Grade 7 U.S. History, Quarter 3, Unit 2 of 3 The Declaration of Independence. Overview

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1 Grade 7 U.S. History, Quarter 3, Unit 2 of 3 The Declaration of Independence Overall days: 11 (1 day = minutes) Purpose Overview The purpose of this unit is to introduce students to the Declaration of Independence, the document that officially explains the severing of the American Colonies, and the Declaration s fundamental principles that have guided and united the diverse peoples of the United States since that time. Content to be learned Explain the major ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence. Trace the intellectual origins of the ideas presented in the Declaration of Independence. Explain how key principles in the Declaration of Independence became elements of other movements throughout world history. Processes to be used Demonstrate an understanding of the purposes of government, as specified in the preamble to the Declaration of Independence. Recognize the origins of the democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government. Identify how principles in the Declaration are reflected in enduring documents, political speeches, and group actions. Essential questions students should be able to answer by end of unit From what sources did the authors of the Declaration of Independence derive their ideas? What revolutionary political principles are announced in the Declaration of Independence? How is the Declaration of Independence important today? Providence Public Schools, in collaboration with the D-69

2 Grade 7 U.S. History, Quarter 3, Unit 2 The Declaration of Independence (11 days) Written Curriculum Grade-Span Expectations C&G 2: The Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches. C&G 2 (7-8) 2 Students demonstrate an understanding of the democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government by a. explaining how democratic values are reflected in enduring documents, political speeches (discourse), and group actions b. using a variety of sources to identify and defend a position on a democratic principle (e.g., self-government in Declaration of Independence, women s rights in Seneca Falls Declaration, Habeas Corpus in Laws of 12 Tables, freedom of religion in Washington s letter to the Touro Synagogue) HP 2: History is a chronicle of human activities, diverse people, and the societies they form. HP 2 (7-8) 2 Students chronicle events and conditions by b. correlating key events to develop an understanding of the historical perspective of the time period in which they occurred (e.g., Jacksonian Democracy and Dorr s Rebellion, water power and steam power, WWII and women at work) National Standards for History (U.S. History, Grades 5-12) Era 3: Revolution and the New Nation ( s) Standard 1 The causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in forging the revolutionary movement, and the reasons for the American victory. 1B The student understands the principles articulated in the Declaration of Independence. Explain the major ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence and their intellectual origins. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances] Draw upon the principles in the Declaration of Independence to construct a sound historical argument regarding whether it justified American independence. [Interrogate historical data] Explain how key principles in the Declaration of Independence grew in importance to become unifying ideas of American democracy. [Evaluate the influence of ideas] Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies Reading Key Ideas and Details RH Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. D-70 Providence Public Schools, in collaboration with the

3 The Declaration of Independence (11 days) Grade 7 U.S. History, Quarter 3, Unit 2 Writing Text Types and Purposes WHST Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone. f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. Research to Build and Present Knowledge WHST Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. Notes, Clarifications, and Prerequisites In the preceding unit, students studied the American Revolution and its causes. Students will begin the study of the Declaration of Independence at an introductory/conceptual level. They will recognize how the principles of the Declaration of Independence transcend time and people and remain current and relevant. Providence Public Schools, in collaboration with the D-71

4 Grade 7 U.S. History, Quarter 3, Unit 2 The Declaration of Independence (11 days) Taught Curriculum Learning Objectives Students will be able to: Identify the sources of the inalienable rights that colonists believed justified their independence. (4 days) Explain the principles in the Declaration, contrasting them with earlier ideas. (3 days) Analyze how the principles in the Declaration unite the people in the United States and have been carried forward throughout world history. (4 days) Resources America: History of Our Nation, Pearson, 2011 (pp. T24-T25, 166a-166b, 166g, ) Historian s Apprentice Activity Pack H (p. 13) John Locke, Two Treatises of Government J.-J. Rousseau, The Social Contract Discovery School Video: The Declaration of Independence Interactive Reading and Note-Taking Study Guide (pp ) Progress Monitoring Transparencies (6-1) All-in-One Teaching Resources (p. 21) Facing History and Ourselves Big Paper, resources/strategies/big-paper-building-asilent-c Step Up to Writing, Sopris West, 2008 Blocking Out Essays and Reports; Informal Outlines for Essays and Reports; Using an Informal Outline Practice Guide (pp ) Tools 5-7a, 5-7d, and 10-17a Expository Essays and Reports Scoring Guide (pp ) Tools 10-16a 10-16c Instructional Considerations Key Vocabulary consent of the governed Enlightenment inalienable rights independence Loyalist Patriot preamble resolution sovereignty tyranny usurpation violate D-72 Providence Public Schools, in collaboration with the

