Law to regulate Vehicle Exhaust in Japan

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1 Law to regulate Vehicle Exhaust in Japan 23 June 2015 Environmental Transport Policy Division, Environmental Management Bureau, Ministry of the Environment

2 Contents 1. Background and Framework of Air Pollution Regulations in Japan 2. Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Regulations Vehicle Unit Regulations (Air Pollution Control Law, the Off-Road Act) Emission Volume Control (Automobile NOx/PM Law)

3 1. Background and Framework of Air Pollution Regulations in Japan

4 History of Air Pollution in Japan Late 19th Century The Meiji Period ( ) 20th Century World War II Tokyo Olympic Games Special Session of the Parliament on Pollution Issues UN Rio Earth Summit 21st Century Today Mining (e.g. Ashio Copper Mines) Rapid Economic Growth Period Coal 4 Major Pollution- Related Diseases Occurred Industrial Pollution Oil Automobiles Pollution in Urban & Living Environment CO2 Emissions from Automobiles Automotive Environmental Problems Air Pollution Noise & Vibrations Global Environmental Problems

5 Transition of Air Pollution Regulations in Japan Late 19th Century The Meiji Period ( ) 20th Century World War II Tokyo Olympic Games Special Session of the Parliament on Pollution Issues UN Rio Earth Summit 21st Century Today Ordinances for Prevention of Domestic Air Pollution Tokyo (1949): Industrial Pollution Control Ordinance Osaka (1950): Business Establishment Pollution Control Ordinance Kanagawa (1951): Business Establishment Pollution Control Ordinance, etc. Basic Law System for National Air Pollution Smoke and Soot Regulation Law (1962) Air Pollution Control Law (1968) Basic Law for Environmental Pollution (1967) Basic Environment Law (1993) Law for Special issues About air pollution caused by Automobiles Studded Tires Regulation Law (1990) Automobile NOx Law (1992) Automobile NOx/PM Law (2001) The Off-Road Act (2005)

6 Impact of Vehicles on the Air Environment The major factors of recent air pollution are exhaust emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles. [No. of Vehicle Ownership] [Ratio of Emissions by Source of Substances] (Kanto Region, MOE Estimates as of 2011) Special Vehicles Buses Trucks Passenger Vehicles Others 26% NOx 376,000t Vehicles 36% Factories 38% Others 29% PM 21,000t Vehicles 29% Factories 42%

7 Air quality in Japan NO 2 SPM Annual Average[ppm] Annual Average[ppm] Fiscal Year Fiscal Year General Air Pollution Monitoring Stations Roadside Air Pollution Monitoring Stations General Air Pollution Monitoring Stations Roadside Air Pollution Monitoring Stations Air quality has been improved in general, however there remain still some areas, where it should be further improved, mainly in metropolitan areas.

8 2. Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Regulations <Vehicle Unit Regulations> 1. Permissible Limits by Air Pollution Control Law 2. Standards by Road Transport Vehicles Law 3. Act on Regulation, Etc. of Emissions from Non-Road Special Motor Vehicles (so-called The Off-Road Act )

9 Legal Structure of Vehicle Emissions Regulations Basic Environment Law (1993) * Former Basic Law for Environmental Pollution (1967) Establishment of Environmental Quality Standards for Air Air Pollution Control Law (1968) Constant monitoring of air quality Regulation on fixed sources of emissions Regulation on mobile sources of emissions (with permissible limits, since1971) Act on Regulation, Etc. of Emissions from Non-road Special Motor Vehicles (the Off-Road Act ) (2005) Exhaust gas emissions regulation on non-road special vehicles The Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter from Automobiles in Specified Areas (The Automobile NOx/PM Law) (1992) Exhaust gas emissions regulation in major cities, including Tokyo

10 Framework of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Emissions Regulations Report of Central Environment Council Air Pollution Control Law (Ministry of the Environment) <Exhaust Gas> Permissible limits of exhaust gas emissions from vehicles <Fuel Properties> Permissible limits of fuel properties Consideration of Ensuring Permissible Limits Road Transport Vehicles Law (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) Safety and environmental regulation of vehicles driving on public roads Act on Regulation, Etc. of Emissions from Non-road Special Motor Vehicles (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism; and Ministry of the Environment) Exhaust gas emissions regulation of special vehicles not permitted to drive on public roads Act on the Quality Control of Gasoline and Other Fuels (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) Standards for gasoline and diesel oils

