PSI Biology Anatomy & Physiology

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1 Anatomy & Physiology Tissues Classwork 1. Arrange the following in order from least complex to most complex: organ, tissue, cell, organism, organ system. 2. List the four major groups of tissues in animals. 3. Describe the location, structure, and function of epithelial tissue. 4. Define basement membrane. 5. List the six major types of connective tissue. 6. What characteristic differentiates smooth muscle tissue from skeletal muscle tissue? 7. What is the primary function of nervous tissue? Homework 8. Define tissue. 9. Define organ. 10. Draw and describe the following types of epithelial tissues: a. simple cuboidal epithelium b. stratified squamous epithelium c. simple columnar epithelium 11. Bone and blood are both examples of which type of tissue? 12. What are the three major types of muscle tissue? 13. Define neuron. Organ Systems Classwork 14. How many organ systems are there in the human body? 15. What are the six major functions of the integumentary system? 16. List the three layers of skin from outermost to innermost. 17. Identify an organism that has each skeletal type: a. Hydroskeleton b. Exoskeleton c. Endoskeleton 18. Describe three functions of the muscular system. 19. What are the two major divisions of the nervous system? 20. What are hormones? 21. Where is the hypothalamus located and what is its function? 22. Bone marrow, tonsils, the spleen, and the appendix are all components of which system? 23. What is the function of the respiratory system? 24. What is the primary respiratory organ in humans called? What structure protects this organ? 25. Describe the four main processes of the urinary system. 26. What is the function of the digestive system? 27. What are the four stages of food processing? 28. What is the alimentary canal? 29. Why do large or complex animals need a circulatory system? 30. As red blood cells pass through the capillaries, they exchange materials with tissues. What important molecules do red blood cells deliver to tissues, and what molecules do they take up as waste for removal?

2 31. What are the three basic components of a circulatory system? 32. How many chambers does the mammalian heart have? 33. One of the main functions of the circulatory system is defense. Which type of blood cells are involved are involved in this function? 34. Which types of blood cells are responsible for delivering oxygen to tissues? Homework 35. The skull, vertebral column, and thorax make up which region of the human skeleton? 36. True or false: one of the primary functions of the skeletal system is to protect organs. 37. Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary muscles. 38. How are muscles attached to bones? 39. What are the three main functions of the nervous system? 40. Define cephalization. 41. What is the main function of the endocrine system? 42. What are the two main functions of the lymphatic system? 43. What type of epithelial tissue lines the alveoli? 44. Fish gills are analogous to (can be compared to) which structure in humans? 45. What are the five regions of the alimentary canal? 46. How is food digested and pushed through the canal? 47. What is the function of accessory organs within the digestive system? 48. What structures differentiate a simple digestive system from a complex digestive system? 49. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms (arteries, capillaries, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and veins): A(n) molecule leaves the heart, traveling through until it reaches and diffuses into tissues. A(n) molecule created as a bi-product of cellular respiration diffuses from tissues to and is then transported through back to the heart. 50. Differentiate between a closed circulatory system and an open circulatory system. 51. What blood cellular element is responsible for blood clotting? 52. How do hormones reach tissues? Homeostasis Classwork 53. What is negative feedback and how does it help the human body maintain homeostasis? 54. Differentiate between ectotherms and endotherms. 55. How do endotherms maintain their body temperature? Homework 56. Explain how thermoregulation allows an organism to maintain homeostasis. 57. Give an example of a positive feedback system. 58. Predict which organism would have a higher rate of cellular respiration: a rat or an iguana?

3 Free Response 1. The human heart pumps blood through the circulatory system, delivering oxygen and other molecules to body s cells and removing waste. a. Relate the process of diffusion, osmosis, and cellular respiration to the circulatory system. b. The circulatory system, like all other body systems, is interconnected with the body s other organ systems. Explain how the circulatory system works in conjunction with 3 other organ systems. c. Explain the differences you would expect to find between the circulatory system of a human and that of a fly. 2. Describe the actions and interactions of the body s organ system to complete the following behaviors. a. Eat your lunch at a table in the cafeteria. b. Open your locker. c. Sweat while playing basketball. 3. Animals maintain relatively constant conditions in their internal environment through a process known as homeostasis. a. Distinguish ectotherms from endotherms. Which would be better adapted for the desert biome? Which would be better adapted for the tundra? b. Discuss how endotherms maintain their internal temperature. What type of feedback system is occurring? c. Discuss how ectotherm maintain their internal temperature. What type of feedback system is occurring?

4 Anatomy & Physiology Answer Key 1. Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism 2. Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous 3. Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces and lines internal organs and body cavities. It is made up of cells packed very tightly together cover and protect surfaces. Some types of epithelial tissue is thin and allows for diffusion of materials, other tissue is thicker to protect structures from damage. 4. A dense layer of proteins and polysaccharides that anchors epithelial tissue to underlying tissues. 5. Cartilage, bone, blood, hematopoietic, lymphatic, and adipose 6. Skeletal muscle tissue is striated due to the arrangement of contractile cells and movement of skeletal muscle is voluntary, smooth muscle tissue lacks striations and movement is involuntary. 7. To sense and respond to external and internal stimuli 8. A group of cells that work together to perform a specific function. 9. Two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific task. 10. a. simple cuboidal epithelium single layer of cube-shaped cells b. stratified squamous epithelium multiple layers of flat cells c. simple columnar epithelium a single layer of tall, thin cells 11. Connective tissue. 12. Smooth, skeletal, cardiac 13. A neuron is a nerve cell the structural and functional unit of the nervous system The six major functions of the integumentary system are to protect internal body structures, regulate body temperature, excrete nitrogenous waste, provide a reservoir for blood to travel through, allow animals to sense their surroundings, and produce vitamin D. 16. Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis. 17. a. Hydroskeleton - jellyfish b. Exoskeleton insects, arthropods c. Endoskeleton mammals 18. Body movement, maintaining posture, producing heat. 19. The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. 20. Hormones are chemical signals that regulate different body functions. 21. They hypothalamus is a tiny gland located in the brain that secrete multiple hormones that regulate the function of other endocrine glands. 22. The lymphatic system. 23. Exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body 24. The lungs which are protected by the rib cage 25. Filtration water and other small molecules in blood stream pass through capillaries into kidneys; reabsorption water and valuable solutes are returned to the blood stream; secretion toxins and other substances are transported into the filtrate; elimination - urine produced by filtration and secretion passes from the kidneys and is eliminated from the body. 26. Ingestion and digestion of food to be converted into energy. 27. Ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination

5 28. The alimentary canal is a tube through which food moves to be ingested, digested, absorbed, and eliminated. 29. A circulatory system provides an efficient transport system to deliver nutrients and oxygen to all tissues and remove waste products. Diffusion alone will not allow materials to enter and exit large or complex animals quickly enough. 30. Red blood cells deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove carbon dioxide and other waste products. 31. Circulatory fluid like blood or hemolymph, a set of tubes for the blood to travel through like blood vessels, and muscular pump like the heart. 32. Four chambers 33. White blood cells or leukocytes are involved in the body s defense system. 34. Red blood cells or erythrocytes main function is to transport oxygen. 35. The axial skeleton. 36. True 37. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles that are normally controlled as the animal wills them to move, while involuntary muscles like smooth and cardiac muscle tissues are automatically controlled by the nervous system. 38. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. 39. Sensory input, integration of sensory signals, and motor output. 40. Concentration of nervous tissue at the head end of an animal. 41. The endocrine system secretes chemical hormones that regulate a variety of body functions. 42. Return interstitial or tissue fluid to the circulatory system and fight infection. 43. Simple squamous 44. Lungs 45. Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, intestine, anus 46. Food is chewed and then pushed along the alimentary canal by peristalsis, rhythmic contractions of smooth muscles in the wall of the canal. 47. Accessory organs produce enzymes and bile that aide in digestion. 48. A simple digestive system only contains a vascular cavity with a single opening, a complex digestive system has two openings. 49. Oxygen, arteries, capillaries, carbon dioxide, capillaries, veins 50. In a closed circulatory system blood only flows through blood vessels, in an open circulatory system blood is pumped through open-ended vessels and flows freely among cells. 51. Platelets are responsible for blood clotting. 52. Hormones travel through the circulatory system. 53. Negative feedback helps the body maintain homeostasis. In negative feedback the body responds to changing conditions by opposing the change to restore homeostasis. 54. Ectotherms are cold-blooded animals meaning most of the heat they generate escapes their bodies and their body temperature usually matches their external environment. Endotherms are warm blooded animals meaning that have adaptations like hair, fur, and fat to prevent heat from escaping their bodies so they can maintain constant, stable body temperatures. 55. Endotherms maintain their temperature through the heat produced by muscles. 56. Thermoregulation is how animals regulate heat exchange with their environment. Some animals maintain constant body temperature due to structures like fur or fat as well as internal control mechanisms that prevent heat from escaping into their environment, while other animals lose heat to their environment rapidly and have body temperatures that fluctuate with environmental temperatures.

6 57. Childbirth; lactation; the histamine response 58. A rat because it is endothermic and needs to use energy to maintain its temperature. 1. Circulatory System a. Diffusion occurs in the circulatory system as oxygen flows from the blood stream to cells, and carbon dioxide and other wastes flow from cell into the blood stream for excretion. Osmosis occurs to maintain the blood pressure of the cell and transport water to the cells. Cellular respiration is related to the circulatory system because the oxygen necessary for these reactions is provided by the circulatory system to the cells, and the carbon dioxide produced in cellular respiration is removed to the lungs through the circulatory system. b. Answers will vary respiratory system for the transport of gases; urinary system for the transport of wastes; endocrine system for the transport of hormones/signaling molecules; digestive system for the transport of nutrients/wastes; etc. c. Humans have a closed circulatory system in which the fluid (blood) flows through vessels and molecules diffuse in/out of the blood across the lining of these vessels. Flies have an open circulatory system in which the fluid (hemolymph) comes into direct contact with the body cells. 2. Interactions a. The skeletal and muscular system work together to keep you upright. The muscular and digestive systems work together to process the food from your mouth through your intestines. The digestive system and circulatory system work together to bring the nutrients from the food in your stomach to other cells in the body. Additional systems may be mentioned. b. The skeletal and muscular system work together to open the door. The nervous system directs these systems to complete your locker combination and retrieve what you need from your locker. Additional systems may be mentioned. c. The skeletal and muscular system work together to allow you to play. The nervous system directs the activities so you follow the rules and make the basket. The endocrine system works with the circulatory system to maintain your body temperature by sweating. Additional systems may be mentioned. 3. Homeostasis a. Ectotherms rely on the environment to maintain their internal temperature and would be better suited for the desert. Endotherms maintain their own body temperature and would be the better suited for the tundra. b. Endotherms maintain their body temperature with the heat produced by their muscles. If the body gets too cold, shivering occurs. If the body gets too hot, sweating occurs. This is a negative feedback system. c. Ectotherms maintain their body temperature by sunning themselves to increase temperature/activity and sleeping underground/shadow to cool down. This is a negative feedback system.

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