5 The Declaration of Independence (11 days) Grade 7 U.S. History, Quarter 3, Unit 2 Planning and Instructional Delivery Considerations The purpose of this unit is to introduce students to the Declaration of Independence the document that officially explains the severing of the American Colonies and the Declaration s fundamental principles, which have guided and united the diverse peoples of the United States since that time. To support learning, use a variety of graphic organizers and textual supports. Select from the activities and readings in the Pearson text to provide students with background information and critical thinking opportunities that align to the learning objectives. The strategies listed below represent a menu of choices and possibilities to support each learning objective To ensure that students will be able to identify the sources of the inalienable rights that colonists believed justified their independence (4 days): Use the Numbered Heads strategy (Pearson, pp. T24-T25) to lead a structured review of the documents found in the Historian s Apprentice Activity Pack that inspired the basic philosophies that the colonists had about inalienable rights (e.g., those of Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Paine). Historical Thinking Standard 4: Historical research. Take the opportunity to implement writing standard for literacy in history/social studies WHST To ensure that students will be able to explain the principles in the Declaration, contrasting them with earlier ideas (3 days): Have students use the Big Paper activity and participate in a silent conversation about the meaning and structure of the Declaration of Independence. A discussion that takes place entirely in writing causes students to slow down, gives shy students an equal voice, and results in a written product for later reference. Divide the class into groups of two or three students. Ensure that every student has a pen or marker. Using different-colored markers makes it easier to see the back-and-forth of a conversation. Each group also needs a big paper (e.g., butcher paper, newsprint, sheet from a chart tablet) that will accommodate a written conversation and added comments. Read or post the following steps and discuss before beginning the activity in order to prevent students questions from breaking the silence. 1. There is to be no talking whatsoever; students will write what they want to contribute/ask. 2. In the center of the page, students will paste a copy of the Declaration, around which this silent discussion will be made. 3. Students respond to the stimulus by writing their comments and questions and engaging in silent conversations with the others in their group. Students can write at the same time, and their discussions can run off into tangents according to where the students minds lead them. Allow 15 minutes or more for this phase. 4. To clarify relationships among the comments and questions, students may find it helpful to draw lines or arrows connecting related entries. 5. Allow the students to take their markers with them as they split up and examine other groups big papers, as in a gallery walk. While maintaining the silence, students may comment in writing directly on others big papers. 6. Once students return to their own papers, they are free to speak with their group about their big papers, discussing their own thoughts as well as the comments/questions posed by their classmates. Providence Public Schools, in collaboration with the D-73

