial series. Finally you will apply your knowledge of power series to the process of finding series expansions of functions of a single variable. You will be able to find the Maclaurin and Taylor series expansions of simple functions about a point of interest.

2 Sequences and Series 6. Introduction In this Section we develop the ground work for later Sections on infinite series and on power series. We begin with simple sequences of numbers and with finite series of numbers. We introduce the summation notation for the description of series. Finally, we consider arithmetic and geometric series and obtain expressions for the sum of n terms of both types of series. Prerequisites Before starting this Section you should... Learning Outcomes On completion you should be able to... understand and be able to use the basic rules of algebra be able to find limits of algebraic expressions check if a sequence of numbers is convergent use the summation notation to specify series recognise arithmetic and geometric series and find their sums HELM (008): Workbook 6: Sequences and Series

3 . Introduction A sequence is any succession of numbers. For example the sequence,,, 3, 5, 8,... which is known as the Fibonacci sequence, is formed by adding two consecutive terms together to obtain the next term. The numbers in this sequence continually increase without bound and we say this sequence diverges. An example of a convergent sequence is the harmonic sequence,, 3, 4,... Here we see the magnitude of these numbers continually decrease and it is obvious that the sequence converges to the number zero. The related alternating harmonic sequence,, 3, 4,... is also convergent to the number zero. Whether or not a sequence is convergent is often easy to deduce by graphing the individual terms. The diagrams in Figure show how the individual terms of the harmonic and alternating harmonic series behave as the number of terms increase. / /3 /4 harmonic term in sequence alternating harmonic /3 /4 / term in sequence Figure Task Graph the sequence:,,,,... Is this convergent? HELM (008): Section 6.: Sequences and Series 3

4 3 4 5 term in sequence Not convergent. The terms in the sequence do not converge to a particular value. The value oscillates. A general sequence is denoted by a, a,..., a n,... in which a is the first term, a is the second term and a n is the n th term is the sequence. For example, in the harmonic sequence a =, a =,..., a n = n whilst for the alternating harmonic sequence the n th term is: a n = ( )n+ n in which ( ) n = + if n is an even number and ( ) n = if n is an odd number. Key Point The sequence a, a,..., a n,... is said to be convergent if the limit of a n as n increases can be found. (Mathematically we say that lim n a n exists.) If the sequence is not convergent it is said to be divergent. Task Verify that the following sequence is convergent 3, 4 3, 5 3 4,... First find the expression for the n th term: a n = n + n(n + ) 4 HELM (008): Workbook 6: Sequences and Series

5 Now find the limit of a n as n increases: n + n(n + ) = + n n + n + 0 as n increases Hence the sequence is convergent.. Arithmetic and geometric progressions Consider the sequences:, 4, 7, 0,... and 3,,, 3,... In both, any particular term is obtained from the previous term by the addition of a constant value (3 and respectively). Each of these sequences are said to be an arithmetic sequence or arithmetic progression and has general form: a, a + d, a + d, a + 3d,..., a + (n )d,... in which a, d are given numbers. In the first example above a =, d = 3 whereas, in the second example, a = 3, d =. The difference between any two successive terms of a given arithmetic sequence gives the value of d which is called the common difference. Two sequences which are not arithmetic sequences are:,, 4, 8,..., 3, 9, 7,... In each case a particular term is obtained from the previous term by multiplying by a constant factor ( and respectively). Each is an example of a geometric sequence or geometric progression 3 with the general form: a, ar, ar, ar 3,... where a is the first term and r is called the common ratio, being the ratio of two successive terms. In the first geometric sequence above a =, r = and in the second geometric sequence a =, r = 3. HELM (008): Section 6.: Sequences and Series 5

6 Task Find a, d for the arithmetic sequence 3, 9, 5,... a = d = a = 3, d = 6 Task Find a, r for the geometric sequence 8, 8 7, 8 49,... a = r = a = 8, r = 7 Task Write out the first four terms of the geometric series with a = 4, r =. 4, 8, 6, 3,... The reader should note that many sequences (for example the harmonic sequences) are neither arithmetic nor geometric. 6 HELM (008): Workbook 6: Sequences and Series

7 3. Series A series is the sum of the terms of a sequence. For example, the harmonic series is and the alternating harmonic series is The summation notation If we consider a general sequence a, a,..., a n,... then the sum of the first k terms a + a + a a k is concisely denoted by That is, k a + a + a a k = p= a p k p= a p. k When we encounter the expression a p we let the index p in the term a p take, in turn, the values,,..., k and then add all these terms together. So, for example p= 3 7 a p = a + a + a 3 a p = a + a 3 + a 4 + a 5 + a 6 + a 7 p= p= Note that p is a dummy index; any letter could be used as the index. For example 6 a m each represent the same collection of terms: a + a + a 3 + a 4 + a 5 + a 6. m= 6 a i, and i= In order to be able to use this summation notation we need to obtain a suitable expression for the typical term in the series. For example, the finite series k may be written as In the same way k p since the typical term is clearly p in which p =,, 3,..., k in turn. p= = p= ( ) p+ p since an expression for the typical term in this alternating harmonic series is a p = ( )p+. p HELM (008): Section 6.: Sequences and Series 7