11 Change in Figures of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Emissions Regulation While taking into consideration of the progress in technological R&D for emissions reduction, stricter regulations have been phased in for improving air quality deteriorated by hazardous air pollutants The 2009 Regulation for heavy diesel vehicles has been introduced, aiming to reduce NOx and PM emissions to 1/3 of the previous level The forthcoming regulation will reinforce up to the EURO IV levels in 2016 A regulation for sulfur content within diesel, which affects the performance of exhaust gas processing units, has also been implemented Regulation figures for sulfur content in diesel emissions Regulation figures for PM in heavy diesel emissions 12,000 ppm Reduction Ratio (%) Reduction Ratio (%) Reduction ratio (%) 5,000 ppm (from 1976) 2,000 ppm (from 1992) 500 ppm (from 1997) Change in NOx Regulation Figures (Heavy Diesel Vehicles) 50 ppm (from 2005) 10 ppm (from 2007) Change in Regulation Figures for Sulfur Content in Diesel Emissions and PM in Heavy Diesel Emissions)

12 Vehicle Inspection and Type-Approval Systems Vehicles must meet the safety standards set out in the Road Transport Vehicles Law for preventing pollution and securing safety. Vehicles must be inspected and issued with an effective vehicle inspection certificate in order to be driven on public roads. For production vehicles, the specific type of vehicles are approved by testing for consistency of the system and designated upon receipt of application from automobile manufacturers (Type-Approval System). The type-approved vehicles are then allowed to bypass the testing procedure for new vehicle inspections. New Vehicle Vehicle inspection omitted with Type-Approval System 3 Years (Passenger Vehicles) In-Use Vehicle 2 Years (Passenger Vehicles) Vehicle inspection omitted with Vehicle Maintenance Business Approval System Tracks Buses, Taxis Validity on Vehicle Inspection Certificate Type 8 ton or more 8 ton or less Light Cargo Vehicles, Large Special Vehicles Private Passenger Vehicles, Light Passenger Vehicles, Small Motorcycles Effective Period 1st Time 1 Year 2 Years 1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 2nd Time and After 1 Year 1 Year 1 Year 2 Years 2 Years

13 Enhanced Regulations for Special Motor Vehicles Reinforcement of emissions regulations will be phased in at two stages in 2011 & 2014 (1) Comparison of regulation figures before and after the amendment [Example] Rated Output Vehicles between 130 kw and 560 kw PM regulation figures will be 1/10 of the previous regulation, among other gases. Nonmethane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Particular Matter (PM) Before After Before After Before After (-53%) (2) Comparison of EU and US regulation figures (Reference) (-44%) Japanese regulation figures are equal to, or stricter than, EU and US figures. [Unit: g/kwh] (-88%) PM EU (Stage III A) USA (Tier 3) Japan (The 2006 Regulation) (PM SCALE 1/10) PM 0.01 EU(Stage III B) Japan (The 2011 Regulation) USA (InterimTier 4) NOx+HC (Before Amendment) NOx+HC (After Amendment)

14 3. Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Regulations <Reduction in Overall Volume> The Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter from Automobiles in Specified Areas (The Automobile NOx/PM Law)

15 Highly polluted area in Japan

16 Automobile NOx/PM Law = Special measures for air pollution in metropolitan areas Target Areas Metropolitan Area - Tokyo metropolitan area, Nagoya, Osaka, and Kobe Goal To comply with EQS (NO 2 & SPM) by 2015 Measures Restriction of outdated vehicles renewed registration Vehicles Management Plan by Enterprises Other measures by local governments or road managers 16

17 Aichi and Mie district Osaka and Hyogo district Tokyo district

18 Co-operative Framework of Automobile NOx/PM Law Total Emission Reduction Basic Policy by National Governments Total Emission Reduction Master Plan by Prefectural Government Checking the progress of measures Instruct the vehicle usage management of enterprises Announcement To rational use of vehicles etc. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Regulation for registration of Vehicles Improvement of road system, transport system Control of traffic demand etc. Ministries governing specific business category Define the Guideline in order to decrease automobile emission from the business activity Promotion of Low Emission Vehicles 18

19 Outline of Vehicle Category Regulations = Exhaust gas regulations for vehicles already in Use Objects: Trucks, busses, diesel passenger vehicles, etc. Regulated values: For diesel passenger vehicles and trucks and buses not over 3.5 tons Equivalent to the values for gasoline powered vehicles For trucks and buses over 3.5 tons Equivalent to the values for the newest diesel powered vehicles of the day (vehicles conforming to long-term regulations) Vehicles exceeding the regulated values: Registration is not allowed (Renewal of the automobile safety inspection is not allowed). Grace period from the first registration: The grace period is determined according to the category of vehicle. 19

