Innovation Strategy for Education and Training: some reflections for Finland

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1 Helsinki, 14 September 2011 Innovation Strategy for Education and Training: some reflections for Finland Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin Senior Analyst & Project Leader OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

2 Outline The context Do innovation-driven economies require more educated populations? What qualifications do innovative businesses need? How do innovative businesses use their workforce skills? What individual skills should education systems foster? Do education systems and pedagogies foster simultaneously all skills for innovation? Do higher education systems empower people to innovate? Conclusive speculations: what could we do?

3 The context OECD Innovation Strategy and OECD Skills Strategy Importance of innovation for growth Essential role of human resources: skills for innovation and use of these skills CERI Innovation Strategy for Education and Training: Education and skills for innovation Innovation in education

4 OECD Innovation Strategy: Launch at Ministerial Council Meeting 2010 One principle (empowering people to innovate) and 2 horizontal reports: The OECD Innovation Strategy. Getting a head start on tomorrow Measuring Innovation. A new perspective CERI s project: Skills and Education for Innovation Innovation in Education

5 Do innovation-driven economies require more educated populations?

6 Creative destruction

7 Likelihood of participation in adult education, year olds by literacy level, 2003 Odds ratios (ref. = level 1, adjusted for educational attainement) Level 4/5 Level 3 Level 2 Level United States Canada Switzerland Italy Bermuda Norway Source: Adult Literacy and Life skills survey, 2003

8 Informal learning by level of education Per cent of populations aged participating in active mode of informal learning, by education attainment, Less than upper secondary Upper secondary Post-secondary, non-tertiary Tertiary (Level 5B) Tertiary (Level 5A or higher) Total Switzerland Bermuda Norway United States Canada Italy Source: Adult Literacy and Life skills survey, 2003

9 Employment structure in selected countries in 1980 Source: Michael et al.

10 Employment structure in selected countries in 2004 Source: Michael et al.

11 What qualifications do innovative businesses need?

12 Share of innovative companies reporting that lack of qualified personnel hampers innovation (2006) Source: CIS

13 Critical factors hampering innovation (odds ratios: innovative vs. non-innovative (ref)) Lack of finance from sources outside your enterprise Lack of qualified personnel Lack of funds within your enterprise or enterprise group Innovation costs too high Lack of information on markets Difficulty in finding cooperation partners for innovation Lack of information on technology Markets dominated by established enterprises Uncertain demand for innovative goods or services No need to innovate due to prior innovations 0.44 No need to innovate because no demand for innovations Source: OECD, based on CIS data

14 Diversity of qualifications for innovation across sectors Mining Electricity, Water, Gas Finance and insurance

15 What tertiary education studies lead to active participation in innovation? Innovator work in innov. comp. Not in innovative organisation 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data

16 How do innovative businesses use their workforce skills?

17 Distribution of employees across organisation classes (2005) Learning Lean Taylorist Traditional 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Sweden Norway Denmark Netherlands Austria Malta France Finland Luxembourg Germany Ireland Belgium Estonia Hungary Italy Latvia Slovenia Poland UK Czech Republic Slovakia Cyprus Portugal Lithuania Romania Greece Spain Bulgaria Source: OECD, Innovative Workplaces

18 Learning organisations are associated with lead innovation (2000) Discretionary learning Lean organisation 30 FI 30 FI 25 DE LU SE 25 SE DE LU % Lead innovators PT GR IT FR BE AT DK NL % Lead innovators NL AT DK BE IT GR PT FR 10 UK 10 UK 5 ES R² = % Discretionary learning 5 ES R² = % Lean organisation

19 Learning organisations are associated with lead innovation (2005) Discretionary learning Lean organisation LU LU % New-to-market innovation PT BG ES GR CY LT RO SK CZ UK PL SI FI BE IE DE EE IT LV HU AT MT NL DK SE R² = 0.29 % new to market innovation SE HU DE SK AT NL CY BE IE DK CZ IT BG ES FI GR EE PT UK SI MT LT PL LV RO % Discretionary learning 0 R² = % Lean organisation

20 What individual skills should education systems foster?

21 Individual Skills for Innovation What individual competences should people acquire to contribute to innovation as producers and users? Subject-based skills (know-what and knowhow) Behavioural and social skills (Self-confidence, energy, perseverance, passion, leadership, collaboration, communication) Skills in thinking and creativity (Critical thinking, ability to make connections, imagination, curiosity,...)