8 Task Write in summation form the series First find an expression for the typical term, the p th term : a p = a p = p(p + ) Now write the series in summation form: = = p(p + ) p= Task Write out all the terms of the series 5 p= ( ) p (p + ). Give p the values,, 3, 4, 5 in the typical term 5 ( ) p (p + ) = p= ( )p (p + ) : 8 HELM (008): Workbook 6: Sequences and Series

9 4. Summing series The arithmetic series Consider the finite arithmetic series with 4 terms A simple way of working out the value of the sum is to create a second series which is the first written in reverse order. Thus we have two series, each with the same value A: and A = A = Now, adding the terms of these series in pairs A = = 8 4 = 39 so A = 96. We can use this approach to find the sum of n terms of a general arithmetic series. If A = [a] + [a + d] + [a + d] + + [a + (n )d] + [a + (n )d] then again simply writing the terms in reverse order: A = [a + (n )d] + [a + (n )d] + + [a + d] + [a + d] + [a] Adding these two identical equations together we have A = [a + (n )d] + [a + (n )d] + + [a + (n )d] That is, every one of the n terms on the right-hand side has the same value: [a + (n )d]. Hence A = n[a + (n )d] so A = n[a + (n )d]. Key Point The arithmetic series [a] + [a + d] + [a + d] + + [a + (n )d] having n terms has sum A where: A = n[a + (n )d] HELM (008): Section 6.: Sequences and Series 9

10 As an example has a =, d =, n = 4 So A = = 4 [ + (3)] = 96. The geometric series We can also sum a general geometric series. Let G = a + ar + ar + + ar n be a geometric series having exactly n terms. To obtain the value of G in a more convenient form we first multiply through by the common ratio r: rg = ar + ar + ar ar n Now, writing the two series together: G = a + ar + ar + + ar n rg = ar + ar + ar 3 + ar n + ar n Subtracting the second expression from the first we see that all terms on the right-hand side cancel out, except for the first term of the first expression and the last term of the second expression so that G rg = ( r)g = a ar n Hence (assuming r ) G = a( rn ) r (Of course, if r = the geometric series simplifies to a simple arithmetic series with d = 0 and has sum G = na.) The geometric series having n terms has sum G where Key Point 3 a + ar + ar + + ar n G = a( rn ), if r and G = na, if r = r 0 HELM (008): Workbook 6: Sequences and Series

11 Task Find the sum of each of the following series: (a) (b) (a) In this arithmetic series state the values of a, d, n: a = d = n = a =, d =, n = 00. Now find the sum: = = 50( + 99) = 50(0) = (b) In this geometric series state the values of a, r, n: a = r = n = a =, r = 3, n = 6 Now find the sum: = = ( ( ) ) = 3 4 ( ( ) ) 6 = HELM (008): Section 6.: Sequences and Series

12 Exercises. Which of the following sequences is convergent? (a) sin π, sin π, sin 3π, sin 4π,... (b) sin π π, sin π π, sin 3π 3π, sin 4π 4π,.... Write the following series in summation form: (a) (b) ln + ln ln 5 ln ( + (00) ) + 3 ( (00) ) 4 ( + (300) ) ( (800) ) 3. Write out the first three terms and the last term of the following series: (a) 7 p= 4. Sum the series: 3 p p!(8 p) (b) 7 p=4 (a) (b) ( p) p+ p( + p) (c) s. (a) no; this sequence is, 0,, 0,,... which does not converge. (b) yes; this sequence is. (a) 4 p= ln(p ) (p + )(p) π/, 0, 3π/, 0,,... which converges to zero. 5π/ (b) 8 p= 3. (a) 7, 3!(6), 3 3!(5),..., 36 7! ( ) p (p + )( + ( ) p+ p 0 4 ) (b) 45 (4)(6), 5 6 (5)(7), 67 (6)(8),..., 7 8 (7)(9) 4. (a) This is an arithmetic series with a = 5, d = 4, n = 9. A = 99 (b) This is an arithmetic series with a = 5, d = 4, n = 9. A = 89 (c) This is a geometric series with a =, r =, n = 6. G HELM (008): Workbook 6: Sequences and Series

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