The London experience:

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1 The London experience: low emission zones, congestion charging and other air quality management measures Ben Barratt, King s College London Better Air Quality 2012, Hong Kong, 6 th December 2012

2 How can Asian cities learn from London s experience? London seen as the birthplace of air pollution. A European megacity that is still struggling with many of the same air quality issues as growing Asian cities. A wide range of AQM initiatives have been tested over the past 60 years. Evidence of their impact exists from a comprehensive monitoring network allowing Asian policy makers to evaluate their worth and execution. 2

3 Air quality management in London 1. Fuel controls industrial, domestic and vehicular. 2. Emissions controls Euro emissions standards, exhaust technology, public and private vehicle fleets 3. Traffic management Congestion Charging Scheme, Low Emission Zone, taxation (road, parking and fuel). 4. Clean-up solutions TiO 2, dust suppressants, green walls. 5. Social solutions public awareness, financial incentives, scrappage scheme 3

4 Why do we need evidence for initiatives? Accountability is an important part of policy formation. Ensures efficient use of resources. Develops best practise for use elsewhere. Identifies unexpected side effects. Helps to show the public that a policy was effective and therefore worthwhile. The following results are taken from measurements, not models! 4

5 1. Fuel controls an end to the great smogs Annual average smoke and SO 2 in London 1950 to 2000 Dramatic improvement in air quality. Primarily driven by fuel prices, not legislation (cheap gas)? Source: Greater London Authority,

6 1. Fuel controls more successes Lead in fuel Low and ultra low sulphur fuel (SO 2 and particle number) Both led to a dramatic stepped decrease in concentration. Source: Jones et al,

7 2. Exhaust emissions control have Euro standards been successful? Source: Fuller et al,

8 2. Exhaust emissions control Why have improvements stalled? Increased market share of diesel. Emissions testing not reflecting real world. Source: Carslaw et al, 2011

9 3. Traffic management The London Congestion Charging Scheme (2003) Payment scheme introduced to cut levels of traffic in central London, not an environmental initiative. Sustained immediate drop in vehicle numbers. Little impact on air quality due to small area covered (22 km 2, 14%) and a shift to diesel fuelled public transport. Decrease in NO, but increase in roadside NO 2 due to introduction of regenerating particle traps on buses. Western Extension removed with a change in Mayor. 9

10 3. Traffic management - The London Low Emission Zone (2008) The primary aim was to reduce PM 10 by targeting the most heavily polluting diesel vehicles. Largest LEZ in the world - covers an area of 2644 km 2 in which more than 8 million people reside. Four phases to date with increasing fleet coverage and stricter Euro emissions standard (HGV Euro IV, LGV Euro III). Compliance rates > 90%. 15% / 1 µg m -3 per year decrease in concentrations of black carbon and non-regional PM 2.5 at roadside locations (2006-9). No measurable LEZ-related impact on primary PM 10 found. 10

11 3. Traffic management - how much of PM 10 is HGV tailpipe? c. 15% of total PM 10 mass is Elemental Carbon But does it have >15% of the health impact? Source: Barratt et al,

12 Mean difference between CD5 and ILBG mean NO / ppb 4. Clean-up solutions Methods of removing pollutants from the urban environment through contact with a treated surface. Titanium dioxide coatings, dust suppressants and green walls have been evaluated. May have a role in specific situations that maximise impact. 70 pre-treatment post-treatment covered Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Source: Barratt et al,

13 5. Social solutions Air quality has been relatively low on the political agenda in the UK, less so in London. Education, empowerment and engagement allows the public to make an informed choice. Makes the survival of tough policies more likely (and the politicians proposing them). Poor air quality probably causes more mortality and morbidity than passive smoking, road traffic accidents or obesity. Yet it receives little or no attention in the media and scant attention in Parliament. [House of Commons, 2010]

14 Conclusions Asian cities have the opportunity to learn from London s experience. Fuel controls have consistently produced the greatest beneficial impact. Improvements due to exhaust emission controls have stalled due to misleading emissions standards and increased diesel market share. Traffic controls practically and politically possible, big is better, LEZs dependent on exhaust emissions standards (see above). Clean up solutions prevention is better than cure; may have a very limited health benefit on an urban scale. Climate change actions are often, but not always win-win. Remember that improved public health is the ultimate aim, not achieving a particular QS at a particular monitoring site! 14

15 Thank you Source: Getty Images

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