22 Critical skills for the most innovative jobs (according to tertiary-educated workers) Likelihood (odds ratios) of reporting the following job requirements: people in the most innovative jobs vs. least innovative jobs come with news ideas/solutions acquire new knowledge willingness to question ideas alertness to opportunities present ideas in audience analytical thinking master of your own field coordinate activities write and speak a foreign language use computers and internet make your meaning clear use time efficiently mobilize capacities of others work productively with others write reports or documents perform under pressure knowledge of other fields negociate assert your authority Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data

23 What challenges for education decision-makers and teachers? Curriculum How broad/narrow? Should some specific fields be privileged? Pedagogy Are some pedagogies more effective in fostering simultaneously all the valued skills? Assessment How to give equal weight in assessments to all sets of skills for innovation? Can we develop new assessment tools that will help teachers to assess progress in creativity, critical thinking, and social and behavioural skills?

24 Do education systems and pedagogies foster simultaneously all skills for innovation?

25 Do countries foster simultaneously subject-based and behavioural skills? Example: Science scores and interest in science are not always fostered simultaneously Interest in Science Topics LOW SCORE HIGH INTEREST IDN BRA MEX TUR CHL RUS PRT GRC ESP ITA FRA MAC 520 SVK DEU HUN ISR LUX AUT SVN JPN 500 POL BEL CHE EST CZE KOR 480 USA IRL NOR AUS CAN ISL GBR 460 DNK NZL LOW SCORE FIN HIGH SCORE SWE LOW INTEREST NLD LOW INTEREST HKG HIGH SCORE HIGH INTEREST Science Score

26 Pedagogies for innovation skills Science score Interest in Science Topics

27 Pedagogies for innovation skills Science Enjoyment Science Self-Efficacy

28 Do higher education systems empower people to innovate?

29 How does university education prepare for different types of jobs? Percentage of tertiary-educated workers considering their studies as a good basis for 70.0% Not in innovative company work in innov. comp. Innovator 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% starting work learning on the job Performing in current work tasks development of entrepreneurial skills Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data

30 The viewpoint of Finnish innovators Percentage of tertiary-educated workers highly involved in innovation considering their studies as a good basis for FIN Country mean 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% starting work learning on the job Performing in current work tasks development of entrepreneurial skills Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data

31 How do Finnish innovators assess university education for developing different skills? Rank of strengths (1-8 out of 19) Rank of weaknesses (1-8 out of 19) FIN Country mean FIN Country mean master of your own field assert your authority analytical thinking negociate acquire new knowledge write and speak a foreign language write reports or documents knowledge of other fields use computers and internet present ideas in audience work productively with others mobilize capacities of others come with news ideas/solutions come with news ideas/solutions write and speak a foreign language willingness to question ideas Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data

32 Conclusive speculations: what could we do?

33 Some suggestions Continue to support access to tertiary education and to fight early drop out Continue to support research and policy programmes to promote learning organisations Broaden the vision of who contributes to innovation Try to develop skills in thinking and creativity and behavioural and social skills Enhance interest in science: more «application» in teaching Put in place pedagogies in higher education that involves more opportunities to present and question ideas and to broaden knowledge to other fields (Aalto University?)

34 Innovative Workplaces Making better use of skills within organisations Introduction Chapter 1. Defining learning organisations and learning cultures Chapter 2. Mapping learning organisations and their characteristics for the European Union Chapter 3. Measuring trends: the work complexity paradox Chapter 4. Behind innovation: employer and employee trade-offs Conclusion

35 THANK YOU

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