SILICON VLSI TECHNOLOGY

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1 SILICON VLSI TECHNOLOGY Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling CHAPTER 9b-- --PVD EX0250

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4 E-Beam Heat Source

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7 Formulation (point source) The flux F p k that strikes Ap k is F p k = R evap / r2 ; = da p k /r2 ; da p k = r2 The flux F k that strikes A k is F k = R evap cos k / r 2 The deposition velocity is = R evap cos k /( r 2 N); N is the density or = (R evap / N) [1/(h 2 +l 2 )] h/(h 2 +l 2 ) 0.5

8 Formulation (small surface source) The deposition velocity is = R evap cos i cos k / r 2 N; The deposition velocity for small surface source with i = k is presented with dotted line in Fig. 9.17

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11 This nonideal behavior may be due to crucible geometry, ratio of melt depth to melt surface area etc.

12 Solution for nonideal emission or deposition Hemispherical wafer holders are used and are rotated. The entire planetary fixture is rotated about the vertical axis, each group of wafers is also rotated about a second axis.

13 Source evaporation rate R evap R evap = 5.83 x 10-2 A s (m/t) 1/2 P e ; where A s is the area of the source in cm 2, m is the grammolecular mass, T is the temperature of the source in Kelvin and P e is vapor pressure in torr.

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15 For alloys Use different source for each element. The e-beam energy or the source temperature can be different so that the evaporation rates can be controlled to give the desired deposited film. However, this dual sources will cause spatial compositional uniformity. It is difficult to obtain constant compositions across the wafer and across the wafer holder.

16 For compounds The composition of the vapor phase is usually not the same as the source compound, and chemical reactions and molecular changes often occur as the material is evaporated and deposited.

17 Advantages There is little damage caused to the wafer since wafers are not subjected to energetic particles. The deposited film are usually very pure. Because the deposition is done in a high vacuum, there are no residual gases or particles to get incorporated in the film.

18 Disadvantages Metals with low vapor pressures, such as W and films of alloys or compounds with precisely controlled composition are difficult to evaporate. There is not in situ pre-cleaning method (sputter etch) available as there is for sputter deposition. Step coverage is poor due to nonideal emission caused by small area of source, and large mean free path of molecules (P~10-5 torr). Rotating the planetary and wafers does help to widen the range of arrival angles, but shadowing effect still occurs. Step coverage also depends on sticking coefficient S c and mobility of molecules. Both evaporation and sputtering deposition have a very high sticking coefficient and low mobility of molecules which causes very poor step coverage.

19 Shadow Effect

20 S c = F reacted /F incident ~ 1 for evaporation or sputtering

21 P ~ 10-1 to 10-3 torr

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23 ions electrons

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26 Definition of Yield Yield for Ar sputtering of different target materials do not vary very much for the different target materials, and is defined as the number of atoms or molecules ejected from the target per incident ion, and is the in the range of 0.1 to 3.

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30 Multiple targets can be used for cosputtering Cosputtering of alloys and compounds or multilayer deposition. Achieving good uniformity by: 1. having the target larger than the wafer or wafer holder, i.e. the arrival angles of the atoms at the wafer surface are more widely distributed which improves step coverage. 2. having the wafers pass by or spin in front of a long rectangular target, i.e. similar to having a large target. 3. using the cylindrical wafer holder around an oblong target (similar to having a spherical holder in front of a point source in evaporation.)

31 Cos distribution, wider target area having a good step coverage Cos n ; n>1 distribution, narrow target area having a poor step converage

32 Cos n ; n>>1 Cos n ; n ~ 1 In sputtering, P is much larger than in evaporation system. Particles arrival is fairly uniform just like Fig. 9-25a.

33 Step coverage The increase of P can widen the encoming angle of the sputtered particles. For this reason, step coverage in sputtering system is better than in evaporation system. In CVD system, particle arrival is more isotropic and Sc is very low. Step coverage in CVD system is better than in sputtering or evaporation.

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35 Film property controlled by substrate temperature At T/T m < 0.5, may lead to porous film with poor physical properties. At T/T m = 0.5~0.7 grain grows unidirectionally and film is columnar, good film property. In general, grain size is proportional to temperature. At T/T m > 0.7, film consists of equiaxially larger grains caused by recrystallization during film growth. Ar can be incorporated into film to approximately 1% which can change the film properties. During annealing or thermal treatment, Ar can condense and result in blistering or delamination of film. In general, good film properties is attained at high T and low P.

36 Reactive Sputtering Deposition For example, to deposit thin film of TiN or TiO 2. For both cases, sputter Ti in the presence of N 2 or O 2 gas. First, N 2 is dissociated into N atom by plasma, then it react with Ti in the target or on the film surface. For TiO 2, the oxygen react with Ti of the film surface.

37 Relationship of voltage and surface area between anode and cathode V 1 /V 2 = (A 2 /A 1 ) m where from theory, m = 4; from experiments, m = 1~2. Where 1 represents anode; 2 represents cathode.

38 Cathode; 1 Anode; 2 wafer V 2 should be much greater to make ion barmbarment on the target surface. Therefore, A 1 must be small.

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40 Bias sputtering: Sputtering etching or bias-sputter deposition cathode anode bias

41 Deposition and sputter etch can occur concurrently.

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43 Collimated sputter deposition and ionized sputter deposition Collimated sputtering is to make arrival angle of flux small when deposited into a deep contact or via, as when filling it with Al or Ti/TiN contact and barrier layers.

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45 To achieve a narrow range of angle for sputtering flux Reduce the size of the target. A plate of circular or hexagonal holes or cells is placed between the target and the wafer. Ionized the material flux and bias the substrate as shown in Fig

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