6 Grade 7 U.S. History, Quarter 3, Unit 2 The Declaration of Independence (11 days) 7. Lead the class in a discussion about their observations and unanswered questions. Identify and have students write the emerging themes and persistent questions in their journals. Encourage students to respond to their classmates questions. 8. Call on volunteers to offer statements about what they learned. (See the Facing History and Ourselves website s Big Paper page for an image of a big paper and for more information.) Have students read through the Declaration of Independence (pp ). Structure initial discussion and questioning around the following four categories: the preamble, the protection of natural rights, the grievances against the king, and declaring independence. Group students into teams that make up a country that is under unfriendly rule. Have groups draft a declaration of rights for their country that uses the structure of the U.S. Declaration of Independence as a model (preamble, list of grievances, declaration of rights). To ensure that students will be able to analyze how the principles in the Declaration unite the people in the United States and have been carried forward throughout world history (4 days): Have students refer to their notes and other class products as they compare the ideas espoused in the Declaration with the present-day reality, including the rights and responsibilities they, their families, and their friends observe and respect. Have students respond to the following questions: In what ways is the government responsible to the people? What is meant by the statement, It s a free country? In what ways are all Americans equal or not equal? What grievances, if any, would be listed in a new Declaration, and why? Historical Thinking Standard 5: Historical issuesanalysis and decision-making Additional Teaching Strategies Use the activities and readings in the textbook to provide students with necessary background information and critical thinking opportunities around the learning objectives: Use the section entitled The American Revolution ( ) in the professional development materials in the text (pp. 166a-166b) to help students create a graphic organizer highlighting the question, How did the American colonists gain their independence? Also, help students understand difficult vocabulary by drawing connections using the Concepts Across Time section (p. 166b). Have students record the graphic organizer and vocabulary in their journals. Have groups of students use the visual preview in the text (pp ) to generate questions about the featured topic: How did the American colonists gain their independence? Have students document responses to the question in their journals. Have students view the Discovery School Video: The Declaration of Independence. Use exit cards to verify understanding of concepts. For example, you can tell students, On the card, write 3 ideas you learned about the Declaration, 2 new words you learned, and 1 idea you found interesting that you would like to explore independently. The following resources contain additional selections and strategies for the concepts being studied and directly support the stated learning objectives: Interactive Reading and Note-Taking Study Guide (pp ) Progress Monitoring Transparencies (6-1) All-in-One Teaching Resources (p. 21) D-74 Providence Public Schools, in collaboration with the

7 The Declaration of Independence (11 days) Grade 7 U.S. History, Quarter 3, Unit 2 Formative Assessments Assessed Curriculum Provide feedback to students through daily monitoring of student understanding using a variety of methods. For example, use exit cards. Have students answer questions on paper before they leave the class. Keep the activity prompt specific and brief to check for understanding of the day s concepts. For instance, to check students comprehension of the inspiration for the Declaration, ask students to respond to the following question: Originally, the inalienable rights included life, liberty, and what, before the last word was changed to the pursuit of happiness? To assess the progress of understanding: how to identify the sources of the inalienable rights that colonists believed justified their independence, have students work in pairs to read excerpts from Locke, Rousseau, and the Declaration of Independence found in the Historian s Apprentice Activity Pack H (p. 13). They should use different-colored highlighters to show similar ideas across the different texts. This is a good opportunity to implement reading standard for literacy in history/social studies RH how to explain the principles in the Declaration, contrasting them with earlier ideas, provide students Step Up to Writing instructions and resources on Blocking Out Essays and Reports; Informal Outlines for Essays and Reports; and Using an Informal Outline Practice Guide (pp and Tools 5-7a and 5-7b) to help them organize the information in outline form. Ensure students write a concluding statement or paragraph. Call on volunteers to share ideas from their essays and their concluding statements. This assessment provides the opportunity to implement writing standards for literacy in history/social studies WHST Historical Thinking Standard 3: Historical analysis and interpretation how to analyze how the principles in the Declaration unite the people in the United States and have been carried forward throughout world history, have students work in pairs to choose a culture/civilization from the Historian s Apprentice Activity Pack H (p. 13) and use prior knowledge to determine the source and purpose of governmental power for that culture for comparison with ideas found in the Declaration of Independence. Additional Formative Assessments Monitor student understanding daily through various methods, including reading student journals, reviewing graphic organizers and exit cards, and providing feedback on writing samples. Use questions from the visual preview activity (Pearson, pp ) and checkpoint questions throughout the chapter to verify comprehension. Summative Assessment Students will write a 1-page essay from an outline that describes the presence of principles of the Declaration of Independence in an event later in U.S. or world history (e.g., abolition movement, Seneca Falls Declaration, French Revolution, Secession of Southern States, Civil Rights Movement, modern Tea Party Movement, Arab Spring). This assessment provides the opportunity to implement writing standards for literacy in history/social studies WHST Providence Public Schools, in collaboration with the D-75

8 Grade 7 U.S. History, Quarter 3, Unit 2 The Declaration of Independence (11 days) Use Step Up to Writing resources on Expository Essays and Reports Scoring Guide (pp and Tools 10-16b and 10-16c) to support the organization and writing process. To provide a common means to measure the product, use the rubric in Expository Essays and Reports Scoring Guide Tool 10-16a. Notes D-76 Providence Public Schools, in collaboration with the

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