Last Time: Neutralization Equations

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1 Announcements & Agenda (0/8/07) You should be reading Ch 10! and Ch 11! Open review pm! Quiz on Friday! Today Introduction to Organic Chemistry (10.1) Alkanes (10.), Properties of Alkanes (10.4) Substituents (10.) Last Time: Neutralization Equations In the equation for neutralization, an acid and a base produce a salt and water. acid Cl base + NaO salt Cl + Ca(O) CaCl water NaCl + O + O Balance these like any other reaction! 1 Last Time: Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs For ALL acid base reactions, there are conjugate acid-base pairs. Each pair is related by the loss and gain of +. One pair occurs in the forward direction. One pair occurs in the reverse direction. conjugate acid-base pair 1 Last Time: Buffers Buffer action occurs as the weak acid in a buffer neutralizes base. the conjugate base in the buffer neutralizes acid. the p of the solution is maintained. A + B A + B + conjugate acid-base pair 4 1

2 Calculate the ml of.00 M SO 4 required to neutralize 50.0 ml of 1.00 M KO. SO 4 (aq)) + KO(aq aq) ) K SO 4 (aq)) + O(l) 0% 1) 1.5 ml 0% ) 50.0 ml 0% ) 00. ml Solution 1) 1.5 ml L KO x 1.00 mole KO x 1 mole SO 4 1 L KO mole KO 1 L SO 4 x 1000 ml = 1.5 ml.00 mole SO 4 1 L SO 4 x Chapter 10: Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Alkanes Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many atoms. may also contain O, S, N, and halogens. 7 8

3 Organic Compounds Organic vs. Inorganic Typical organic compounds have covalent bonds. have low melting points. have low boiling points. are flammable. are soluble in nonpolar solvents. are usually not soluble in water. oil (organic) and water (inorganic) 9 Propane, C 8, is an organic compound used as a fuel. NaCl, salt, is an inorganic compound composed of Na + and Cl - ions. 10 Comparing Organic and Inorganic Compounds Alkanes (C n n+ ) 11 1

4 Some Properties of Alkanes Alkanes are nonpolar. insoluble in water. less dense than water. flammable in air. Some Properties of Alkanes Alkanes with 1-41 carbon atoms are methane, ethane, propane, & butane. gases at room temperature. used as heating fuels Some Properties of Alkanes Some Properties of Alkanes Alkanes with carbon atoms are liquids at room temperature. pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane. very volatile. used to make gasoline. Alkanes with carbon atoms are liquids at room temperature have higher boiling points. are found in kerosene, diesel, and jet Alkanes with 18 or more carbon atoms have high molar masses. are waxy solids at room temperature. used in waxy coatings of fruits and vegetables. fuels

5 Intermolecular Forces Combustion In combustion reactions, alkanes react with oxygen. CO, O and energy are produced. Alkane + O CO + O + heat Melting (blue) and boiling (pink) points of the first 14 n-alkanes in C Writing Formulas of Alkanes In organic compounds carbon has 4 valence electrons and hydrogen has 1. C to achieve an octet, C forms four bonds. : C : C C 4, methane Tetrahedral Structure of Carbon VSEPR theory predicts that a carbon atom with four single, covalent bonds, has a tetrahedral shape

6 Tetrahedral Structure of Carbon In molecules with two or more carbon atoms, each carbon atom with four single bonds has a tetrahedral shape. Names of Alkanes The names of alkanes are determined by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) system. end in ane. with carbons in a chain use prefixes as follows. Name # Carbons Structural Formula Methane 1 C 4 Ethane Propane C Butane 4 C C 1 Names of Alkanes Alkanes with carbon atoms in a chain use Greek prefixes. Name # Carbons Structural Formula Pentane 5 exane 6 eptane 7 C C C C C C C C C C C C Octane 8 C C C C C C Nonane 9 C C C C C C C Decane 10 C C C C C C C C Getting ziggy with it. exane is an alkane with six carbon atoms in a continuous chain. has a zig zig-zag look because each carbon atom is at the center of a tetrahedron. is represented by a ball-and and-stick model as shown below. 4 6

7 Four Ways to Represent the Structures of Organic Compounds 1... elp with Geometric (Line) Structures (Know how to draw these!!!) 1. All bonds except C- C bonds are shown as lines.. C- bonds are NOT SOWN on the line structure.. Single bonds are shown as single lines; double bonds are shown as lines; triple bonds are shown as lines. 4. Carbon atoms are not labeled. 5. ALL atoms EXCEPT carbon and hydrogen are labeled with their elemental symbols. 6. atoms are labeled when they are attached to any atom other than carbon. Example: -C -C -O O 4. Line Structures - See next slide 5 6 Cycloalkanes (C n n ) are cyclic alkanes. have two hydrogen atoms fewer than the open chain. are named by using the prefix cyclo- before the name of the alkane chain with the same number of carbon atoms. Cycloalkanes The structural formulas of cycloalkanes are usually represented by geometric figures, Cyclopropane Cyclobutane 7 8 7

8 have the same molecular formula. Isomers of Butane have different atom arrangements. of butane (C 4 10 are a straight chain and a branched chain. 10 ) Alkyl groups alkanes that are missing one. substituents attached to carbon chains. named with a yl ending. C C C C methyl ethyl 9 0 Naming Substituents Naming Alkanes In the IUPAC system, a carbon branch is named as an alkyl group. halogen atoms are named as halo. TABLE 10.6 Give the name of STEP 1 C C C C Name the longest continuous chain. C C C C butane 1 8

9 Naming Alkanes Learning Check Give the name of STEP C C C C Number chain. C C C C 1 4 STEP Locate substituents and name.,-dimethyl dimethylbutane Write the name of Cl C C C C C 4 STEP 1 STEP Solution Longest chain is pentane. Number from end nearest substituent. Cl C C C C C STEP Locate substituents and name alphabetically. -chloro--methylpentane 5 9

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