20 Emission Standards of Automobile NOx/PM Reduction Law These special standards, which are classified by gross vehicle weights, are aimed at making the rule of motor vehicle models that emit lower volumes of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter mandatory. The standards are equivalent to... Diesel passenger cars NOx: 1978 Gasoline vehicle PM: 2005 Diesel vehicle Buses, trucks, etc. (diesel, gasoline, LPG) -1.7t (GVW) t t 3.5t- NOx: 1988 Gasoline vehicle PM: 2005 Diesel vehicle NOx: 1994 Gasoline vehicle PM: 2005 Diesel vehicle NOx: 1995 Gasoline vehicle PM: 2005 Diesel vehicle NOx: Diesel vehicle PM: Diesel vehicle 20

21 Effects of Vehicle Type Restriction While the compliance rate for emissions regulations has increased yearly, the ratio outside the targeted areas is half that of the targeted areas and diffusion of vehicles that comply with emissions regulations in these non-targeted areas remain low. Emissions Regulations Compliance Rate Passenger Diesel Vehicles Buses Small Trucks Trucks Vehicles with Special Purposes Total Emissions Regulations Compliance Rate Passenger Diesel Vehicles Buses Small Trucks Trucks Vehicles with Special Purposes Total Targeted Areas in 8 Prefectures Non-Targeted Areas in 8 Prefectures

22 Amendment of Automobile NOx/PM Law Expanding to surrounding areas for obligation of measures Conventional area for obligation Newly expanded area for obligation ( Surrounding area ) Priority area of measures for inflow vehicles Vehicle operation Businesses in surrounding area Flow of designation of surrounding area 1. Priority area of measures for inflow vehicles is designated 2. Surrounding area where many vehicles inflow to the above area is designated

23 Examples of Measures for Localized Pollution Zones Concentrated Unloading Areas Advanced Traffic Light Control System Designated Right-Turn Lanes Improvement in Existing Road System Widened Roads Ensuring Greater Open Space Aim for improvement in urban air quality via measures for localized pollution zones including promotion of LEVs and traffic flow management (an integrated approach, urban air quality management leading toward measures for global warming, is encouraged). 28

24 Compliance Stickers for the Automobile NOx/PM Law 1. Overview of the System Compliance Stickers are created for trucks, buses and other vehicles in compliance with emissions regulations of the Automobile NOx/PM Law within the Targeted Areas, in order to raise public awareness and promote the use of such compliant vehicles (effective from January 2008 on). 2. Sticker Design The Stickers are available in two types: Automobile NOx- PM Law-Compliant (w/ New Long-Term Regulation from 2005 on) Automobile NOx- PM Law-Compliant 3. Application of Compliance Stickers (1) Area: Nationwide (2) Type of Vehicles: Diesel non-passenger vehicles with total weight of 3.5t or more (3) Existing emissions control stickers (e.g., the 2005 Regulation of 10% NOx reduction) are also effective as alternatives 30

25 Reviewing the Automobile NOx/PM Law Supplementary provisions for the 2007 Amendment The government is to examine regulations of the Law according to the conditions of EQSs achievement and make due amendments The target, Attaining the EQS at most of the monitoring stations by FY2010, is deemed to be sufficiently attainable The target of the Law is to maintain the EQSs, and thus further actions are necessary for achieving 100% in the future March 2011: Change in Guideline for Total Emissions Control Points of Change Change of target to "Maintaining the EQSs in Targeted Areas (Stable and Throughout-the-Area Achievement)" Review in designation of Priority District for Special Measures Strengthen coordination among parties concerned

26 Municipal Initiatives on Driving Regulations Automobile NOx/PM Law Tokyo Metropolitan Area Osaka Prefecture Hyogo Prefecture Emission Regulation Substances NOx, PM PM NOx, PM NOx, PM Details Restrict registration of vehicles that do not comply with emission regulation in the Targeted Areas Restrict the operation of vehicles that do not comply with emission regulation in the Area Restrict stopover of vehicles that do not comply with emissions regulation in the targeted area Restrict the operation of vehicles that do not comply with emissions regulation in the designated area Targeted Vehicles Trucks, Buses, Passenger Vehicles Trucks, Buses (Diesel Only) Trucks, Buses Trucks, Buses (heavy vehicles only) Date of Implementa tion 2002 (New Vehicles) 2003 (In-Use Vehicles) Means of Enforcement Vehicle inspection system On-the-spot inspections and roadside inspections by municipal officials Check by consignor and others (w/ penaltiy), on-the-spot inspections by prefectural officials On-the-spot inspections and roadside inspections by prefectural officials, instructions for consignors and others

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